To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Although childhood depressive disorders are relatively rare, the experience of depression in children's lives is not. Developmental contextual perspectives denote the importance of considering both depressive disorder and the experience of subclinical depressive symptoms in the child and the family to fully understand the implications of depressive experience for children's developmental well-being. This Element draws on basic emotion development and developmental psychopathology perspectives to address the nature of depressive experience in childhood, both symptoms and disorder, focusing on seminal and recent research that details critical issues regarding its phenomenology, epidemiology, continuity, etiology, consequences, and interventions to ameliorate the developmental challenges inherent in the experience. These issues are addressed within the context of the child's own experience and from the perspective of parent depression as a critical context that influences children's developmental well-being. Conclusions include suggestions for new directions in research on children's lives that focus on more systemic processes.
DNA methylation is one of the most important epigenetic modifications in breast cancer (BC) development, and long-term dietary habits have been shown to alter DNA methylation. Cadherin-4 (CDH4, a member of the cadherin family) encodes Ca2+-dependent cell-cell adhesion glycoproteins. We conducted a case-control study (380 newly-diagnosed breast cancers and 439 cancer-free controls) to explore the relationship of CDH4 methylation in peripheral blood leukocyte DNA (PBL), as well as its combined and interactive effects with dietary factors and lifestyle on BC risk. A case-only study (335 newly-diagnosed breast cancers) was conducted to analyze the association between CDH4 methylation in breast tissue DNA and dietary factors. CDH4 methylation were detected using quantitative methylation specific PCR (qMSP). Unconditional logistic regressions were used to analyze the association of CDH4 methylation in PBL DNA and BC risk. Cross-over analysis and unconditional logistic regression were used to calculate the combined and interactive effects between CDH4 methylation in PBL DNA and dietary factors in BC. CDH4 hypermethylation was significantly associated with increased BC risk in PBL DNA (ORadjusted (ORadj)= 2.70, 95% confidence interval (CI)= 1.90-3.83, P<0.001). CDH4 hypermethylation also showed significant combined effects with the consumption of <500 g/week vegetables (ORadj=4.33, 95% CI=2.63-7.10), ≤3 times/week allium vegetables (ORadj=7.00, 95% CI=4.17-11.77), <3 times/week fish (ORadj=7.92, 95% CI=3.79-16.53), <3 times/week milk (ORadj=6.30, 95% CI=3.41-11.66), >3 times/week overnight food (ORadj=4.63, 95% CI=2.69-7.99), ≥250 g/week pork (ORadj=5.59, 95% CI=2.94-10.62), and <1 time/month physical activity (ORadj=4.72, 95% CI=2.87-7.76). Moreover, consuming milk ≥ 1 times/month was significantly related with decreased risk of CDH4 methylation (OR=0.61, 95% CI=0.38-0.99) in breast tissue. Our findings may provide direct guidance on the dietary intake for specific methylated carriers to decrease their risk for developing BC.
In the fifteenth century, a new moral allegory connected to the figure of fortuna began to develop. In contrast to the Boethian one, discussed in Chapter 5, the moral force of this allegory aimed at not missing the opportunities for profit and success offered by fortuna. This chapter argues that this new allegory, which underlay the development of the new concept of the future as unknown time-yet-to-come, emerged first in mercantile culture. It traces its development in the writings and visual world of three Florentine merchants whose careers spanned the late fourteenth to the late fifteenth centuries. While never breaking with the providential future of Christianity, these merchants began to articulate ideas about the rewards of financial speculation and the promise and potential of taking risks on unknown future outcomes.
After gamblers, merchants in Renaissance Italy had the deepest professional familiarity with experiencing the unknown future, in all its risks and potential. This chapter examines how the well-established notion that trust was crucial to the functioning of the premodern economy connected to ideas about temporality and the future. It argues that the experience of trusting strangers and distant agents or business partners was fundamentally a temporal one. The chapter traces the institutions and mechanisms used by sixteenth-century merchants to manage the temporal problems of trust. It also demonstrates the continuing persistence of a providential understanding of the future, based on Christian faith, in mercantile culture, revealing the complex multiplicity of Italian attitudes toward the future.
Like the authors on games examined in Chapter 1, sixteenth-century merchants also constructed an identity based on expertise in futurity. This chapter examines how they did so through the deployment of rich, varied, and precise vocabulary for discussing the opportunities and risk of speculating on future profits. It traces the fine-grained way that merchants discussed the passing of time, demonstrating the ways in which they thought about time and risk as commodities that could be weighed and priced. It develops on Chapter 3, however, by showing these same merchants continued to think about the future and nature of the world in profoundly religious ways, complicating notions of straightforward linear progression for medieval to modern notions of temporality.
