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Tone in Chinese languages is distinct in two aspects: (i) the complexity in the tonal make-up and (ii) widespread sandhi. The former is often attributed to underlying complexity in tonal inventories and the latter to triggers immediately adjacent to the sandhi site. Morphosyntax, though highly relevant, is often left unarticulated in the description of tonal inventories and processes. This chapter unravels four major aspects in which morphosyntax condition tonal processes (a) the licensing and/or generation of tonal contours, (b) the neutralization of tone, (c) the triggering and blocking of sandhi; and (d) the impact on tonal prosody. While phonological patterns in other languages are sensitive to the word- and post-lexical levels divide, it is the structural constituency that is often more relevant than syntactic category in Chinese tonal processes. Lest one overstates the power of morphosyntax, note also that morphosyntactic conditioning of tonal processes is likely mediated through alignment and interface with prosody structure. Thus morphosyntax plays not a deterministic role, but a substantially contributive one in the intricacies of tonal processes in Chinese.
Phonology/phonetics and morphology interact in such a way as to render difficult any clear-cut dividing line between these subfields. Romanists have long observed that phonetics play a crucial role in language change. From this point of view there is nothing exceptional in the fact that phonetics/phonology may provide the system with the very substance of morphological oppositions. The number and the extension of the morphological processes amenable to phonetic principles in the Romance domain are so wide that only a few typical phenomena are treated in this chapter. Furthermore, it is not always evident how one can establish the extent to which a given morphological alternation is phonologically driven, whether we are dealing with a purely phonological phenomenon or whether we should recognize some lexical conditioning in the choice of the allomorphs. The examples discussed (allomorphy in the definite article, subject clitics and affixes, possessives, and the nominal, verbal, and adjectival stems) show that the phonetic impulse for a morphological alternation may no longer be transparent ; in other cases, the trigger of a given pattern is no longer available or can only be identified following a process of diachronic reconstruction.
This chapter builds the general theory of the UG–iconicity interface, which consists of two general principles, with the Functional Iconicity Complementation Hypothesis (FICH) defining when the interaction is activated, and the Uniform Structure Mapping Principle (USM), how this interaction is carried out. In general, if a functional void of UG prevents a semantic/conceptual relation from mapping to a structural relation properly and thus halts an otherwise well-formed process of clause-generation, iconicity is called in to help finish the task. Intricate interactions between UG and iconicity may happen under the regulation of the USM so that the solution remains UG-compliant (and therefore has a proper interpretation). The scarce literature on the UG–iconicity relation is reviewed to provide the context in which the interface theory in this book is positioned and evaluated. The specific theory of the UG–iconicity interface is also compared with familiar examples in biology for further validation.
The phonetics/phonology interface refers to the relationship between the physical dimensions of phonetics and the abstract arrangement of phonemes and their manifestations within the phonological systems of languages. This chapter provides an overview of a range of approaches to the investigation of the phonetics/phonology interface, with particular attention to the relationships between phonetic factors such as positional prominence, acoustic salience and articulatory gestures, and phonological phenomena such as segment features and inventories, assimilation, and tone. I survey several clusters of theoretical orientation, each with distinct theoretical underpinnings and claims about the extent to which phonological concepts encode, reflect or direct phonetic details. I conclude with a discussion synthesising these seemingly disparate approaches, unifying them around a theme of linking the continuous physical dimensions of phonetic science with the abstract cognitive categories and rules of combination that typify phonological models. I discuss pedagogical implications and new directions in which facets of the interface can be explored.
The presented research focused on the microstructural characteristics of explosively welded three-layered Ti Grade (Gr) 1/Alloy 400/1.4462 steel clads before and after heat treatment being of large practical potential. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analyses have shown that both interfaces formed between the plates are continuous and without defects. The in-depth examination was dedicated to the upper Ti Gr 1/Alloy 400 interface, located closer to the explosive material, therefore, subjected to more extreme welding conditions. The presence of cubic phase Ti2Ni, hexagonal phase Ni3Ti, and tetragonal phase (CuxNi1−x)2Ti were confirmed within the melted zones, which slightly widened due to annealing, being an essential step in the manufacturing of these modern materials. Transmission electron microscopy observations in the nano scale confirmed the preliminary chemical composition analyses collected with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy in SEM. They additionally revealed the interface zone microstructure transformation due to the annealing. It was evidenced that initially mixed phases in the form of grains, after heat treatment formed irregular bands arranged in the following sequence: Alloy 400/Ni3Ti/(CuxNi1−x)2Ti/Ti2Ni/Ti Gr 1. A clear segregation of Cu and Ni forming two separate layers was also noticed. These diffusion phenomena may influence the strength of the final product, therefore need further studies regarding the prolonged annealing state.
