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During the parasitological examination of molluscs Abra segmentum obtained from the Black Sea basin, parthenitae belonging to the family Faustulidae were found. The cercariae were obtained by natural emergence and were studied using differential interference contrast microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Specimens resemble Cercaria pennata ex Tapes rugatus which was described from the Sevastopol area, in the shape and length of the body, tail length, location and shape of internal organs, suckers, pharynx, testicular rudiments, and the number and position of longitudinal lamellae on the tail finlets. To date, there are only limited descriptions of the parthenitae of C. pennata without detailed measurements, thus the taxonomic position of the individuals studied needs thorough revision and molecular verification. According to the molecular analyses, C. pennata was identical to that of published sequences of Pronoprymna ventricosa.
Plants have a variety of defense mechanisms that are often induced following attacks by herbivores; this benefits those plants by decreasing performance or preference of herbivores that attack the plants later. We investigated the effects of previous exposure of plants to the safflower aphid, Uroleucon carthami, cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera, and mechanical wounding on subsequent safflower aphid infestations using commercial safflower (Carthamus tinctorius) cultivars and wild safflower species (C. oxyacantha). The experiments were conducted in a greenhouse with two treatments: previously induced plants via direct herbivory or mechanical wounding, and control plants that had never experienced herbivory. To test the performance of safflower aphid on different plant treatments, five unwinged aphids were placed on each plant and allowed to reproduce for 14 days. Finally, the total numbers of aphids on each plant were counted and the percentage of produced winged individuals was calculated. The number of aphids on plants that were previously infested or injured was significantly lower than in control plants. Percentage of winged aphids was significantly higher on induced plants, which is an indicator for unsuitable conditions. Also, significant increase in total phenolic content and hydrogen peroxide was observed in induced plants, showing that the levels of these compounds were either treatment, cultivar and/or genotype × treatment dependent, highlighting the specificity of these interactions. Overall, among the safflower cultivars the lowest number of aphids and the highest percentage of winged aphid individuals were observed on Mahali-Isfahan cultivar and wild safflower, showing that this cultivar is more sensitive to herbivory and/or responds to it more than other cultivars. These findings could contribute to a better utilization of induced defense in the integrated pest management of safflower fields.
The abnormal animal featured here is a tadpole with two heads. In order to explain how it got that way, the chapter desccribes how the axes of the body are established in the embryo. This leads to a discussion of axes in conjoined twins and symmetry planes in various parts of the body, plus a three-eyed frog.
The abnormal animal featured here is the calico cat, whose mottled fur is due to a phenomenon which affects all female mammals. Females inactivate one of their X chromosomes so they become mosaics. We discuss how some male/female mosaics have been used by researchers to probe genetic mechanisms.
It is generally believed that the patterns of in-host migration of the infective stages of most invasive macroparasites of man and domestic animals are matters of established fact. In reality, the textbook treatment of this topic, and much of the experimental approach to it, are a legacy of an uncritical past. With few exceptions the true picture concerning particular host/parasite systems is confused by the acceptance of inadequate criteria of proof. In important instances these bogus ‘proofs’ have been generalized within a suspect inductive framework which employs the basic assumption that all migratory parasites that enter the same portal and travel to the same destination do so by the same route. The discussion of such issues serves as a background to the presentation in detail of a more rigorous conceptual and experimental framework.
Intra-specific competition in insect and amphibian species is often experienced in completely different ways in their distinct life stages. Competition among larvae is important because it can impact on adult traits that affect disease transmission, yet mathematical models often ignore larval competition. We present two models of larval competition in the form of delay differential equations for the adult population derived from age-structured models that include larval competition. We present a simple prototype equation that models larval competition in a simplistic way. Recognising that individual larvae experience competition from other larvae at various stages of development, we then derive a more complex equation containing an integral with a kernel that quantifies the competitive effect of larvae of age ā on larvae of age a. In some parameter regimes, this model and the famous spruce budworm model have similar dynamics, with the possibility of multiple co-existing equilibria. Results on boundedness and persistence are also proved.
