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As Geography teachers, it is necessary to show students what it is that makes geography distinctive, relevant and therefore powerful. The distinctiveness and relevance of a subject is shown through both content and pedagogy – pedagogical content knowledge, powerful knowledge, powerful pedagogy – bringing content knowledge to life for students through the way the subject is taught. Imagine a geography lesson without fieldwork, or without the use of geographical tools such as maps and visual representations, or without the interpretation of information through the lens of place-based analysis, spatial reasoning and human-environment interconnections. The chapter explores the ‘what’, ‘why’ and ‘how’ of developing distinctive and powerful geography lessons through posing an overarching question for reflection: ‘What makes your geography lesson geographical?’ Throughout the chapter, the reader is challenged to reflect on and consider how they can continue to identify, maintain and build their pedagogical practice.
The idea of economic and social progress which emerged in the seventeenth century had as its basis the cumulative growth of knowledge. This included not just codified scientific knowledge but also knowledge which was produced and reproduced in the course of the ordinary business of life and embodied in individual humans, in artefacts and in practices. Although the independent role of knowledge in economic growth always had some recognition, in the period between the late eighteenth and twentieth centuries, it was largely subsumed within the accumulation of capital. While this did reflect the substantial embodiment of knowledge in capital equipment, it also meant that wider considerations of the social and cumulative role of knowledge in productive activity became a minority and heterodox pursuit. The paper seeks to recover the longer historical pedigree of this wider understanding of knowledge including some of its specific characteristics such as its non-rival nature, its incomplete excludability, its tacitness and the uncertainties surrounding innovation.
Does Aristotle mean to explain, in the De Anima, why it is in human nature to know beings? Early on he declares that his objective is to define psuchē; later he criticizes previous efforts for failing to show “by being what” (διὰ τὸ τί εἶναι) it belongs to psuchē to know beings. If he means then to succeed where others before him have failed, he means his own account to reveal why it is of psuchē (at least of some psuchē) to know beings (all beings).
To investigate nutrition knowledge (NK) in university students, potential factors affecting knowledge and predictors of good NK.
A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2017-2018. The revised General Nutrition Knowledge Questionnaire was administered online to assess overall NK and sub-sections of knowledge (dietary recommendations, nutrient sources of foods, healthy food choices and diet-disease relationships). The Kruskal-Wallis test was used to compare overall NK scores according to sex, age, ethnicity, field of study, studying status, living arrangement, being on a special diet and perceived health. Logistic regression was performed to identify which of these factors were associated with a good level of NK (defined as having an overall NK score above the median score of the sample population).
two London-based universities.
190 students from various academic disciplines.
The highest NK scores were found in the healthy food choices (10 out of 13 points) and the lowest in the nutrient sources of foods section (25 out of 36 points). Overall NK score was 64 out of 88 points, with 46.8% students reaching a good level of knowledge. Knowledge scores significantly differed according to age, field of study, ethnicity and perceived health. Having good NK was positively associated with age (OR=1.05, 95% CI:1.00-1.1, p<0.05), White ethnicity (OR=3.27, 95% CI:1.68-6.35, p<0.001) and health rating as very good or excellent (OR=4.71, 95% CI:1.95-11.4, p<0.05).
Future health-promoting interventions should focus on increasing knowledge of specific nutrition areas and consider the personal and academic factors affecting NK in university students.
Transnational Lawmaking Coalitions is the first comprehensive analysis of the role and impact of informal collaborations in the UN human rights treaty bodies. Issues as central to international human rights as the right to water, abortion, torture, and hate speech are often only clarified through the instrument of treaty interpretations. This book dives beneath the surface of the formal access, procedures, and actors of the UN treaty body system to reveal how the experts and external collaborators play a key role in the development of human rights. Nina Reiners introduces the concept of 'Transnational Lawmaking Coalitions' within a novel theoretical framework and draws on a number of detailed case studies and original data. This study makes a significant contribution to the scholarship on human rights, transnational actors, and international organizations, and contributes to broader debates in international relations and international law.
The unprecedented disruption brought about by the global coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic had produced tremendous influence on the practice of pharmacy. Sufficient knowledge of pharmacists was needed to deal with the epidemic situation, however, outbreak also aggravated psychological distress among healthcare professionals. Therefore, this study aimed to determine knowledge about the pandemic and related factors, prevalence and factors associated with psychological distress among hospital pharmacists of Xinjiang Province, China.
