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Creativity and innovation are important for organizational survival and growth, as globalization and technological advances increase the need to address rapid changes and uncertainty in the marketplace. As such, organizations and researchers have produced a significant amount of work on creativity and innovation to help address organizations’ need to develop creative ideas and solutions. These studies have yielded a variety of findings, sometimes contradictory, since organizational creativity is a multi-level issue; factors of creativity and innovation at one level may be different, not predictive, or even contradictory at another level. This chapter overviews these findings to summarize the factors in organizations that facilitate or hinder creativity and innovation at each manifested level: the individual, team, and organization. At the individual level, work on creativity and innovation focuses on the creative problem-solving process, personality of creative individuals, and motivational variables. At the team level, creativity and innovation focus on factors within leadership, team processes, and climate. Finally, creativity and innovation at the organizational level are overviewed regarding organizational strategy, goals and rewards, top management teams, and availability of resources.
With the demographic and workforce ageing, ageism has been reflected in the work context. Ageism can be defined as stereotypes, prejudice and/or age-based discrimination. It is a form of devaluation and non-inclusion of workers, which materialises in a decent work deficit. It affects workers and organisations. The present literature review aims to provide a comprehensive and accurate picture of empirical research on worker-related ageism. We searched the word ageism in the title or abstract of articles indexed in the EBSCOhost and Web of Science. Fifty-eight peer-reviewed articles were retrieved (March 2020). Some of these articles report more than one empirical study. Thirty-two articles include quantitative design studies, 20 qualitative design, three mixed methods, two experimental and three instrument development and/or validation. The focus of the studies is mostly about negative ageism on older workers. The main findings present several facets of ageism and show different experiences, whether implicit or explicit. Ageism acts in a plurality of aspects, such as obstacles in the hiring process, employability and performance evaluation of older workers. We found research gaps such as determinants and interventions aiming at ageism prevention and proposed corresponding future research.
The Lactation at Work Law not only provided more leverage and legitimacy to lactating employees and their allies, but it also created opportunities for critical educational conversations between employees and their managers that shifted how certain managers approached workplace lactation. These managers moralized the law by framing compliance through a morality of child health. This framing shifted to include a morality focus because their lactating employees not only taught them about the health benefits of breastfeeding but also modeled their ideological commitment to workplace lactation. Compliance motivated by morality rather than managerial goals might better establish lactation accommodations within the cultural of the organization over time. Yet, these crucial educational conversations were most likely to happen where lactating employees had enough-but-not-too-much power. Where time and space accommodations were adequate or workers had autonomy and private space so they did not need accommodations, no discussion between worker and manager was needed. And where workers had insufficient power within the organization that they could not approach managers with problems, no discussion could happen. Thus, the lactation accommodations might become best established in those organizations in which lactating workers experienced some problems, but not too many difficulties.
The Lactation at Work Law provided leverage for management to create change through institutional politics within organizations, even moving their organization’s lactation accommodations beyond basic compliance with the law. The law provided a tool for change and conferred legitimacy on workplace lactation and its accommodations. These human resource personnel and supervising managers were eager to comply with the Lactation at Work Law, often going beyond what the law mandated. Due to their social proximity to breastfeeding – either through their own experiences or those of close family or friends – these Allies Already understood the difficulties of workplace milk expression, supported the goal of breastfeeding, and advocated workplace lactation accommodations even before the law was passed.
This study finds that a significant number of organizations that engaged in managerialization – where the law’s goals, such as equality, are abandoned in favor of management concerns, such as absenteeism – actually succeeded in creating successful compliance with the Lactation at Work Law. The findings contrast with previous studies that have found that managerialized compliance leads to mere symbolic change. The Lactation at Work Law’s stipulated accommodations are more concrete than many other civil rights laws that only provide vague directives, like providing “equal opportunity.” Lactation accommodations were most successful when the organization had preexisting cultural norms of flexible time, worker autonomy, and a history of accommodating a variety of employee needs, as well as available structural resources, such as individual offices or ample private spaces; and the Lactation at Work Law and its accommodations enjoyed sufficient legitimacy throughout the organization.