The knowledge of how fish survive and grow at different temperatures, and how these traits vary between life stages, is essential to evaluate the effects of climate change on wild fish and implement effective strategies in aquaculture. These issues are addressed in this study through a series of experiments that evaluate the effect of temperature (23–34 °C) on the embryos and larvae of clown loach, Chromobotia macracanthus. This species is endemic to the rivers of Sumatra and Borneo, highly praised on the ornamental fish market, and has been reproduced in captivity recently. No embryo survived a 24-h exposure to 34 °C until the age of 3 days after hatching (dah); mortality was high at 32 °C at 2 and 3 dah, whereas it was low and similar from 1 to 4 dah at 23–29 °C (<10%). Yolk absorption was proportional to water temperature (Q10°C
of 1.69 in the 23–32 °C range), but fish reared at cold temperatures were larger than others at the start of exogenous feeding (5.7 vs. 5.5 mm TL, at 23 and 32 °C, respectively). The survival of larvae fed Artemia nauplii ad libitum was high at 23–32 °C (80–100%), but almost null at 34 °C. Growth models at different temperatures were produced from weekly measurements in two experiments, and tested by comparing their predictions with the results of a third experiment. Throughout the larval stage, the optimal temperature for growth (T°opt)
was close to 29 °C, and departures from T°opt
resulted in substantial growth penalties (–30% SGR for –5.1 °C and + 3.1 °C). High survival, fast growth (0.7 mm day-1) and limited size dispersal at T°opt
are encouraging perspectives for the aquaculture of clown loach. From an ecological perspective, the species has an atypical thermal biology, as it is less thermophilic than other tropical fishes, but more stenothermal than temperate fishes exhibiting similar values of T°opt
, both traits being of particular concern in the context of global warming.
Psychodiella sergenti is a recently described specific pathogen of the sand fly Phlebotomus sergenti, the main vector of Leishmania tropica. The aim of this study was to examine the life cycle of Ps. sergenti in various developmental stages of the sand fly host. The microscopical methods used include scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and light microscopy of native preparations and histological sections stained with periodic acid-Schiff reaction. Psychodiella sergenti oocysts were observed on the chorion of sand fly eggs. In 1st instar larvae, sporozoites were located in the ectoperitrophic space of the intestine. No intracellular stages were found. In 4th instar larvae, Ps. sergenti was mostly located in the ectoperitrophic space of the intestine of the larvae before defecation and in the intestinal lumen of the larvae after defecation. In adults, the parasite was recorded in the body cavity, where the sexual development was triggered by a bloodmeal intake. Psychodiella sergenti has several unique features. It develops sexually exclusively in sand fly females that took a bloodmeal, and its sporozoites bear a distinctive conoid (about 700 nm long), which is more than 4 times longer than conoids of the mosquito gregarines.
The larval development of the hermit crab Areopaguristes nigroapiculus (Komai, 2009) (Decapoda: Anomura: Diogenidae) is described and illustrated from the material reared in the laboratory. The development included three zoeal and a single megalopal stages. At 22–25°C, megalop of A. nigroapiculus was attained 6–9 days after hatching. The present paper is the first description of the complete larval development in the genus Areopaguristes. Morphological characters of zoeas and megalop of A. nigroapiculus are compared with those described for the closely related Paguristes species. The comparison on the zoeal characters revealed that A. nigroapiculus is distinguished from Paguristes species by the absence of anterolateral carapace spines and by the fused fourth telson process in zoea III. These two features are possible generic characters of Areopaguristes. In the rest of larval characters, A. nigroapiculus agree well with Paguristes species having three zoeal stages. In the plankton of Peter the Great Bay, the larvae of A. nigroapiculus sporadically occurred only in July and August, at depths of 3–45 m and surface water temperatures of 18–22°C.
The present paper is the first scanning electron microscope (SEM) description of a protonymphon larva of an Ammotheidae. The morphology of the first larval instar of Achelia assimilis is described in detail and illustrated for the first time. The morphological characters are compared to previous larval descriptions of other pycnogonid species. The larvae are integrated into Bain's classification of larval types within the pycnogonids (Bain, 2003a) as a ‘typical protonymphon’. Larvae were obtained from ovigerous males, caught in Punta Huinay, Huinay, Chile and analysed with light microscope and SEM. Descriptions of pycnogonid protonymphons at a species-specific level in the future will contribute to a deeper understanding of larval pycnogonid taxonomy at the level of differential diagnoses.
Fish tests must be developed for both regulatory and conservation reasons, as such
testing forms an indispensable component of integrated toxicity testing strategy for the
marine environment. To standardise a fish embryo test, the acute toxicity of metals and
polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) to early life stages (ELS) of turbot
(Psetta maxima) was studied. Embryos were exposed to dilutions of
cooper, cadmium, mercury, fluoranthene, phenanthrene, pyrene and naphthalene in darkness
and under visible light. Hatching success, yolk sac alterations, pericardial edema,
skeletal deformities and mortality were observed. The effective concentrations
(EC50, EC10,) no observed effect concentration (NOEC) and the
lowest observed effect concentration (LOEC) were determined at the end of the bioassays.
