Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 4
  • Print publication year: 2016
  • Online publication date: November 2016

18 - Prejudice Against Immigrants in Multicultural Societies

from Part II - Prejudice in Specific Domains

Summary

Migration is one of the most ancient traditions of humankind. From the beginning of human history, people have been moving places and crossing cultural and societal borders to search for new opportunities and a better life or to flee from war and natural disasters. Although migration is not a modern phenomenon, because of recent technological advancements in communication and transportation, moving across countries has become easier than ever before. This has resulted in a marked worldwide increase in the migrant stock over the past 50 years. In 2013, more than 230 million people were living as international immigrants, and it is projected that the migrant population will reach 400 million by 2050 (Martin, 2013).

Globally, four major migration pathways can be identified. The largest exchange (36%) occurs between regions of the Global South, that is, people from less affluent countries moving to other undeveloped regions. The second largest flow (35%) goes from the Global South to the Global North, that is, people from undeveloped regions migrating to the developed world. It is worth noting that the South to North migration continues to rise and is soon expected to become the primary trend. International relocation within the Global North is also considerable (23%), whereas North to South migration contributes only a small proportion (6%) to the global trends. Although there are no notable gender differences in migration trends, age appears to be a significant factor. Of all immigrants, 15% are younger than age 20, and approximately 74% belong to the working-age population. In sum, the majority of international immigrants (59%) currently reside in the developed world, where, according to recent statistics, migration has become the primary source of population growth, highlighting its growing significance in terms of economic prosperity and sustainable social development (UN, 2013).

At the same time, it is important to recognize that migration is not just an economic matter; it also has important implications for individuals and societies. As a result of globalization, demographic expansion, and increasing diversity within and across nations, plural societies are facing a wide range of social issues stemming from a multicultural reality, in which firsthand intercultural contact is an indispensable part of everyday experiences. Navigating these multiethnic contemporary societies has become increasingly complex and challenging, fostering public resistance to immigration and negative intergroup attitudes.

Related content

Powered by UNSILO
Akrami, N., Ekehammar, B., & Araya, T. (2000). Classical and modern racial prejudice: A study of attitudes toward immigrants in Sweden. European Journal of Social Psychology, 30(4), 521–532. doi: 10.1002/1099-0992(200007/08)30:4<521::Aid-Ejsp5>3.0.Co;2-N
Allport, G. W. (1954). The nature of prejudice. Cambridge, MA: Addison-Wesley.
Altemeyer, B. (1998). The other authoritarian personality. In Zanna, M. (Ed.), Advances in experimental social psychology (Vol. 30, pp. 47–92). San Diego, CA: Academic Press.
Apfelbaum, E. P., Norton, M. I., & Sommers, S. R. (2012). Racial color blindness: Emergence, practice, and implications. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 21(3), 205–209. doi: 10.1177/0963721411434980
Berry, J. W. (1980). Acculturation as varieties of adaptation. In Padilla, A. M. (Ed.), Acculturation: Theory, models and some new findings (pp. 9–25). Boulder, CO: Westview.
Berry, J. W. (1997). Immigration, acculturation, and adaptation. Applied Psychology: An International Review 46(1), 5–34. doi: 10.1111/j.1464-0597.1997.tb01087.x
Berry, J. W. (2001). A psychology of immigration. Journal of Social Issues, 57(3), 615–631. doi: 10.1111/0022-4537.00231
Berry, J. W. (2003). Conceptual approaches to acculturation. In Chung, K., Organista, P. Balls, & Marin, G. (Eds.), Acculturation: Advances in theory, measurement, and applied research (pp. 17–37). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
Berry, J. W. (2006). Mutual attitudes among immigrants and ethnocultural groups in Canada. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 30(6), 719–734. doi: 10.1016/j.ijintrel.2006.06.004
Berry, J. W., & Kalin, R. (1995). Multicultural and ethnic attitudes in Canada: An overview of the 1991 national survey. Canadian Journal of Behavioral Science, 27(3), 301–320. doi: 10.1037/0008-400x.27.3.301
Berry, J. W., Kalin, R., & Taylor, D. M. (1977). Multiculturalism and ethnic attitudes in Canada. Ottawa: Minister of State for Multiculturalism.