Chapter 7 concludes this book by summarizing its content and highlighting how the so-called “creole-like” features detected for the AHLAs can be better explained in terms of interface-constrained advanced SLA processes, which were subsequently nativized and conventionalized by following generations of speakers. Likewise, this chapter stresses the importance of these Afro-Hispanic vernaculars to linguistic theory by showing how these contact varieties can offer both a window into possible L2 instantiations of UG as well as an ideal testing ground for formal hypotheses (Sessarego 2014a), which have primarily been built on standardized language data.
During an out-of-hours shift, the initial assessment of a CAMHS patient is performed by the paediatric trainee, usually the paediatric SHO (senior-house-officer). During my placement as a paediatric SHO, I was aware of a gap in formalised metal state examination teaching for paediatric juniors, which would be crucial for a thorough assessment of these patients, and to better guarantee they are safely managed until further assessment.
The aim is to provide a short teaching session on mental state examining of the CAMHS patent to paediatric SHOs in order to improve their confidence in assessment.
In order to assess initial confidence in assessing the mental-state of a CAMHS patient, a pre-teaching questionnaire was given to the paediatric SHOs. A 30-minute teaching session on the mental state exam was then carried out and a post-teaching questionnaire was then given to the same trainees.
Paired sample Wilcoxons signed rank test found that training significant improved trainees’ confidence in taking a psychiatric mental state exam (p= 0.005, r = 0.628), and improved their confidence in presenting a mental state exam (p = 0.0041, r = 0.6420).
Being able to confidently assess the mental state of a CAMHS patient in an on call shift is important for the initial assessing paediatric trainee. However this is often not taught in the paediatric curriculum and trainees have expressed some anxiety in performing this assessment overnight, before a more comprehensive assessment by a CAMHS professional. A simple teaching session may help to reduce this anxiety and improve trainees’ confidence.
The final chapter explores the relationship between the work of art and its diverse spectators by developing the idea of the ‘multi-layered interface’. I argue that this work engages spectators in ways that move beyond previous theory and practice examining images of the body. I focus on performance in photography and video, exhibited in galleries or disseminated online. This art negotiates a way between a complex web of icons, from Samuel Aranda’s photograph of a fully veiled Yemeni woman holding her injured son, to the controversial naked selfies posted on social media by certain women from Tunisia and Egypt in 2011. Lalla Essaydi and Majida Khattari develop a complex interface through Arabic writing, photography and a range of French, other European, or Arabic and Persian imagery, in interaction with the performing body. New means of concealing and revealing the body evoke the revolutions in Tunisia, Libya or Syria in photographic work by Mouna Karray and videos by Naziha Arebi and Philip Horani. Online videos of street art and dance (by Ahl Al Kahf, El Seed, JR and Art Solution) at public sites in Tunisia interpolate their diverse audience in comparable ways, while extending the work in time and space.
Chapter 3 argues that while globalised liberal citizenship norms—including universalised notions of citizenship as a human right—generated a politics of inclusion thus boosting dual citizenship advocacy for Liberia, the transmission in Africa of transnational belonging—dual citizenship diffusion in the continent—has had varied outcomes for the country. It also reveals that the bundle of visceral responses to dual citizenship as a proposed development intervention in Liberia signifies an interface wherein actors negotiate the discontinuities and continuities in their lived experiences of being Liberian, with homeland actors particularly resistant. Viewed as both promise and peril for diasporic and domestic actors, respectively, dual citizenship represents an instrumental tug-of-war in which homelanders prefer to protect their privileges while transnationals wish to expand their rights.
Divided into three parts, Chapter 1 outlines the rationale for selecting respondents—homeland Liberians, permanent and circular returnees, diasporas—with an overview of their demographic profiles; the conceptual framework, actor-oriented analysis, which considers myriad responses to development interventions based on actors’ disparate life-worlds (lived experiences), social locations (socio-economic positions), and levels of agency (capacity to act); as well as deep thinking about the author’s positionality. The methodological, theoretical, and biographical reflections in this chapter are intended to contextualise how the author came to understand Liberia’s political economy of belonging and its relationship to contestations over dual citizenship.
