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Consciousness is a central topic in Hindu philosophy. This is because this philosophy understands reality in terms of brahman or atman (typically translated as the self), and consciousness is conceived as the essential marker of self. The prominent Hindu text Bhagavad Gita offers an exception. Self is conceived in the Gita not in terms of its essential identity with pure or transcendental consciousness. But the question remains, does the Gita still offer us a theory of consciousness? The goal of my paper is to show that the Gita can be taken as offering an interesting empirical theory of consciousness. My paper focuses on determining the nature of attention in the Gita's understanding of yoga, and to articulate the role of such attention in the Gita's theory of consciousness. My working conclusion is that what differentiates an ordinary person's consciousness from a yogi's consciousness is the nature of their attention both in terms of its manner and its object. I argue, further, that exploring the Gita's theory of consciousness, especially in conjunction with the nature of attention, is immensely fruitful because it allows us to see the Gita's potential contribution to our contemporary philosophical discussion of consciousness and attention. This is because bringing the Gita into discussion allows us to appreciate a dimension of the metaphysics of attention–namely, the dimension of manner of attending and its cultivation, and the moral and social implications in the proposed redirection of one's attention--not often recognized in the contemporary Western discussion.
To identify dietary self-monitoring implementation strategies in behavioural weight loss interventions.
We conducted a systematic review of eight databases and examined fifty-nine weight loss intervention studies targeting adults with overweight/obesity that used dietary self-monitoring.
We identified self-monitoring implementation characteristics, effectiveness of interventions in supporting weight loss and examined weight loss outcomes among higher and lower intensity dietary self-monitoring protocols. Included studies utilised diverse self-monitoring formats (paper, website, mobile app, phone) and intensity levels (recording all intake or only certain aspects of diet). We found the majority of studies using high- and low-intensity self-monitoring strategies demonstrated statistically significant weight loss in intervention groups compared with control groups.
Based on our findings, lower and higher intensity dietary self-monitoring may support weight loss, but variability in adherence measures and limited analysis of weight loss relative to self-monitoring usage limits our understanding of how these methods compare with each other.
Chapter 5 focusses on the social psychology of conformity, a classical topic of social influence. The chapter starts by reviewing a number of experiments that have demonstrated the human need for affiliation and belonging. This establishes the grounds for sociality that is a necessary precondition for human existence rather than a luxury add-on. It proceeds to review Asch’s classical conformity experiments, followed by Moscovici’s demonstrations of the conditions of minority influence. The chapter ends by considering conformity from a cultural psychology view, concluding that deviance and conformity are behavioural responses expressive of social representations, that is, sociocultural locale conditions. As such they are not explained by individual rational choice. The argument is made that conformity and dissident deviance function to maintain and to challenge the current common sense.
The common-sense model of self-regulation delineates cognitive and emotional processes influencing motivations to engage in adaptive behaviors. Originally developed to account for reactions to health-related threats, the common-sense model also holds utility for interventions to change behavior in other domains involving threats to performance and well-being. This chapter provides an overview of the common-sense model and how specific mechanisms such as threat representations, emotion regulation processes, imagery processes, and appraisal processes influence behaviors. The chapter reviews research on approaches for eliciting behavior change through psychoeducational approaches, communication skills training for practitioners, communications arousing worry and fear, training in emotion regulation skills, action planning, and appraisal skills. Specific behavior change strategies (e.g., fear arousal, action planning, self-monitoring) have been tested extensively, although studies testing interventions specifically guided by the common-sense model and targeting multiple model components remain limited. The chapter concludes with considerations of future directions for intervention developments and research on applying the model to promote adaptive behaviors in multiple life domains.