This innovative cultural history of financial risk-taking in Renaissance Italy argues that a new concept of the future as unknown and unknowable emerged in Italian society between the mid-fifteenth and mid-sixteenth centuries. Exploring the rich interchanges between mercantile and intellectual cultures underpinning this development in four major cities - Florence, Genoa, Venice, and Milan - Nicholas Scott Baker examines how merchants and gamblers, the futurologists of the pre-modern world, understood and experienced their own risk taking and that of others. Drawing on extensive archival research, this study demonstrates that while the Renaissance did not create the modern sense of time, it constructed the foundations on which it could develop. The new conceptions of the past and the future that developed in the Renaissance provided the pattern for the later construction a single narrative beginning in classical antiquity stretching to the now. This book thus makes an important contribution toward laying bare the historical contingency of a sense of time that continues to structure our world in profound ways.
Using latest science, explains the quantum of man-made chemical emissions, the main sources and the cost in human life. First global estimate of total anthropogenic chemical emissions and circulation. The issue is far larger than most people or governments imagine.
In his seminal 1921 book, Risk, Uncertainty, and Profit, Frank Knight distinguished uncertainty and risk. This paper applies Knight's concept of uncertainty to knowledge generated in incumbent organizations to explain the inherent difficulty in assessing potential innovations along with the key role played by knowledge spillover entrepreneurship as a conduit for transforming new knowledge created by an incumbent organization but ultimately commercialized through the creation of a new firm and innovation. Knowledge is inherently uncertain and constitutes what is characterized as the knowledge filter impeding innovative activity in the context of incumbent firms and organizations. The organizational and institutional context and market uncertainty can either facilitate or impede the spillover of knowledge from the firm where it was created to the entrepreneurial startup where it is transformed into innovation. The empirical evidence based on a large, unbalanced panel of 9,126 UK firms constructed from six consecutive waves of a community innovation survey and annual business registry survey during 2002–2014. Implications for managers, scholars, and policymakers are provided.
The Mental Health Act 1959 and A Hospital Plan for England and Wales in 1962 set a direction for mental health services away from inpatient and towards outpatient and community care which enjoyed support across the political spectrum. There has been a shift of focus over time from rights and recovery to marketisation, to risk and safety to modernisation and, finally, to well-being. There has been greater coherence in policy and consensus among staff in child and adolescent mental health than its adult counterpart, but service developments were hampered by chronic underfunding. Though, overall, it is probably fair to judge that mental health services in 2010 were both substantially more effective and significantly more humane than those prevailing in 1960, they have not fulfilled the aspirations held widely at the beginning of the period.
Human health research is a vast enterprise; worldwide, hundreds of billions of dollars are spent annually on health research involving millions of research participants. This research is guided by multiple regulations and guidance documents that commonly reflect several core principles: the protection of the rights and welfare of individual research participants; the promotion of justice in the practice and outcomes of research; and that human health research should be socially valuable. However, these generally accepted principles belie an ongoing tension between the protection of individual participants through appropriate regulation, and the facilitation of health research. In this chapter I highlight areas that have and, I suggest, will continue to stretch health research regulation, requiring the regulatory infrastructure to adapt and evolve in order to be both effective and efficient. In doing so, I point to changes in risk assessment considerations, underlying trends toward harmonisation and streamlining of research regulation, and alternative approaches to consent. However, I also highlight countertrends that may serve to undermine these changes. Thus, like the red queen in Lewis Carroll’s Through the Looking-Glass, I propose that the health research regulatory system runs and runs as fast as it can, only to remain in the same place.
Artificial intelligence and machine learning (AI/ML) medical devices are able to optimise their performance by learning from past experience. In healthcare, such devices are already applied within controlled settings in image analysis systems to detect conditions like diabetic retinopathy, for instance. In examining the regulatory governance of AI/ML medical devices in the United States, it is argued that the development and application of these devices as a technical and social concern whether in research or in clinical care must proceed in tandem with their identities in regulation. In the light of emerging regulatory principles and approaches put forward by the International Medical Device Regulators Forum, and endorsed by the US Food and Drug Administration, conventional thinking about clinical research and clinical practice as distinct and separate domains needs to be reconsidered. The high connectivity of AI/ML medical devices that are capable of adapting to their digital environment in order to optimise performance suggest that the research agenda persist beyond what may be currently limited to the pilot or feasibility stages of medical device trials. If continuous risk-monitoring is required to support the use of software as medical devices in a learning healthcare system, more robust and responsive regulatory mechanisms are needed, not less.