Chapter 1 demonstrates why it was essential to converse with Liberian actors inhabiting different locales in three continents. It shows, for example, that diasporas disclose through their identities, practices, and relationships that citizenship can be simultaneously passive, active, and interactive. They also both challenge and substantiate certain theoretical approaches including conceptualisations of diasporic influences on homeland foreign policy and, by the author’s extension, homeland domestic policy. Reflecting on her positionality as a Liberian researcher who has occupied multiple spaces and places, the author evaluates her own biases as someone who made a conscious choice not to naturalise abroad and how this decision influences her analysis of Liberian citizenship construction and practice.
Intermetallic γ-TiAl-based alloys are commonly used as structural materials for components in high-temperature applications, although they generally suffer from a lack of ductility and crack resistance at ambient temperatures. Within this study, the process-adapted 4th generation TNM+ alloy, exhibiting a fully lamellar microstructure, was examined using notched micro-cantilevers with defined orientations of lamellar interfaces. These configurations were tested in situ using superimposed continuous stiffness measurement methods during loading with simultaneous scanning electron microscopy observations. Subsequently, the video signal was used for visual crack length determination by computer vision and compared to values calculated from in situ changes in stiffness data. Applying this combinatorial approach enabled to determine the J-integral as a measure of the fracture toughness for microstructurally different local crack propagation paths. Thus, distinct differences in conditional fracture toughness could be determined from 3.7 MPa m1/2 for γ/γ-interface to 4.4 MPa m1/2 for α2/γ-interface.
Nanocrystalline metals possess high strength and outstanding resistance to irradiation damage. However, the high-density grain boundaries in nanocrystalline metals lead to low plasticity and poor thermal stability. In recent years, interface engineering has gradually become an important way to improve the comprehensive properties of nanocrystalline metals. In this paper, the interface structure, deformation mechanism, and physical properties of Cu–Nb nanolayered composites fabricated by physical vapor deposition and accumulative roll bonding are reviewed. Both Cu–Nb nanolayered composites possess semi-coherent interfaces. The nanolayered composites could achieve excellent resistance to irradiation damage since the interfaces are good sinks for the irradiation point defects. In addition, nanolayered metallic composites with abundant heterogeneous interfaces have better thermal stability compared to nanocrystalline metallic materials. Moreover, the interactions between dislocations and interfaces can be adjusted effectively through controlling the atomistic interface structure and alignment of slip systems across the interface, so as to achieve high strength and high plastic deformation ability simultaneously.
Lead-free perovskite layers may provide a good alternative to the commonly used lead-halide-based perovskite absorber layers in photovoltaics. Energy level alignment of the active semiconductor with contact layers is a key factor in device performance. Kelvin probe force microscopy was used during vapor deposition of C60 onto formamidinium tin iodide to investigate contact formation with detailed local resolution of these materials that are significant for photovoltaic cells. Significant differences dependent on the growth rate of C60 were detected. Sufficiently high deposition rates were essential to reach compact C60 films needed for good contact. A space charge layer larger than 90 nm within the C60 layer was established without indication of interfacial dipoles. The present analysis gives a clear indication of a well-functioning contact of fullerenes to formamidinium tin iodide that is suitable for the use in photovoltaic devices provided that thin compact fullerene films are formed.
A novel g-C3N4 nanoparticle@porous g-C3N4 (CNNP@PCN) composite has been successfully fabricated by loading g-C3N4 nanoparticles on the porous g-C3N4 matrix via a simply electrostatic self-assembly method. The composition, morphological structure, optical property, and photocatalytic performance of the composite were evaluated by various measurements, including XRD, SEM, TEM, Zeta potential, DRS, PL, FTIR, and XPS. The results prove that the nanolization of g-C3N4 leads to an apparent blueshift of the absorption edge, and the energy band gap is increased from 2.84 eV of porous g-C3N4 to 3.40 eV of g-C3N4 nanoparticle (Fig. 6). Moreover, the valence band position of the g-C3N4 nanoparticle is about 0.7 eV lower than that of porous g-C3N4. Therefore, the photo-generated holes and electrons in porous g-C3N4 can transfer to the conduction band of g-C3N4 nanoparticle, thereby obtaining higher separation efficiency of photo-generated carriers as well as longer carrier lifetime. Under visible-light irradiation, 6CNNP@PCN exhibits the highest photocatalytic performance (Fig. 8) on MB, which is approximately 3.4 times as that of bulk g-C3N4.