Monitoring is a self-regulatory process involved in making changes to behavior. Monitoring involves a person, group, or organization taking stock of the current situation, comparing this to some goal or reference value, and identifying whether or not there is a discrepancy. Noting a discrepancy can be a reason for taking additional action to ensure goals are achieved or for adjusting or disengaging from the goal. Monitoring can also identify actions required to overcome barriers to goal striving and whether these actions have the intended effects. Given that people often do not monitor their progress, termed “the ostrich problem,” interventions that prompt monitoring can be an effective way to promote changes in behavior. This chapter reviews the evidence that monitoring interventions promote changes in behavior, identifies how monitoring has been conceptualized within theoretical models and existing taxonomies of behavior change techniques, and describes some of the mechanisms by which monitoring promotes behavior change. The chapter concludes that monitoring can be an effective strategy for promoting changes in a range of behaviors and contexts but also that developing monitoring interventions can be complex. A practical guide for the development and application of monitoring strategies is also presented, based on the literature and research evidence on monitoring interventions.
Overweight and obesity are universal health challenges. Recent evidence emphasises the potential benefits of addressing psychological factors associated with obesity in dietary programmes. This pilot study investigated the efficacy and acceptability of a combined online and face-to-face dietary intervention that used self-compassion, goal-setting and self-monitoring to improve dietary behaviour, as well as psychological factors associated with dietary behaviour.
Embedded mixed methods including a 4-week before-after trial and a one-on-one interview. Quantitative outcomes of the study were the levels of self-compassion; eating pathology; depression, anxiety and stress; and dietary intake. Qualitative outcomes were participants’ perceptions about the acceptability of the intervention.
UNSW Kensington campus.
Fourteen participants with overweight and obesity aged between 18 and 55 years old.
Results showed that the intervention significantly improved self-compassion and some aspects of dietary intake (e.g. decrease in energy intake) at Week Four compared with Week Zero. Some aspects of eating pathology also significantly decreased (e.g. Eating Concern). However, changes in self-compassion over the 4 weeks did not significantly predict Week Four study outcomes, except for level of stress. Most participants found self-compassion, goal-setting and self-monitoring to be essential for dietary behaviour change. However, participants also indicated that an online programme needed to be efficient, simple and interactive.
In conclusion, the current study provides preliminary but promising findings of an effective and acceptable combined online and face-to-face intervention that used self-compassion, goal-setting and self-monitoring to improve dietary habits. However, the results need to be examined in future long-term randomised controlled trials.
Impairments in self-recognition (i.e. recognition of own thoughts and actions) have been repeatedly shown in individuals with schizophrenia. According to classical clinical characterizations, schizophrenia is included in a continuum encompassing a large range of genetic statuses, psychotic states and symptoms. The current meta-analysis aims to determine whether self-recognition is affected by individuals within the psychosis continuum.
Three populations were considered: people with an at-risk mental state for psychosis (ARMS), hallucination-prone individuals and unaffected relatives of patients with schizophrenia. Eleven studies contrasted self-recognition between these three populations (n = 386) and healthy controls (n = 315) and four studies used correlational analysis to estimate comparable effects (n = 629). Eligible studies used experimental paradigms including source-monitoring and self-monitoring.
We observed significantly reduced self-recognition accuracy in these populations [g = −0.44 (−0.71 to −0.17), p = 0.002] compared to controls. No influence of the type of population, experimental paradigm or study design was observed.
The present analysis argues for self-recognition deficits in populations with no full-blown psychotic symptoms represented across the continuum of psychosis.
Perceptions of employee entitlement are reported to be increasing in organizations and have been linked to negative outcomes at work. Employee entitlement is an employee’s belief in deserving preferential treatment or reward without regard to performance. Arguments, however, are emerging that entitlement may also be linked to positive behaviors. In this article, we outline a study that examines the moderating effect of self-monitoring on the relationship between employee entitlement and organizational citizenship behavior and affective organizational commitment. Based on survey data collected from 167 individuals, we found that self-monitoring moderated the relationship between the specific subscales of employee entitlement and organizational citizenship behavior but had no relationship to commitment. Although previous studies have addressed entitlement perceptions as a negative outcome for the organization, in this article we outline the potential for positive outcomes. Limitations and future research directions are outlined.
The present study aimed to evaluate salt-reduction education using a self-monitoring urinary salt-excretion device.
Parallel, randomized trial involving two groups. The following parameters were checked at baseline and endline of the intervention: salt check sheet, eating behaviour questionnaire, 24 h home urine collection, blood pressure before and after urine collection.