Berry, J. W., Phinney, J., Sam, D. L., & Vedder, P. (2006). Immigrant youth in cultural transition: Acculturation, identity, and adaptation across national contexts. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
Berry, J. W., & Sam, D. L. (2016). Theoretical perspectives. In Berry, J. W. & Sam, D. L. (Eds.), Cambridge handbook of acculturation psychology (ed., pp. 11–29). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Billiet, J., Maddens, B., & Beerten, R. (2003). National identity and attitude toward foreigners in a multinational state: A replication. Political Psychology, 24(2), 241–257. doi: 10.1111/0162-895x.00327
Binder, J., Zagefka, H., Brown, R., Funke, F., Kessler, T., Mummendey, A.Leyens, J. P. (2009). Does contact reduce prejudice or does prejudice reduce contact? A longitudinal test of the contact hypothesis among majority and minority groups in three European countries. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 96(4), 843–856. doi: 10.1037/A0013470
Bloemraad, I., & Wright, M. (2014). “Utter failure” or unity out of diversity? Debating and evaluating policies of multiculturalism. International Migration Review, 48, 292–334. doi: 10.1111/Imre.12135
Bourhis, R. Y., Moïse, L. C., Perreault, S., & Senècal, S. (1997). Towards an interactive acculturation model: A social psychological approach. International Journal of Psychology, 32(6), 369–386. doi: 10.1080/002075997400629
Breugelmans, S. M., & van de Vijver, F. J. R. (2004). Antecedents and components of majority attitudes toward multiculturalism in the Netherlands. Applied Psychology: An International Review, 53(3), 400–422. doi: 10.1111/j.1464-0597.2004.00177.x
Brown, R., & Hewstone, M. (2005). An integrative theory of intergroup contact. In Zanna, M. (Ed.), Advances in experimental social psychology (Vol. 37, pp. 255–343). San Diego, CA: Academic Press.
Christ, O., Schmid, K., Lolliot, S., Swart, H., Stolle, D., Tausch, N.Hewstone, M. (2014). Contextual effect of positive intergroup contact on outgroup prejudice. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 111(11), 3996–4000. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1320901111
Correll, J., Park, B., & Smith, J. A. (2008). Colorblind and multicultural prejudice reduction strategies in high-conflict situations. Group Processes & Intergroup Relations, 11(4), 471–491. doi: 10.1177/1368430208095401
Dovidio, J. F., Gaertner, S. L., & Saguy, T. (2009). Commonality and the complexity of “we”: Social attitudes and social change. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 13(1), 3–20. doi: 10.1177/1088868308326751
Esses, V. M., Dovidio, J. F., Jackson, L. M., & Armstrong, T. L. (2001). The immigration dilemma: The role of perceived group competition, ethnic prejudice, and national identity. Journal of Social Issues, 57(3), 389–412. doi: 10.1111/0022-4537.00220
Esses, V. M., Dovidio, J. F., Semenya, A. H., & Jackson, L. M. (2005). Attitudes toward immigrants and immigration: The role of national and international identity. In Abrams, D., Hogg, M. A., & Marques, J. M. (Eds.), The social psychology of inclusion and exclusion (pp. 317–337). New York: Psychology Press.
Esses, V. M., Jackson, L. M., & Armstrong, T. L. (1998). Intergroup competition and attitudes toward immigrants and immigration: An instrumental model of group conflict. Journal of Social Issues, 54(4), 699–724. doi: 10.1111/0022-4537.911998091
Esses, V. M., Jackson, L. M., & Bennett-AbuAyyash, C. (2010). Intergroup competition. In Dovidio, J. F., Hewstone, M., Glick, P., & Esses, V. M. (Eds.), Handbook of prejudice, stereotyping, and discrimination (pp. 225–240). London: Sage.