Failure in health research regulation is nothing new. Indeed, the regulation of clinical trials was developed in response to the Thalidomide scandal, which occurred some 50 years ago. Yet, health research regulation is at the centre of recent failures. In this chapter, I use health research regulation for medical devices to look at the regulatory framing of harm through the language of technological risk, i.e. relating to safety. My overall argument is that reliance on this narrow discourse of technological risk in the regulatory framing of harm may marginalise stakeholder knowledges of harm to produce a limited knowledge base. The latter may underlie harm, and in turn lead to the construction of failure.
The recent renewed reflection on the role of catastrophe in literature and culture has received special attention from scholars in the environmental humanities. In particular, the connection between catastrophe and violence came into focus more prominently in an effort to understand how catastrophes have been framed rhetorically and culturally. This chapter shows how the theatre functions as a laboratory for exploring the Anthropocene by way of a reading of a German Expressionist play that focuses on the connection among catastrophe, violence and the negotiation of environmental risks. It also considers how these consequences and risk assessments might be perceived from a culturally decentred position by focusing on a unique conversation that took place in the 1990s between the German tradition of political theatre and its redaction by an Aboriginal Australian playwright, suggesting the continued need for a post-colonial critique of the concept of the Anthropocene.
The politics of financial governance under conditions of uncertainty has re-emerged as a significant issue for scholars of International Political Economy and related fields, not least because of the fallout from the 2007-2008 financial crisis. In this article I assess the legacy of Frank H. Knight's Risk, Uncertainty, and Profit for debates about reconceptualising financial governance and fostering financial stability. I argue Knight's book is productive in assisting understanding of the fallacies of the ‘risk-based’ economic theory tending to underpin financial governance, in particular drawing attention to the limitations of social scientific knowledge that reduce governance capacity and increase uncertainty in financial markets. I further argue, after Knight's deliberately paradoxical approach, that uncertainty in finance might be beyond regulation but at the same time there is still a societal need to attempt to achieve a politics of uncertainty that can cope with ignorance of the future through experimental governmental efforts.
Since the World Health Organization’s (WHO’s) pandemic declaration on March 11, 2020, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreaks have occurred on numerous maritime vessels and the containment measures, travel restrictions, and border closures continue to make it increasingly difficult for ship operators world-wide to be granted pratique, conduct trade, and conduct crew changes.
Knowledge of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) circulating on-board a ship prior to its arrival has significant implications for the protection of shore-based maritime workers (ie, pilots, stevedores, and surveyors), the broader community, and trade. A useful approach is a graded assessment of the public health risk. The Western Australia (WA) experience and associated observed pitfalls in implementing the prediction equation for the potential presence of SARS-CoV-2 on-board based on five COVID-19 outbreaks on commercial and cruise vessels during 2020 is described.
Despite best efforts, the qualitative and quantitative predictors of SARS-CoV-2 circulating on-board commercial vessels are failing to deliver the required certainty, and to date, the only accepted method of ascertaining the presence of SARS-CoV-2 remains the real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) testing reported by an accredited laboratory.
Based on legal or regulatory requirements, germane processes, underpinned by robust and auditable processes and procedures, must be put in place to inform the risk assessment of SARS-CoV-2 circulating on-board vessels.
This article examines Canada’s first internet gambling website blocking scheme, which was enacted in Quebec as part of the implementation of the province’s 2015 budget. Using qualitative research methods, the article illustrates the complexities of regulating online gambling. Influenced by critical sociological and anthropological studies of gambling, and taking a socio-legal, governmentality perspective, it shows how socio-legal studies can illuminate research on the regulation of gambling, and how the study of online gambling can, as a sentinel site for the regulation of online consumption, contribute to the development of socio-legal studies. Our analysis shows that the governmentality of online gambling is framed so as to exclude 1) a range of risks (e.g., related to consumer profiling and the capacity to stimulate “addictive consumption”), 2) the heterogeneity of everyday experience that connects online gambling with online addictive consumption more generally, and 3) a range of possibilities for governing online gambling otherwise.