Exposure to metals and PAHs in ecologically relevant concentrations, either in darkness or
under artificial light, caused significant lethal and sublethal effects in turbot, such as
alterations in yolk sac, pericardial edema and skeletal abnormalities. According to the 96
h EC50, the ranking of acute toxicity for metals was respectively: 47.4
(46.8–59.2) μg L−1 Cu; 51.5 (20.9–91.7) μg L−1 Cd, and 83.2
(62.3–125) μg L−1 Hg. For PAHs, acute toxicities were 5.2 (4.3–6) μg
L−1 pyrene, 12.3 (6.4–12.7) μg L−1 fluoranthene, 52.2 (30.4–82.7)
μg L−1 phenanthrene, and 142 (55–228) μg L−1 naphthalene. Pyrene was
consistently the most toxic PAH. In addition, light exposures were performed and
photo-enhanced toxicity was found only for fluoranthene and pyrene. Turbot embryos were
found to be more tolerant to metals and PAHs than were hatched larvae. These results
suggest that, considering the short duration of the ELS turbot test and its high
sensitivity, it is suitable for use as a standard test for marine fish.
Winter flounder (Pseudopleuronectes americanus) are hatched as bilaterally symmetric larvae which live near the ocean surface. At metamorphosis, they become laterally compressed, one eye migrates to the opposite side of the head, and they live the remainder of their lives lying on their blind side on the ocean floor. The present study characterizes and quantifies retinal cell distribution throughout the larval period and contrasts it with the adult retina. Based on light- and electron-microscopic analyses, retinas of larval flounder contain only a single cone-like photoreceptor type, arranged in a hexagonal array. In contrast, after metamorphosis, the adult retina has three types of photoreceptors: rods, single cones, and double cones. Rod photoreceptors are numerous in the ventral retina and decrease in density dorsad. The cone photoreceptor density, in contrast to rods, is higher in the dorsal retina decreasing ventrad. Adult cone photoreceptors are arranged in a square mosaic with four double cones surrounding one single cone. The differences in larval and adult retinal morphology reflect the distinctly different habitat each occupies.
As part of the Latitudinal Gradient Project (LGP) the coastal meroplankton community is being studied along the coast of Victoria Land, in the Ross Sea, Antarctica. In this preliminary analysis the meroplankton community from Cape Hallett (72°S) is compared to that from two previously sampled sites in the south-western Ross Sea; at Cape Roberts and in McMurdo Sound (c. 77°S). Non-metric multi-dimensional scaling (MDS), a hierarchical cluster analysis and permutational MANOVA in combination show that the meroplankton composition differs significantly between the three sites. Although this preliminary analysis includes only one northern Ross Sea site, the results suggest that there are differences in meroplankton composition along the Victoria Land coast. Several larval types, including annelid trochophores, unidentified annelid larva, echinospira, barnacle nauplius, asteroid, echinoid, and ophiuroid larvae were absent or rare in the south-western Ross Sea but found abundantly at Cape Hallett. Detailed analysis of the meroplankton community at Cape Hallett and further examination of changes in the meroplankton community along the Victoria Land coast will continue in future years of the LGP.
Infective larvae of an intestinal nematode, Strongyloides venezuelensis, enter rodent hosts percutaneously, and migrate through connective tissues and lungs. Then they arrive at the small intestine, where they reach maturity. It is not known how S. venezuelensis larvae develop during tissue migration. Here we demonstrate that tissue invasion ability of S. venezuelensis larvae changes drastically during tissue migration, and that the changes are associated with stage-specific protein expression. Infective larvae, connective tissue larvae, lung larvae, and mucosal larvae were used to infect mice by various infection methods, including percutaneous, subcutaneous, oral, and intraduodenal inoculation. Among different migration stages, only infective larvae penetrated mouse skin. Larvae, once inside the host, quickly lost skin penetration ability, which was associated with the disappearance of an infective larva-specific metalloprotease. Migrating larvae had connective tissue migration ability until in the lungs, where larvae became able to settle down in the intestinal mucosa. Lung larvae and mucosal larvae were capable of producing and secreting adhesion molecules.
Nesting sites of the naked dragonfish Gymnodraco acuticeps have been identified in 15–35 m water under fast ice adjacent to McMurdo Station, making it possible to examine embryonic development and early larval growth. Egg-laying (predominantly in October) is preceded by a distinctive whirling behavioural pattern driven by the male prodding the side of the female's abdomen. The eggs (3.42 ± 0.19 mm in diameter) are laid on rocks as a single adherent layer (c. 2500 per patch). Development is unusually protracted, the first cleavage occurring after about 24 hr at about −1.9°C. Hatching occurs about 10 months post-fertilization, beginning soon after the sun rises above the horizon. During this period one of the parents may act as a guard in an attempt to keep predators at bay. Upon hatching, the larvae (12.09 ± 0.36 mm long) swim towards the surface ice where they presumably seek refuge. Yolk absorption is complete in about 15 days. Larvae (grown in aquaria at a density of 0.7 larvae l−1) display an average daily growth rate of 0.42% over nine weeks. Hatching in aquaria can occur up to 100 days in advance of that seen in the field, suggesting that under natural conditions hatching may be delayed until an appropriate stimulus (such as the return of the sun) is received.