Esses, V. M., Wagner, U., Wolf, C., Preiser, M., & Wilbur, C. J. (2006). Perceptions of national identity and attitudes toward immigrants and immigration in Canada and Germany. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 30(6), 653–669. doi: 10.1016/j.ijintrel.2006.07.002
Gaertner, S. L., Dovidio, J. F., & Bachman, B. A. (1996). Revisiting the contact hypothesis: The induction of a common ingroup identity. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 20(3–4), 271–290. doi: 10.1016/0147-1767(96)00019-3
Gaertner, S. L., Rust, M. C., Dovidio, J. F., Bachman, B. A., & Anastasio, P. A. (1994). The contact hypothesis: The role of a common ingroup identity on reducing intergroup bias. Small Group Research, 25(2), 224–249. doi: 10.1177/1046496494252005
Gieling, M., Thijs, J., & Verkuyten, M. (2014). Dutch adolescents’ tolerance of Muslim immigrants: The role of assimilation ideology, intergroup contact, and national identification. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 44(3), 155–165. doi: 10.1111/Jasp.12220
Glasford, D. E., & Dovidio, J. F. (2011). E pluribus unum: Dual identity and minority group members’ motivation to engage in contact, as well as social change. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 47(5), 1021–1024. doi: 10.1016/j.jesp.2011.03.021
Guimond, S. (2000). Group socialization and prejudice: The social transmission of intergroup attitudes and beliefs. European Journal of Social Psychology, 30(3), 335–354. doi: 10.1002/(SICI)1099-0992(200005/06)30:33.0.CO;2-V
Guimond, S., Crisp, R. J., De Oliveira, P., Kamiejski, R., Kteily, N., Kuepper, B.Zick, A. (2013). Diversity policy, social dominance, and intergroup relations: Predicting prejudice in changing social and political contexts. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 104(6), 941–958. doi: 10.1037/A0032069
Guimond, S., Dambrun, M., Michinov, N., & Duarte, S. (2003). Does social dominance generate prejudice? Integrating individual and contextual determinants of intergroup cognitions. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 84(4), 697–721. doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.84.4.697
Guimond, S., de la Sablonnière, R., & Nugier, A. (2014). Living in a multicultural world: Intergroup ideologies and the societal context of intergroup relations. European Review of Social Psychology, 25(1), 142–188. doi: 10.1080/10463283.2014.957578
Hewstone, M. (2015). Consequences of diversity for social cohesion and prejudice: The missing dimension of intergroup contact. Journal of Social Issues, 71(2), 417–438. doi: 10.1111/Josi.12120
Hindriks, P., Verkuyten, M., & Coenders, M. (2014). Interminority attitudes: The roles of ethnic and national identification, contact, and multiculturalism. Social Psychology Quarterly, 77(1), 54–74. doi: 10.1177/0190272513511469
Ho, E. S. (1995). The challenge of culture change: The cross-cultural adaptation of Hong Kong Chinese adolescent immigrants in New Zealand. Unpublished doctoral thesis. Hamilton: University of Waikato.
Hooghe, M., Trappers, A., Meuleman, B., & Reeskens, T. (2008). Migration to European countries: A structural explanation of patterns, 1980–2004. International Migration Review, 42(2), 476–504. doi: 10.1111/j.1747-7379.2008.00132.x
Hui, B. P. H., Chen, S. X., Leung, C. M., & Berry, J. W. (2015). Facilitating adaptation and intercultural contact: The role of integration and multicultural ideology in dominant and non-dominant groups. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 45, 70–84. doi: 10.1016/j.ijintrel.2015.01.002
Jackson, L. M., & Esses, V. M. (2000). Effects of perceived economic competition on people's willingness to help empower immigrants. Group Processes & Intergroup Relations, 3, 419–435. doi: 10.1177/1368430200003004006
Jasinskaja-Lahti, I., Liebkind, K., Horenczyk, G., & Schmitz, P. (2003). The interactive nature of acculturation: Perceived discrimination, acculturation attitudes and stress among young ethnic repatriates in Finland, Israel and Germany. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 27(1), 79–97. doi: Pii S0147-1767(02)00061-5
Kesler, C., & Bloemraad, I. (2010). Does immigration erode social capital? The conditional effects of immigration-generated diversity on trust, membership, and participation across 19 countries, 1981–2000. Canadian Journal of Political Science, 43(2), 319–347. doi: 10.1017/S0008423910000077
Koopmans, R., Statham, P., Giugni, M., & Passy, F. (2005). Contested citizenship: Immigration and cultural diversity in Europe. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
Kosic, A., Mannetti, L., & Sam, D. L. (2005). The role of majority attitudes towards outgroup in the perception of the acculturation strategies of immigrants. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 29(3), 273–288. doi: 10.1016/j.ijintrel.2005.06.004
Kymlicka, W. (2012). Multiculturalism: Success, failure, and the future. Report for the Migration Policy Institute. Retrieved from www.migrationpolicy.org/research/TCM-multiculturalism-success-failure
Leong, C. H. (2008). A multilevel research framework for the analyses of attitudes toward immigrants. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 32(2), 115–129. doi: 10.1016/j.ijintrel.2007.10.002
Martin, P. (2013). The global challenge of managing migration. Report by the Population Reference Bureau. Population Bulletin, 68, 2–18.