The introduction of new technology to society often brings great benefits but it can also create new risks. Serious efforts have been made to assess and manage these risks. Perhaps the most notable example is the probabilistic risk assessment. However, these and other risk analysis methods have limitations. By reviewing how the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident could fall through the cracks of risks assessments, some of these limitations are discussed. Naturally, this is not intended to dismiss risk assessment but rather to make engineers more aware of what assessments can and in particular cannot do. Moreover, risk assessment methods have been criticized for ignoring the social and ethical aspects of risk. The ethical issues associated with risk analysis are discussed, distinguishing between individual-based approaches to ethics of risks (e.g., informed consent) and collective and consequence-based approaches. The chapter further reviews several methods for dealing with uncertainties in engineering design and applications, including redundancies, barriers, and safety factors as well as the Precautionary Principle and Safe-by-Design.
The implications of Knightian uncertainty are frequently discussed in the context of market-based institutional settings. Given money prices, entrepreneurs can engage in calculative action, in conjunction with ‘judgment’, to guide decision-making and bring about a coordination of production plans with consumer preferences. However, if the existence of Knightian uncertainty is ubiquitous and applies to all human action, then what are its implications in non-market institutional settings? This paper explores questions related to the implications of Knightian uncertainty for two important non-market institutional settings: democratic government and the nonprofit or philanthropic sector, where there is an explicit lack of monetary calculation, yet nonprofit and political entrepreneurs still must use ‘judgment’ to deal with Knightian uncertainty. For instance, what are the implications of private property and privatized cost in the case of nonprofits versus the absence of private property and socialized cost in the case of democracy, in the presence of Knightian uncertainty? Which group of ‘consumers’ is likely to have their preferences satisfied when it comes to nonprofits (benefactors or beneficiaries) and democratic government (voters or lobbyists)? The paper, thus, points to the importance of further research on the implications of Knightian uncertainty in the hard case of non-market institutional settings.
This paper revisits and fine-tunes a spin-off from Knight's (1921, Risk, Uncertainty and Profit) influential distinction between risk (‘probability of unknown events’) and uncertainty (‘unquantifiable randomness’): the contrast between actuarial institutions and entrepreneurship. It contends that this opposition is not exclusive and argues that the act of insurance does not automatically reduce entrepreneurial profits. To maintain this claim, the paper emphasizes hedging and, more specifically, draws on an innovative actuarial scheme – parametric (or index-based) insurance – which, unlike indemnity-based insurance, does not rely on a damage assessment but indemnifies the policyholder according to the variation of an index. This argument sheds new light on the function habitually assigned to actuarial institutions, amends the theory of entrepreneurial profits, and integrates hedging within entrepreneurial judgment.
Non-communicable diseases, such as cancers and CVD, represent a major public health concern, and diet is an important factor in their development. French dietary recommendations were updated in 2017, and an adherence score, the Programme National Nutrition Santé Guidelines Score (PNNS-GS2), has been developed and validated using a standardised procedure. The present study aimed to analyse the prospective association between PNNS-GS2 and the risk of death, cancer and CVD. Our sample consisted of French adults included in the prospective NutriNet-Santé cohort (n 67 748, 75 634 and 80 269 for the risk of death, cancer and CVD, respectively). PNNS-GS2 (range: –∞ to 14·25) was calculated from the 24-h dietary records of the first 2 years of monitoring. Association between PNNS-GS2 (in quintiles, Q) and the risk of death, cancer and CVD was studied using Cox models adjusted for the main confounding factors. The sample included 78 % of women, aged on average 44·4 years (sd 14·6) with on average 6·6 (sd 2·3) dietary records. Average PNNS-GS2 was 1·5 (sd 3·4) and median follow-up was 6·6 years for cancers and 6·2 years for CVD and deaths. PNNS-GS2 was significantly associated with the risk of death (hazard ratio (HR)Q5vsQ1: 0·77 (95 % CI 0·60, 1·00), 828 cases), cancer (HRQ5vsQ1 = 0·80 (95 % CI 0·69, 0·92), 2577 cases) and CVD (HRQ5vsQ1 0·64 (95 % CI 0·51, 0·81), 964 cases). More specifically, PNNS-GS2 was significantly associated with colorectal and breast cancer risks but not prostate cancer risk. Our results suggest that strong adherence to the 2017 French dietary recommendations is associated with a lower risk of death, cancer or CVD. This reinforces the validity of these new recommendations and will help to promote their dissemination.