The intervention group self-monitored urine salt excretion using a self-measuring device for 4 weeks. In the control group, urine salt excretion was measured, but the individuals were not informed of the result.
Seventy-eight individuals (control group, n 36; intervention group, n 42) collected two 24 h urine samples from a target population of 123 local resident volunteers. The samples were then analysed.
There were no differences in clinical background or related parameters between the two groups. The 24 h urinary Na:K ratio showed a significant decrease in the intervention group (−1·1) compared with the control group (−0·0; P=0·033). Blood pressure did not change in either group. The results of the salt check sheet did not change in the control group but were significantly lower in the intervention group. The score of the eating behaviour questionnaire did not change in the control group, but the intervention group showed a significant increase in eating behaviour stage.
Self-monitoring of urinary salt excretion helps to improve 24 h urinary Na:K, salt check sheet scores and stage of eating behaviour. Thus, usage of self-monitoring tools has an educational potential in salt intake reduction.
Despite the pivotal role that both power and interpersonal trust play in a multitude of social exchange situations, relatively little is known about their interplay. Moreover, previous theorizing makes competing claims. Do we consider our relatively more powerful exchange partners to be less trustworthy, as rational choice reasoning would suggest? Or do more complex psychological mechanisms lead us to trust them more, as motivated cognition reasoning implies? Extending the latter approach, we develop and empirically test three hypotheses on the interrelation between perceptions of interpersonal trust and power. According to the status value hypothesis, individuals are more likely to befriend those whom they or others perceive as powerful. The status signaling hypothesis states that the friends of people one perceives as powerful will also be seen as powerful. According to the self-monitoring hypothesis, high self-monitors are more likely than low self-monitors to befriend those they or others perceive as powerful. We use multiplex stochastic actor-based models to analyze the co-evolution of trust and power relations among n = 49 employees in a Dutch Youth Care organization. Data covers three waves of a longitudinal sociometric network survey collected over a period of 18 months in the years 2009–2010. In general, we find some support for all three hypotheses, though the effects are weak. Being one of the first organizational field studies on the co-evolution of power and trust, we conclude with discussing the implications of these findings for the study of social exchange processes.
Interventions based on the experience sampling method (ESM) are ideally suited to provide insight into personal, contextualized affective patterns in the flow of daily life. Recently, we showed that an ESM-intervention focusing on positive affect was associated with a decrease in symptoms in patients with depression. The aim of the present study was to examine whether ESM-intervention increased patient empowerment.
Depressed out-patients (n = 102) receiving psychopharmacological treatment who had participated in a randomized controlled trial with three arms: (i) an experimental group receiving six weeks of ESM self-monitoring combined with weekly feedback sessions, (ii) a pseudo-experimental group participating in six weeks of ESM self-monitoring without feedback, and (iii) a control group (treatment as usual only). Patients were recruited in the Netherlands between January 2010 and February 2012. Self-report empowerment scores were obtained pre- and post-intervention.
There was an effect of group × assessment period, indicating that the experimental (B = 7.26, P = 0.061, d = 0.44, statistically imprecise) and pseudo-experimental group (B = 11.19, P = 0.003, d = 0.76) increased more in reported empowerment compared to the control group. In the pseudo-experimental group, 29% of the participants showed a statistically reliable increase in empowerment score and 0% reliable decrease compared to 17% reliable increase and 21% reliable decrease in the control group. The experimental group showed 19% reliable increase and 4% reliable decrease.
These findings tentatively suggest that self-monitoring to complement standard antidepressant treatment may increase patients’ feelings of empowerment. Further research is necessary to investigate long-term empowering effects of self-monitoring in combination with person-tailored feedback.