Martinovic, B., & Verkuyten, M. (2013). “We were here first, so we determine the rules of the game”: Autochthony and prejudice towards outgroups. European Journal of Social Psychology, 43(7), 637–647. doi: 10.1002/Ejsp.1980
Masgoret, A. M. (2004, August). Examining the bases of intergroup competition and its role in determining immigration attitudes in New Zealand. Paper presented at the XXVI International Conference of Psychology, Beijing, China.
Mayda, A. M. (2006). Who is against immigration? A cross-country investigation of individual attitudes toward immigrants. Review of Economics and Statistics, 88(3), 510–530. doi: 10.1162/rest.88.3.510
Meuleman, B., Davidov, E., & Billiet, J. (2009). Changing attitudes toward immigration in Europe, 2002–2007: A dynamic group conflict theory approach. Social Science Research, 38(2), 352–365. doi: 10.1016/j.ssresearch.2008.09.006
Montreuil, A., & Bourhis, R. Y. (2001). Majority acculturation orientations toward “valued” and “devalued” immigrants. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 32(6), 698–719. doi: 10.1177/0022022101032006004
Mummendey, A., Klink, A., & Brown, R. (2001). Nationalism and patriotism: National identification and outgroup rejection. British Journal of Social Psychology, 40, 159–172. doi: 10.1348/014466601164740
Navas, M., Rojas, A. J., Garcia, M., & Pumares, P. (2007). Acculturation strategies and attitudes according to the relative acculturation extended model (RAEM): The perspectives of natives versus immigrants. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 31(1), 67–86. doi: 10.1016/j.ijintrel.2006.08.002
Pettigrew, T. F. (1997). Generalized intergroup contact effects on prejudice. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 23(2), 173–185. doi: 10.1177/0146167297232006
Pettigrew, T. F., & Tropp, L. R. (2006). A meta-analytic test of intergroup contact theory. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 90(5), 751–783. doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.90.5.751
Phinney, J., Berry, J. W., Vedder, P., & Liebkind, K. (2006). The acculturation experience: Attitudes, identities and behaviors of immigrant youth. In Berry, J. W., Phinney, J., Sam, D. L., & Vedder, P. (Eds.), Immigrant youth in cultural transition: Acculturation, identity and adaptation across national contexts (pp. 71–116). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
Piontkowski, U., Florack, A., Hoelker, P., & Obdrzalek, P. (2000). Predicting acculturation attitudes of dominant and non-dominant groups. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 24(1), 1–26. doi: 10.1016/S0147-1767(99)00020-6
Piontkowski, U., Rohmann, A., & Florack, A. (2002). Concordance of acculturation attitudes and perceived threat. Group Processes and Intergroup Relations, 5, 221–232. doi: 10.1177/1368430202005003003
Plaut, V. C., Garnett, F. G., Buffardi, L. E., & Sanchez-Burks, J. (2011). “What about me?” Perceptions of exclusion and Whites’ reactions to multiculturalism. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 101(2), 337–353. doi: 10.1037/A0022832
Pratto, F., Sidanius, J., Stallworth, L. M., & Malle, B. F. (1994). Social dominance orientation: A personality variable predicting social and political attitudes. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 67(4), 741–763. doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.67.4.741
Putnam, R. D. (2007). E pluribus unum: Diversity and community in the twenty-first century The 2006 Johan Skytte Prize Lecture. Scandinavian Political Studies, 30(2), 137–174. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-9477.2007.00176.x
Reynolds, K. J., Batalha, L., Subasic, M., & Jones, B. M. (2015). The social psychology of social (dis)harmony: Implications for political leaders and public policy. In Forgas, J. P., Fiedler, K., & Crano, W. D. (Eds.), Social psychology and politics (pp. 337–356). New York: Psychology Press.
Richeson, J. A., & Nussbaum, R. J. (2004). The impact of multiculturalism versus color-blindness on racial bias. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 40(3), 417–423. doi: 10.1016/j.jesp.2003.09.002
Rohmann, A., Florack, A., & Piontkowski, U. (2006). The role of discordant acculturation attitudes in perceived threat: An analysis of host and immigrant attitudes in Germany. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 30(6), 683–702. doi: 10.1016/j.ijintrel.2006.06.006
Ryan, C. S., Casas, J. F., & Thompson, B. K. (2010). Interethnic ideology, intergroup perceptions, and cultural orientation. Journal of Social Issues, 66(1), 29–44. doi: 10.1111/j.1540-4560.2009.01631.x
Sasaki, S. J., & Vorauer, J. D. (2013). Ignoring versus exploring differences between groups: Effects of salient color-blindness and multiculturalism on intergroup attitudes and behavior. Social and Personality Psychology Compass, 7, 246–259. doi: 10.1111/spc3.12021
Schalk-Soekar, S. (2007). Multiculturalism: A stable concept with many ideological and political aspects. Unpublished doctoral dissertation. Tilburg, the Netherlands: Tilburg University.