This book draws on two waves of interviews with human resource personnel, supervising managers, and lactating workers to examine how organizations responded to the Lactation at Work Law. Organizational reactions fall on a continuum, beginning with organizations that refused to comply with the new law. Other organizations that appeared to comply created accommodations that fulfilled the letter of the law, but achieved symbolic compliance that was similarly ineffective; they had refocused their compliance motivation from the law’s ideals, such as equity, to managerial goals, such as reducing absenteeism. Still other organizations similarly shifted from the law’s goals to managerial aims, but, in these organizations, this managerialization of the law produced effective accommodations; preexisting cultural and structural features of the organizations made compliance easy, and workplace lactation enjoyed sufficient legitimacy. Further along the continuum were organizations where compliance was driven by Allies Already, those in management who supported workplace lactation and were poised to create accommodations as soon as the law was in force. The most successful compliance occurred in organizations where supervising managers, through educational conversations with lactating workers, learned more about the benefits of breastfeeding benefits and adopted a morality based on health benefits to children and community wellness.
Unlike many studies of compliance with civil rights laws, this is a success story – at least in part. The vast majority of the organizations in this study complied with the Lactation at Work Law and created effective accommodations for their lactating employees. This success is mitigated by the amount of employee power; the presence of allies within management; whether the workplace structure includes accessible private spaces; and whether the organizational culture both embraces a norm of flexibility and acknowledges the legitimacy of the Lactation at Work Law and its accommodations. Nevertheless, workplace lactation accommodations can have the effect of reinforcing race and class inequalities: working-class and African American women are less likely to breastfeed; they more often work in jobs that are excluded from the Lactation at Work Law requirements and that provide minimal, if any, lactation accommodations; and they seldom hold enough power to demand necessary lactation accommodations. In addition, while this law successfully enables some women to combine employment and breastfeeding, it actually fails to advance workers’ rights. Moreover, ultimately, it may reinforce traditional gender roles by emphasizing working mothers’ maternal duties and weaken support for other pro–working-parent legislation, such as parental leave and on-site childcare.
The US Lactation at Work Law passed amid the growing international need to support breastfeeding mothers, particularly in the workplace. Societal changes, such as the increase of mothers in full-time, paid employment, and technological changes, such as electric breast pumps, significantly changed the world in which the Lactation at Work Law exists. As breastfeeding is a distinctively female practice, workplace lactation raises unique issues including the denigration of “mother issues,” the sexualizing of female bodies and breasts, and a need to accommodate working mothers’ presence at work, rather than their absence, as much other parental-rights legislation does. The decision to breastfeed reflects race and class inequalities; access to milk expression technology; and organizational resources, such as time, space, and legitimacy of milk expression. Globally, countries struggle to encourage breastfeeding among women workers through legislation, information campaigns, cultural programs, and other inducements – with mixed success. International forces influence breastfeeding as well, such as La Leche League International, which encourages breastfeeding, and infant formula manufacturers that impede lactation and discourage breastfeeding. Perhaps most important, the success of workplace milk expression is predicated on how organizations integrate accommodations law into their structure and culture, through shifting norms and adapting organizational change.
While very few businesses blatantly refused to apply the Lactation at Work Law, a substantial minority of organizations developed only symbolic structures that produced insufficient accommodations. In these workplaces, managerialization of the law shifted the compliance motivation from the law’s goals of access and equality to concerns of management, such as reducing turnover and absenteeism. Sometimes organizations’ accommodations were somewhat successful, creating adequate accommodations for some, but not all, lactating employees; they provided accessible lactation space only part of the time, or allowed sufficient break time for milk expression only intermittently. When their requests for adequate accommodations were met with resistance, resentment, and retrenchment of managerial control over workers’ bodies, the lactating employees in this chapter either quit breastfeeding or devised their own solutions for successful workplace lactation, such as sneaking away to pump or reducing their take-home pay in exchange for longer break time.
In recent decades, as women entered the US workforce in increasing numbers, they faced the conundrum of how to maintain breastfeeding and hold down full-time jobs. In 2010, the Lactation at Work Law (an amendment to the US Fair Labor Standards Act) mandated accommodations for lactating women. This book examines the federal law and its state-level equivalent in Indiana, drawing on two waves of interviews with human resource personnel, supervising managers, and lactating workers. In many ways, this simple law - requiring break time and privacy for pumping - is a success story. Through advocacy by allies, education of managers, and employee initiative, many organizations created compliant accommodations. This book shows legal scholars how a successful civil rights law creates effective change; helps labor activists and management personnel understand how to approach new accommodations; and enables workers to understand the possibilities for amelioration of workplace problems through internal negotiations and legal reforms.