Self-Monitoring (SM) is a concept that refers to individual differences in this orientation toward regulation of social behavior. The goal of the present research was to provide a Spanish adaptation of Snyder and Gangestad’s (1986) Revised SM Scale. After conducting an initial pilot study, results showed that the Spanish version of the scale had good internal reliability and adequate factor structure. In Study 1, analyses support a unidimensional structure of the scale (χ2/df = 2.64; GFI = .97; IFI = .97; TLI = .96; RMSEA = .06). In Study 2, the scale showed discriminant validity from other individual differences measures, such as Need for Cognition (r = 0.12 p = 0.14), Social Desirability (r = 0.06, p > .45) and Extraversion (r = 0.28 p = .001). In Study 3, the scale showed adequate test-retest reliability (r = 0.71, p < .001). Finally, using a paradigm of attitude-behavior consistenty, Study 4 showed that the validated scale also had good predictive validity (B = –0.819, p = .035).
This study examines the mediating role of subordinates’ perceived cost of feedback-seeking, which operates contingently upon their self-monitoring and the credibility of leader as a feedback source in the relationship between leader-member exchange (LMX) quality and subordinates’ feedback-seeking behavior. The authors tested this moderated mediation model using reports from 217 subordinates employed in five large banking institutions in Korea. Results showed that the relationship between LMX quality and subordinates’ feedback-seeking behavior was mediated via the perceived cost of feedback-seeking only for subordinates with low self-monitoring and when leader credibility was low. This conditional indirect effect provides an integrated understanding of how supervisor, subordinate, and dyadic characteristics influence subordinates’ decision of whether to seek performance feedback.
We investigated whether source-monitoring deficits (here a discrimination between imagined and performed actions) underlie hallucinations among patients with a history of hallucinations in the course of their alcohol dependence.
We assessed 29 patients with alcohol dependence who had no history of hallucinations during their course of alcoholism and 29 patients with a history of at least one episode of hallucinations of any modality during their course of alcohol dependency. The control group consisted of 24 healthy participants. Participants were assessed with an action memory task. Simple actions were presented to the participants verbally or non-verbally. Some actions were performed physically and others were imagined. In the recognition phase, participants were asked whether the action was presented verbally or non-verbally (action presentation type discrimination) and whether the action was performed or imagined (self-monitoring). A confidence score related to self-monitoring responses was also obtained.
Alcoholics with a history of hallucinations misremembered imagined actions as perceived ones more frequently than patients without hallucinations, but not the reverse. Only patients with a history of hallucinations committed more errors of this type than healthy subjects. There were no group differences regarding discrimination between an action presentation type. Both clinical groups committed errors with a higher degree of confidence than healthy subjects.
Our results tentatively suggest that a specific type of source-monitoring deficit (i.e. confusing imagery with reality) may be involved in the hallucinations in patients with alcohol dependence. The findings are discussed in the light of a transdiagnostic approach to hallucinations.
Self-monitoring behaviors of cancer patients benefit patients, caregivers, and providers, and yet the phenomenon of self-monitoring from the cancer-patient perspective has not been studied. We examined cancer patients' self-monitoring preferences and practices, focusing on the meaning of self-monitoring within the cancer experience.
Semi-structured interviews were conducted among adult cancer patients who had been seen at least once at a rural United States cancer center. Questions sought out the meaning of self-monitoring and its practical aspects. Qualitative data were analyzed by adapting the four-stepped method by Giorgi for empirical phenomenological analysis.
Twenty participants were interviewed (11 women and 9 men). Transcribed interviews revealed that cancer patient self-monitoring is self-stylized work that ranges from simple to complex, while being both idiosyncratic and routine. Participants reported using tools with systems for use that fit their distinctive lives for the purpose of understanding and using information they deemed to be important in their cancer care. Three conceptual categories were discerned from the data that help to elucidate this self-stylized work as fitting their individual priorities and preferences, reflecting their identities, and being born of their work lives.
Significance of results:
Findings highlight patients' unique self-monitoring preferences and practices, calling into question the assumption that the sole use of standardized tools are the most effective approach to engaging patients in this practice. Self-monitoring efforts can be validated when providers welcome or adapt to patients' self-stylized tools and systems. Doing so may present opportunity for improved communications and patient-centered care.