Scheepers, P., Gijsberts, M., & Coenders, M. (2002). Ethnic exclusionism in European countries: Public opposition to civil rights for legal migrants as a response to perceived ethnic threat. European Sociological Review, 18(1), 17–34. doi: 10.1093/Esr/18.1.17
Schmid, K., Al Ramiah, A., & Hewstone, M. (2014). Neighborhood ethnic diversity and trust: The role of intergroup contact and perceived threat. Psychological Science, 25(3), 665–674. doi: 10.1177/0956797613508956
Schneider, S. L. (2008). Anti-immigrant attitudes in Europe: Outgroup size and perceived ethnic threat. European Sociological Review, 24(1), 53–67. doi: 10.1093/Esr/Jcm034
Semyonov, M., Raijman, R., & Gorodzeisky, A. (2006). The rise of anti-foreigner sentiment in European societies, 1988–2000. American Sociological Review, 71(3), 426–449.
Sidanius, J., & Pratto, F. (1999). Social dominance: An intergroup theory of social hierarchy and oppression. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Stephan, W. G., Diaz-Loving, R., & Duran, A. (2000). Integrated threat theory and intercultural attitudes – Mexico and the United States. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 31(2), 240–249. doi: 10.1177/0022022100031002006
Stephan, W. G., Renfro, C. L., Esses, V. M., Stephan, C. W., & Martin, T. (2005). The effects of feeling threatened on attitudes toward immigrants. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 29(1), 1–19. doi: 10.1016/j.ijintrel.2005.04.011
Stephan, W. G., & Stephan, C. W. (2000). An integrated threat theory of prejudice. In Oskamp, S. (Ed.), Claremont symposium on applied psychology (pp. 23–46). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Stephan, W. G., Ybarra, O., & Bachman, G. (1999). Prejudice toward immigrants. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 29(11), 2221–2237. doi: 10.1111/j.1559-1816.1999.tb00107.x
Stephan, W. G., Ybarra, O., Martinez, C. M., Schwarzwald, J., & Tur-Kaspa, M. (1998). Prejudice toward immigrants to Spain and Israel: An integrated threat theory analysis. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 29(4), 559–576. doi: 10.1177/0022022198294004
Stolle, D., Soroka, S., & Johnston, R. (2008). When does diversity erode trust? Neighborhood diversity, interpersonal trust and the mediating effect of social interactions. Political Studies, 56(1), 57–75. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-9248.2007.00717.x
Stuart, J., & Ward, C. (2015, June). The construction and validation of the Subjective Multiculturalism Scale. Paper presented at the IX Biennial Conference of the International Academy for Intercultural Research, Bergen, Norway.
Tajfel, H. (1978). Differentiation between social groups: Studies in the social psychology of intergroup relations. New York: Academic Press.
Tajfel, H., & Turner, J. C. (1986). The social identity theory of intergroup behavior. In Worchel, S. & Austin, W. (Eds.), Psychology of intergroup relations (pp. 7–24). Chicago: Nelson-Hall.
Tip, L. K., Zagefka, H., Gonzalez, R., Brown, R., Cinnirella, M., & Na, X. (2012). Is support for multiculturalism threatened by … threat itself? International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 36(1), 22–30. doi: 10.1016/j.ijintrel.2010.09.011
United Nations. (2013). International migration report 2013. New York: Author.