Chapter 3 rewrites two cases that deal with pregnancy discrimination: International Union, UAW v. Johnson Controls, and Young v. United Parcel Service, Inc. The original Johnson Controls case struck down a broad fetal protection policy forbidding women of childbearing age from working in jobs with lead exposure, but the Court failed to acknowledge the hardships of the individual women excluded, ignored evidence that men’s offspring also suffer harm from excess lead exposure, and failed to suggest cleaning up workplaces with toxic substances, rather than excluding employees from valuable jobs. The rewritten opinion cures these omissions and disavows the stereotypes of a policy assuming that all women are potentially mothers. The feminist judgment in Young holds that an employer providing accommodations for employees with physical restrictions similar to those of pregnancy must provide the same accommodations to a pregnant employee. It highlights the history of discrimination against pregnant women – a significant cause of women’s subordination in the workplace, with many women forced to quit as a consequence of employers’ shortcomings.
Chapter 4 examines three cases highlighting intersectional approaches to appearance discrimination. The rewritten Jespersen v. Harrah’s Operating Co. exposes the harm caused when employers have gender-specific grooming policies. It rejects the unequal burdens test and concludes that any sex-specific grooming policy violates Title VII unless the policy is a bona fide occupational qualification (BFOQ). The rewritten opinion of EEOC v. Catastrophe Management Solutions holds that refusing to hire black women who wear their hair in locs is race discrimination under Title VII. It explores the history of discrimination against black women because of their hair and eliminates the immutability requirement, confirming that discrimination against race-related cultural practices is race discrimination. Finally, the rewritten opinion in Webb v. City of Philadelphia reverses the lower court’s grant of summary judgment to a City that fired a Muslim female police officer because she wore a religious headscarf. The rewritten opinion focuses on the intersectional harm based on sex and religion, and concludes that the City offered no evidence of harm at all, much less evidence of undue burden.
To critically review the literature regarding workplace breast-feeding interventions and to assess their impact on breast-feeding indicators.
A systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted. Electronic searches for workplace intervention studies to support breast-feeding, without restriction on language or study design, were performed in PubMed, CENTRAL, CINAHL, Embase, Web of Science, Business Source Complete, ProQuest-Sociology and ProQuest-Social Science to 13 April 2020. A meta-analysis of the pooled effect of the programmes on breast-feeding indicators was conducted.
The search identified 10 215 articles; fourteen studies across eighteen publications met eligibility criteria. Programmes were delivered in the USA (n 10), Turkey (n 2), Thailand (n 1) or Taiwan (n 1). There were no randomised controlled trials. The pooled OR for exclusive breast-feeding at 3 or 6 months for participants v. non-participants of three non-randomised controlled studies was 3·21 (95 % CI 1·70, 6·06, I2 = 22 %). Despite high heterogeneity, other pooled outcomes were consistently in a positive direction with acceptable CI. Pooled mean duration of breast-feeding for five single-arm studies was 9·16 months (95 % CI 8·25, 10·07). Pooled proportion of breast-feeding at 6 months for six single-arm studies was 0·76 (95 % CI 0·66, 0·84) and breast-feeding at 12 months for three single-arm studies was 0·41 (95 % CI 0·22, 0·62). Most programmes were targeted at mothers; two were targeted at expectant fathers.
Workplace programmes may be effective in promoting breast-feeding among employed mothers and partners of employed fathers. However, no randomised controlled trials were identified, and better-quality research on workplace interventions to improve breast-feeding is needed.
In this article, we explore whether women's underrepresentation among political and workplace decision makers may subject female citizens and employees to COVID-19-related decisions that are at odds with their preferences. We find that women overall, as well as female political party members, workers, and workplace leaders in particular, share a distinctively female perspective that more heavily emphasizes caution with respect to COVID-19 compared with men. Given the limited representation of women leaders across most industries and in politics, COVID-19 regulations are thus likely to be less cautious than would be the case if there were an equitable representation of women across leadership roles. We argue that female employees, in particular, face a representational “double whammy” for COVID-19: gender imbalances in workplace leadership create inequities that are compounded—rather than redressed—by unequal political representation. We conclude by addressing how this dynamic may enhance the movement of women away from Republican candidates moving forward.