An anonymous online questionnaire-based cross-sectional study was conducted via WeChat, a popular social media platform in China, during the COVID-19 outbreak from 23th to 27th February 2020. The survey questionnaire consisted of 4 parts including informed consent section, demographic section, knowledge about COVID-19 and assessment of overall mental health through World Health Organization Self-Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ-20). A score of 8 or above on SRQ-20 was used as cut-off to classify the participant as in psychological distress. SRQ-20 score and related knowledge score were used as dependent variables, demographic characteristics (such as gender, age, monthly income, etc) were used as independent variables, and univariate binary logistic regression was used to screen out the variables with p<0.05. Then, the filtered variables were used as independent variables, multivariate logistic regression models were used to analyze associations with sufficient knowledge of COVID-19 and psychological distress.
A total of 365 pharmacists participated in the survey, fewer than half (35.1%, n=128) of pharmacists attained a score of 6 or greater (out of 10) in overall disease knowledge, and most were able to select effective disinfectants and isolation or discharge criteria. In multivariable model, age ages 31-40(OR=3.25, p<0.05), ages 41-50(OR=2.96, p<0.05) vs >50 (referent); primary place of practice in hospitals: drug supply (OR=4.00, p<0.01), inpatient pharmacy(OR=2.06, p<0.01), clinical pharmacy (OR=2.17, p<0.05) vs outpatient pharmacy (referent); monthly income Renminbi (RMB, China’s legal currency) 5000-10000 (OR=1.77, p<0.05) vs <5000 (referent); contact with COVID-2019 patients or suspected cases (OR=2.27, p<0.01); access to COVID-19 knowledge remote work+ on-site work(OR=6.07, p<0.05), single on-site work (OR=6.90, p<0.01) vs remote work (referent) were related to better knowledge of COVID-19. Research found that 18.4% of pharmacists surveyed met the SRQ-20 threshold for distress. Self-reported history of mental illness (OR=3.56, p<0.05) and working and living in hospital vs delay in work resumption (OR=2.87, p<0.01) were found to be risk factors of psychological distress.
Further training of COVID-19 knowledge was required for pharmacists. As specific pharmacist groups were prone to psychological distress, it was important for individual hospitals and government to consider and identify pharmacists’ needs and take steps to meet their needs with regard to pandemic and other work-related distress.
The phenomenon of post-truth poses a problem for the public policy-oriented sciences, including policy analysis. Along with “fake news,” the post-truth denial of facts constitutes a major concern for numerous policy fields. Whereas a standard response is to call for more and better factual information, this Element shows that the effort to understand this phenomenon has to go beyond the emphasis on facts to include an understanding of the social meanings that get attached to facts in the political world of public policy. The challenge is thus seen to be as much about a politics of meaning as it is about epistemology. The analysis here supplements the examination of facts with an interpretive policy-analytic approach to gain a fuller understanding of post-truth. The importance of the interpretive perspective is illustrated by examining the policy arguments that have shaped policy controversies related to climate change and coronavirus denial.
Palliative care is comprehensive supportive care addressing the suffering, pain, discomfort, symptoms, and stress of cancer and any serious life-threatening disease. It is a key part of care for our children living with cancer and is an important source of support for their families. The study aimed to assess the perception of pediatric oncology family care providers toward palliative care and its perceived barriers in Egypt.
Total number of 500 oncology children's family care providers was recruited. A descriptive research design was utilized. Researchers used three tools as Structured Interview Questionnaire to assess the participants' knowledge and perceived barriers, Attitude toward palliative care Likert Scale, and Reported Practices Observational Checklist. The study was conducted in outpatient cancer clinics affiliated with El-Nasr governmental hospital located at Port Said governorate.
51.8% of the total oncology children's family care providers had sufficient knowledge, 78.6% had a positive attitude, while,76.8% of them had inappropriate Practice towards palliative care.
Significance of results
The pediatric oncology family care providers had sufficient knowledge and a positive attitude toward palliative care, but their practices were inappropriate. Also, the majority of participants identified Lack of family care providers training in pediatric palliative care and improper communication between the health team and family care providers as the main barriers to providing palliative care to children. Providing a palliative care training program for family caregivers through continuing professional development is highly recommended besides further research studies using large probability samples at different settings.