Van Oudenhoven, J. P., Groenewoud, J. T., & Hewstone, M. (1996). Cooperation, ethnic salience and generalization of interethnic attitudes. European Journal of Social Psychology, 26(4), 649–661. doi: 10.1002/(Sici)1099-0992(199607)26:4<649::Aid-Ejsp780>3.0.Co;2-T
Van Oudenhoven, J. P., Prins, K. S., & Buunk, P. B. (1998). Attitudes of minority and majority members towards adaptation of immigrants. European Journal of Social Psychology, 28(6), 995–1013. doi: 10.1002/(Sici)1099– 0992(1998110)28:6<995::Aid-Ejsp908>3.0.Co;2–8
Vedder, P., van de Vijver, F. J. R., & Liebkind, K. (2006). Predicting immigrant youths’ adaptation across countries and ethno-cultural groups. In Berry, J. W., Phinney, J., Sam, D. L., & Vedder, P. (Eds.), Immigrant youth in cultural transition: Acculturation, identity and adaptation across national contexts (pp. 143–166). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
Verkuyten, M. (2009a). Self-esteem and multiculturalism: An examination among ethnic minority and majority groups in the Netherlands. Journal of Research in Personality, 43(3), 419–427. doi: 10.1016/j.jrp.2009.01.013
Verkuyten, M. (2009b). Support for multiculturalism and minority rights: The role of national identification and outgroup threat. Social Justice Research, 22(1), 31–52. doi: 10.1007/s11211-008-0087-7
Verkuyten, M. (2010). Multicultural recognition and ethnic minority rights: A social identity perspective. European Review of Social Psychology, 17, 148–184. doi: 10.1080/10463280600937418
Voci, A., & Hewstone, M. (2003). Intergroup contact and prejudice toward immigrants in Italy: The mediational role of anxiety and the moderational role of group salience. Group Processes & Intergroup Relations, 6(1), 37–54. doi: 10.1177/1368430203006001011
Vorauer, J. D., & Sasaki, S. J. (2011). In the worst rather than the best of times: Effects of salient intergroup ideology in threatening intergroup interactions. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 101(2), 307–320. doi: 10.1037/A0023152
Ward, C. (2009). Acculturation and social cohesion: Emerging issues for Asian immigrants in New Zealand. In Leong, C. H. & Berry, J. W. (Eds.), Intercultural relations in Asia: Migration and work effectiveness (pp. 3–22). Singapore: World Scientific.
Ward, C., Bochner, S., & Furnham, A. (2001). The psychology of culture shock. London: Routledge.
Ward, C., & Kus, L. (2012). Back to and beyond Berry's basics: The conceptualization, operationalization and classification of acculturation. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 36(4), 472–485. doi: 10.1016/j.ijintrel.2012.02.002
Ward, C., & Leong, C. H. (2006). Intercultural relations in plural societies: Theory, research and application. In Sam, D. L. & Berry, J. W. (Eds.), Cambridge handbook of acculturation psychology (pp. 484–503). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Ward, C., & Masgoret, A. M. (2006). An integrative model of attitudes toward immigrants. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 30(6), 671–682. doi: 10.1016/j.ijintrel.2006.06.002
Ward, C., & Masgoret, A. M. (2008). Attitudes toward immigrants, immigration, and multiculturalism in New Zealand: A social psychological analysis. International Migration Review, 42(1), 227–248. doi: 10.1111/j.1747-7379.2007.00119.x
Ward, C., & Stuart, J. (2013, June). Population, policy and psychology: The impact of multiculturalism on the psychological well-being of immigrant youth. Paper presented at the North American Regional Conference of the International Association for Cross-cultural Psychology, Los Angeles, CA.
Wolsko, C., Park, B., & Judd, C. (2006). Considering the Tower of Babel: Correlates of assimilation and multiculturalism among ethnic minority and majority groups in the United States. Social Justice Research, 19, 277–306. doi: 10.1007/s11211-006-0014-8
Wright, M., & Bloemraad, I. (2012). Is there a trade-off between multiculturalism and socio-political integration? Policy regimes and immigrant incorporation in comparative perspective. Perspectives on Politics, 10(1), 77–95. doi: 10.1017/S1537592711004919
Zagefka, H., & Brown, R. (2002). The relationship between acculturation strategies, relative fit and intergroup relations: Immigrant-majority relations in Germany. European Journal of Social Psychology, 32(2), 171–188. doi: 10.1002/Ejsp.73
Zagefka, H., Brown, R., Broquard, M., & Martin, S. L. (2007). Predictors and consequences of negative attitudes toward immigrants in Belgium and Turkey: The role of acculturation preferences and economic competition. British Journal of Social Psychology, 46, 153–169. doi: 10.1348/014466606x111185
Zick, A., Wagner, U., van Dick, R., & Petzel, T. (2001). Acculturation and prejudice in Germany: Majority and minority perspectives. Journal of Social Issues, 57(3), 541–557. doi: 10.1111/0022–4537.00228