Executive functions (EF) encompass a variety of higher-order capacities such as judgment, planning, decision-making, response monitoring, insight, and self-regulation. Measuring such abilities quantitatively and establishing their neural correlates has proven to be challenging. Here, using a lesion-deficit approach, we report the neural correlates of a variety of EF tests that were developed under the auspices of the NINDS-supported EXAMINER project (Kramer, 2011; www.examiner.ucsf.edu). We administered a diverse set of EF tasks that tap three general domains—cognitive, social/emotional, and insight—to 37 patients with focal lesions to the frontal lobes, and 25 patients with lesions outside the frontal lobes. Using voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping (VLSM), we found that damage to the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) was predominately associated with deficits in social/emotional aspects of EF, while damage to dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) and anterior cingulate was predominately associated with deficits in cognitive aspects of EF. Evidence for an important role of some non-frontal regions (e.g., the temporal poles) in some aspects of EF was also found. The results provide further evidence for the neural basis of EF, and extend previous findings of the dissociation between the roles of the ventromedial and dorsolateral prefrontal sectors in organizing, implementing, and monitoring goal-directed behavior. (JINS, 2013, 19, 1–12)
Cognitive models have postulated that auditory hallucinations arise from the misattribution of internally generated cognitive events to external sources. Several experimental paradigms have been developed to assess this externalizing bias in clinical and non-clinical hallucination-prone samples, including source-monitoring, verbal self-monitoring and auditory signal detection tasks. This meta-analysis aims to synthesize the wealth of empirical findings from these experimental studies.
A database search was carried out for reports between January 1985 and March 2012. Additional studies were retrieved by contacting authors and screening references of eligible reports. Studies were considered eligible if they compared either (i) hallucinating and non-hallucinating patients with comparable diagnoses, or (ii) non-clinical hallucination-prone and non-prone participants using source-monitoring, verbal self-monitoring or signal detection tasks, or used correlational analyses to estimate comparable effects.
The analysis included 15 clinical (240 hallucinating patients and 249 non-hallucinating patients) and nine non-clinical studies (171 hallucination-prone and 177 non-prone participants; 57 participants in a correlation study). Moderate-to-large summary effects were observed in both the clinical and analogue samples. Robust and significant effects were observed in source-monitoring and signal detection studies, but not in self-monitoring studies, possibly due to the small numbers of eligible studies in this subgroup. The use of emotionally valenced stimuli led to effects of similar magnitude to the use of neutral stimuli.
The findings suggest that externalizing biases are important cognitive underpinnings of hallucinatory experiences. Clinical interventions targeting these biases should be explored as possible treatments for clients with distressing voices.
Background and aims: This study examined whether providing smokers with a personal monitor for measuring expired-air carbon monoxide (CO) concentrations would be a feasible method of achieving a reduction in smoke intake. Methods: Ten smokers were given a CO monitor and asked to use it regularly throughout the day for 6 weeks with the aim of maintaining their CO reading below 10 ppm. They were advised to use nicotine replacement therapy, but this was not provided. At baseline and follow-up, smokers were asked to comment on their use of the monitors and motivation to stop smoking. Demographic characteristics, cigarette consumption, and nicotine dependence, was also assessed. Additionally, during the first 2 weeks participants were instructed to record how often they used their CO monitor, their average readings and cigarette consumption. Results: Eight smokers had an average daily CO concentration below their baseline on at least 93% of the days in the 2 weeks of daily monitoring, while three had CO levels below 10 ppm on 36% of the days. At the 6-week follow-up, all participants’ CO concentrations were below their baseline value; two were below 10 ppm. Average daily cigarette consumption reduced from 14.1 (SD 6.03) at baseline to 9.8 (SD 4.95) during the 2 weeks of daily CO monitoring (t = 2.46, df 9, p = 0.036) and 9.5 (SD 5.50) at 6 weeks follow-up (t = 1.73, df 7, p = 0.127). Use of the CO monitors was generally found to be acceptable and to increase motivation to stop smoking completely. Five smokers attempted to quit smoking. Conclusions: Regular personal CO monitoring may be a useful method for reducing smokers’ cigarette intake and increasing their motivation to stop completely. A controlled trial with long-term follow up is warranted.