While China's Constitution says everyone is treated equally before the law, employment discrimination continues to exist. This paper breaks new ground by analysing a quantitative survey of more than 10,000 lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and intersex (LGBTI) people, the largest dataset of its kind to date in China. Only 5.1 per cent of respondents were completely open about their gender and sexuality at work. More than one-fifth reported experiencing negative treatment in the workplace. Transgender and intersex people reported higher rates of negative treatment, as did respondents with lower educational levels and lower incomes and those residing in towns. Employer policies against discrimination were rare, but when in place, they were significantly associated with less negative treatment. These findings highlight an almost completely neglected segment of the workforce and document discriminatory experiences that could be addressed by changes in discrimination law and by employer policies and practices related to diversity and inclusion.
Research shows that mental demands at work affect later-life cognitive functioning and dementia risk, but systematic assessment of protective mental work demands (PMWDs) is still missing. The goal of this research was to develop a questionnaire to assess PMWDs.
The instrument was developed in accordance with internationally recognized scientific standards comprising conceptualization, pretesting, and validation via confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), principal component analysis (PCA), and multiple regression analyses.
We included 346 participants, 72.3% female, with an average age of 56.3 years.
Item pool, sociodemographic questions, and cognitive tests: Trail-Making Test A/B, Word List Recall, Verbal Fluency Test, Benton Visual Retention Test, Reading Minds in the Eyes Test.
CFAs of eight existing PMWD-concepts revealed weaker fit indices than PCA of the item pool that resulted in five concepts. We computed multivariate regression analyses with all 13 PMWD-concepts as predictors of cognitive functioning. After removing PMWD-concepts that predicted less than two cognitive test scores and excluding others due to overlapping items, the final questionnaire contained four PMWD-concepts: Mental Workload (three items, Cronbach’s α = .58), Verbal Demands (four, Cronbach’s α = .74), Information Load (six, Cronbach’s α = .83), and Extended Job Control (six, Cronbach’s α = .83).
The PMWD-Questionnaire intends to assess protective mental demands at the workplace. Information processing demands and job control make up the primary components emphasizing their relevance regarding cognitive health in old age. Long-term follow-up studies will need to validate construct validity with respect to dementia risk.
– In the health sector, anywhere in the world nurses are one of the most exposed groups to violence. However, it is not obvious that psychiatric nurses (PNs) are more exposed to aggression and burnout.
– To determine the nature and effects of aggressive acts towards nursing staff in psychiatric and other medical services in Poland.
– Various questionnaires (Stress at Work Scale, General Health Questionnaire, Maslach Burnout Inventory, Work Satisfaction Scale), were distributed among psychiatric (N = 78) and non-psychiatric nurses (N-PNs) (N = 335). A 92.6% response rate was achieved.
– Significant differences were found between PNs and non-psychiatric counterparts with respect to their experiences of violence. The most frequently reported incident was verbal abuse, followed by threats and physical assault. Patients were significantly more frequent perpetrators in psychiatric wards than in others. The level of intra-staff aggression did not significantly vary between groups, neither did the level of work satisfaction and absenteeism.
– The frequency of violent acts and stress related to them point out the strong need for the development of preventive programs to address the issue of violence at work.
This chapter and Chapter 12 apply many of the principles of effective negotiation from earlier chapters to the workplace context. The workplace is where a lot of our negotiating will be done, and Chapter 12 will look at these negotiations from a business perspective. This chapter focuses on negotiations between management and employee representatives – normally a trade union. These negotiations can be very difficult and the consequences of reaching a deadlock can be very costly for both sides of the negotiation.
The fourth edition of Effective Negotiation provides a practical and thematic approach to negotiation and mediation in professional contexts. Drawing on research and extensive teaching and practical experience, Fells and Sheer describe key elements of negotiations and explain the core tasks involved in reaching an agreement: information exchange, solution-seeking and concession management. This edition features a substantial revision and re-alignment of content, providing discussion of overarching themes and methodologies before moving to focused considerations of the underlying mechanics of negotiation. A new chapter on deadlocks provides detailed analysis of strategically managing and resolving deadlocked negotiations. In addition to the 'Negotiation in Practice' and 'Negotiation Skill Tips' boxes, chapters now include real-world case studies. An accessible, practical and strategic exploration of the complex mechanics and dynamics of negotiation, mediation and dispute resolution, Effective Negotiation remains an essential resource for students and professionals in business and management, law and human resource management.