Early stages of toothfish are reported from cruises between 1978 and 2001. South Georgia was regularly sampled, Shag Rocks was briefly sampled in three summers, and Burdwood Bank was sampled in 1997. Most samples were using 8 m2 and 1 m2 nets in the upper 250 m and upper 3 m, respectively. Forty-three pelagic larval/early juvenile stages between 18.2 and 63 mm standard length (Ls) were taken between December and March. Four specimens were taken at Burdwood Bank, one at Shag Rocks, and 38 at South Georgia. Forty fish were from the upper 250 m, and 23 from the upper 3 m. They occurred onshelf and offshore over water depths between 10 and 3000 m. Estimated growth rate, at South Georgia from 11 cohorts (including published data), is c. 1% Ls, d−1 (n = 39). From this and a hatch size of 15 mm Ls, the predicted hatching season is November to mid-December. From seven trawl surveys during summer at South Georgia and Shag Rocks between 1986 and 2000, the mean depth of the smaller demersal juveniles 13–25 cm total length (LT) was < 140 m, indicating that early juveniles probably migrate inshore.
Earlier authors demonstrated that wetland species of the genus Brachinus (Coleoptera: Carabidae) are pupal ectoparasitoids of water beetles of the families Dytiscidae, Gyrinidae and Hydrophilidae. Here we demonstrate that the dryland species, Brachinus explodens and B. crepitans, develop on pupae of ground beetles of the genus Amara (Carabidae). As Brachinus and Amara species often occur together at high densities in crops, the rearing of both Brachinus species was followed in the laboratory. Females laid eggs in the soil and the first instar larva searched for a host. After finding an Amara pupa, a Brachinus larva bit it and then fed on haemolymph exuding from the wound. The second instar larva continued feeding in this way. The third instar larva attached the Amara pupa to its dorsum and ate it completely within c. 2 days. Feeding was followed by a resting phase and moulting to pupa and adult. The total post-embryonic development was completed within 20 days in B. explodens and 24 days in B. crepitans at 24.7 °C.
Hyphydrus ovatus beetles inhabit lakes, ponds and slow running streams. In central Europe the larvae develop at water temperatures of >10°C from May to July. All three instars live on or close to plants. The first instar prefers the upper areas of plants. Its prey are insect larvae and small stages of planktonic crustaceans. The second instar chooses deeper areas and catches larger prey, whereas the third instar prefers the root zone and feeds mainly on tubificids and chironomids that are caught in the detritus of the bottom layer. The elongated nasale of Hyphydrus ovatus is equipped with different sensilla. Despite the rather different shape of their outer parts, their ultrastructure indicates that they all have a mechanoreceptive function. Chaetiform sensilla are especially numerous and are especially long near the tip. Plate-like mechanosensilla are positioned in a half circle at the ventral edge of the rostral tip. The assumed function of these sensilla is the location of prey. As in other Hydroporinae, the axis connecting the dorsal and ventral points of articulation of the mandibles is sloped laterally. Thereby, the closing mandibles move upwards and press the prey against the underside of the nasale, which – like the upper jaw in vertebrates – serves as the counterpart of the mandibles. On its ventral side, the nasale is equipped with various cuticular teeth that serve to hold the prey when it is pressed against them by the mandibles.
The fifth instar larva of Plectrocnemia laetabilis McLachlan, 1880 is described for the first time, and the main taxonomic characters are figured. The larvae of P. laetabilis are very similar to those of P. conspersa (Curtis, 1834), but they are easily distinguishable by some characters of the frontoclypeal apotome, labrum and abdominal segment IX. Additionally, some notes on distribution and ecological preferences are included.
The kinematics and hydrodynamics of swimming chironomid larvae were investigated with the aid of videography and dye streamers used to visualize near-body flow. Chironomids employ a characteristic ‘figure-of-eight’ swimming technique based on high-amplitude side-to-side bending of the body. These scissor-like movements produce relatively slow (two body lengths (BL) s−1) forward motion but also serve to support the weight of the insect against its own negative buoyancy. The main wake element identified by the present technique consisted of a discrete ring vortex with an external diameter of c. 0.3 BL which was shed to the rear of the body towards the end of each half-stroke. During level swimming, the jet of the vortex was directed 10° below the horizontal plane indicating that it was mainly providing thrust. An additional, but poorly defined, flow was associated with the rapid downwards motion of the head at the start of each half-stroke and it is proposed that this contributes to the vertical force needed to support the weight of the body during swimming.