Entering the gourmet cheese shop, the customer is confronted with dozens and sometimes hundreds of different cheeses. This chapter discusses how the search, identification, and selection of a possible buyable is accomplished, through actions that characterize the beginning of the purchase and that are consequential for the possibility (or not) to engage in a closer sensorial exploration of the materiality of the cheese. The first access to the cheese products is distant, characterized by sighting, looking and starring, within actions that either display the customer knows what they want or not. Chapter 3 shows how customers not knowing what they want look around in the shop asking for advice or/and then adopt a focused look on one product and ask questions about it. These actions constitute a praxeological, interactional and sensorial context that emergently projects the relevance of a closer examination of the materiality of cheese.
As seen for touch and smell, the closer sensorial access to the materiality of the product is characterized by an orientation of all participants to the normativity of sensorial practices, which might be forbidden – for reasons of hygiene and for preserving the integrity of the product – but also permitted – when that is relevant for the progression into the selling encounter. In the case of tasting, the customer either requests to taste or is offered to taste. Tasting as a sensorial access to the object supposes its ingestion and therefore its destruction: this practical problem is solved by the seller cutting a tiny sample from a bigger piece and giving it to the customer. The chapter explores the distinctive circumstances in which tasting is requested and offered and their consequences for the next actions, explored in Chapter 8. In particular, it focuses on the sequential environments in which offers to taste are produced by the seller, which connect back to some epistemic features emerging at the very beginning of the purchase (explored in Chapters 3 and 4).
The aim of this study was to determine the level of knowledge of students receiving different levels of health-care education (doctors, nurses, paramedics) on chemical, biological, radioactive, and nuclear weapons (CBRNW).
This study was designed as a qualitative, descriptive, and cross-sectional research. The study reached 87.68% of the population. A survey form was created by the researcher in line with the literature. Ethical permission and verbal consents were obtained. The data were collected by face-to-face interviews.
It was observed that there was no difference between the enrolled departments, that the participants had very low levels of knowledge on the subject despite considering it a likely threat for Turkey, and that they thought the public and the health-care professionals in this field had insufficient knowledge. Sex, age, and field education were the variables that created a difference.
Training regarding CBRNW should be further questioned and individuals should receive ongoing training to increase and update their knowledge and skills.
Vitamin D is an important nutrient for bone health, and vitamin D deficiency increases the risk of various diseases. Gilgit Baltistan, the northern-most area of Pakistan, has a high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency, despite many nutritional and food safety programmes. The present study aimed to find how knowledge, attitudes and practices associated with vitamin D related to the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency among people residing in different areas of Gilgit Baltistan. The cross-sectional study was descriptive and used data from a survey carried out between February 2019 and December 2020 on individuals of both sexes aged 10 years or over in Gilgit Baltistan. Of the 575 survey participants, 306 (53.2%) had experienced signs and symptoms of vitamin D deficiency, i.e. tiredness, fatigue and bone weakness. Approximately 64.8% had some general knowledge of vitamin D and its relation to health. Participants aged 19–25 years had the highest scores on knowledge of vitamin D. Only 22.7% of interviewees had ever taken any supplements and only 25.6% often exposed themselves to sunlight. Females’ mean knowledge score (28.7; SD 7.02) was higher than that of males (24; SD 9.01). A lack of consistency was observed between attitude towards daylight exposure and knowledge of vitamin D. There was a large correlation between knowledge and attitude (p = 0.001), while a non-significant association was demonstrated between knowledge and practices (p = 0.1). Better knowledge, attitude and practices by people living in cities or more-developed regions indicates that education can be an effective way to provide awareness regarding micronutrient deficiencies. More emphasis is needed on enhancing knowledge, awareness and practices associated with vitamin D deficiency in rural areas of Pakistan. It is strongly recommended that an awareness campaign on micronutrients is launched in both rural and urban areas of Pakistan, concentrating on poor socioeconomic settings.
This chapter enables readers to assess whether they are wise. It reviews elements of wisdom and tests readers on each of them: knowledge, life span contextualism, value relativism, recognition and management of uncertainty and uncontrollability, reflectivity, learning from experience, emotion regulation, empathy, openness, critical thinking, creative thinking, balancing your own, others’, and larger interests over the long-term as well as the short-term, seeking a common good.
Tacit knowing as a concept and legitimate topic of scholarship came up in philosophical research in the second half of the 20th century in the form of some influential works by Michael Polanyi (although similar concepts had been discussed before). Systematic epistemological studies on the topic are still scarce, however. In this article, I support the thesis that tacit knowing pervades all our common major divisions of knowledge and that it therefore must not be neglected in epistemological research. By this approach I am simultaneously giving a systematic back-up for Polanyi's claim that the tacit component is found in all knowledge.
This study examined rural community-based nurses' self-reported knowledge and skills in the provision of psychosocial care to rural residing palliative and end-of-life clients and carers. We further sought to determine correlates of knowledge gaps to inform workforce education and planning.
Nurses from a rural area of Victoria, Australia, were invited to complete an electronic questionnaire rating their knowledge against 6 national palliative care standards and 10 screening and assessment tools. A 5-point scale of (1) No experience to (5) Can teach others was used to rate knowledge. Results were classified into three categories: practice gaps, areas of consolidation, and strengths. Descriptive and logistical regression was used to analyze data.
A total of 122 of 165 nurses (response rate = 74%) completed the survey. Of these nurses, 87% were Registered Nurses, 43% had ≥10 years' experience in palliative care, and 40% had palliative care training. The majority of practices across the standards and screening and assessment tools were rated as knowledge strengths (N = 55/67, 82%). Gaps and areas of consolidation were in the use of client and carer assessment tools, the care of specific populations such as children, supporting carers with appropriate referrals, resources, and grief, and facilitating the processes of reporting a death to the coroner. Lack of formal training and lower years of experience were found to be associated with practice gaps.
Significance of results
Our study found rural nurses were confident in their knowledge and skills in the majority of psychosocial care. As generalist nurses make up the majority of the rural nursing workforce, further research should be undertaken on what educational strategies are needed to support and upskill rural community-based nurses to undertake formal training in palliative care.
Religion is for Hegel the language of a community about itself. Its practices and beliefs reflect the sense of self-identity that animates the community’s members, and, since that identity is a product of reason, they also reflect the level of explicit rationality the community has achieved. Religion, however, is not the same as rational knowledge. Evil, for Hegel, is not a cosmic event as it is for Schelling but a historical and eminently individual act – in effect, the product of reason doing violence to nature. Religion’s specific function is thus one of reconciliation, a function that assumes different forms depending on historical circumstances and the advent of self-aware rationality. Nonetheless, reconciling cannot be the same as understanding reconciliation. Chapter 6 contrasts religion in Fichte, Schelling, and Hegel. It returns to the theme of feeling of Chapter 1, for feeling is an experience of identity. It also examines Hegel’s interpretation of the Christian story of incarnation and redemption as an imaginative portrayal of incarnate rationality. It then again returns to Chapter 1 by interpreting Hegel’s Logic, the science of this rationality, as an extension of Kant’s doctrine of the categories but without the classical metaphysical presuppositions still encumbering that latter.
Indigenous cultures of North America confronted a problem of knowledge different from that of canonical European philosophy. The European problem is to identify and overcome obstacles to the perfection of knowledge as science, while the Indigenous problem is to conserve a legacy of practice fused with a territory. Complicating the difference is that one of these traditions violently colonized the other, and with colonization the Indigenous problem changes. The old problem of inter-generational stability cannot be separated from the post-colonial problem of sovereignty in the land where the knowledge makes sense. I differentiate the question of the value of knowledge (Part 1), and its content (Part 2). The qualities these epistemologies favor define what I call ceremonial knowledge, that is, knowledge that sustains a ceremonial community. The question of content considers the interdisciplinary research of Indigenous and Traditional Ecological Knowledge, as well as the issue of epistemic decolonization.
When contemporary philosophers discuss the nature of knowledge, or conduct debates that the nature of knowledge is relevant to, they typically treat all knowledge as propositional. However, recent introductory epistemology texts and encyclopedia entries often mention three kinds of knowledge: (i) propositional knowledge, (ii) abilities knowledge, and (iii) knowledge of things/by acquaintance. This incongruity is striking for a number of reasons, one of which is that what kinds of knowledge there are is relevant to various debates in philosophy. In this paper I focus on this point as it relates to the third kind of knowledge mentioned above – knowledge of things. I start by supposing that we have knowledge of things, and then I show how this supposition reshapes various debates in philosophy.