The effect of the combined chemical treatment of sisal fibres through the subsequent processes of mercerisation (alkali-treatment), then silane treatment and eventually acid hydrolysis, on sisal fibre were investigated. The effect of the treated fibres on the tensile strength and stiffness, flexural strength and stiffness, compression strength and shear strength of their composites with epoxy resin were also studied. Scanning electron microscopy studies of the surfaces of the treated and untreated fibres showed that the chemical treatment processes enhanced the removal of surface extractives and therefore increased the roughness of the surfaces of the fibres in the range of 20 % - 70 %. This avails an increased reinforcement surface area for interlocking with matrix and is, therefore, expected to enhance adhesion of the two. The treated fibre reinforced composites were observed to have higher values of tensile strength and stiffness, flexural strength and stiffness, compression strength and shear strength than the un-treated fibre reinforced composites. These higher values were attributed to better interfacial bonding due to better mechanical interlocking between the treated fibres and epoxy resin arising from the increased roughness of the treated fibres.
We report a novel strategy to render stainless steel (SS) a more versatile material that is suitable to be used as the substrate for preparing electrodes for efficient hydrogen evolution by interface engineering. Our strategy involves the growth of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) by atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition (APCVD) as the interface material on the surface of SS. We optimized the procedure to prepare CNTs/SS and demonstrate a higher activity of the CNTs/SS prepared at 700 °C for the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) when compared to samples prepared at other temperatures. This can be attributed to the higher number of defects and the higher content of pyrrolic N obtained at this temperature. Our strategy offers a new approach to employ SS as a substrate for the preparation of highly efficient electrodes and has the potential to be widely used in electrochemistry.
Residual stress can considerably weaken systems with ceramics-to-metal joints. Herein, we investigate the dependence of bonding strength and residual stress variation of a ceramics-to-metal joint system on the interface wedge angle and bonding temperature condition. First, disparity between large-scale displacement models with varying work-hardening parameters was confirmed using thermal elastoplastic Finite Element Method (FEM) analysis. Each interface wedge shape was set to a plane surface to compare FEM results to experimental results related to the effect of the interface wedge angle on the practical bonding strength. The experimental results were specifically for a system consisting of Si3N4-WC/TiC/TaC bonded to Ni plate. The effects of the wedge angle of the metal side on residual stress near the interface edge were numerically predicted using FEM models. The interface wedge angles for this model, φ1 and φ2, were defined using the configuration angle between the interface and free surfaces of both materials. The numerical results showed that the stress σr on the free surface of the ceramic side was concentrated near the interface edge at which discontinuity in the stress state is generated. Dependence of the residual stress variation on both the wedge angle and temperature conditions can be predicted. It was confirmed that the bonding strength improves with decreasing residual stress in geometrical conditions. Therefore, residual stress appears to be a predominant factor affecting bonding strength. The observed fracture pattern showed that the fracture originated near the interface edges, after which small cracks propagated on the ceramic side. The residual stress is presumed to dominate bonding strength as the fracture occurred near the interface edge of the ceramic side. Results showed that the maximum bonding strength appears at the geometrical condition where the fracture pattern changes to φ2 lower than 90° of joint bonded at 980 °C. Therefore, the optimum interface wedge angle depends on a combination of materials and bonding temperature conditions, because the weak point of the bonded joint system will affect the stiffness balance of both materials and the adhesion power of the bonded interface.
Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) is a primary sensor for autonomous vehicles to recognize surroundings. It detects near-infrared (NIR) light pulses, typically at 905nm, which is emitted and reflected by surrounding objects. Here, the fact of the matter is that conventional black or dark-tone cars with extremely low NIR reflection are hard to be detected by LiDAR and endanger the future highway. In this work, we propose to use platelet-shaped effect pigments with visible absorption and NIR reflectivity. Copper(Ⅱ) oxide and Silicon dioxide multilayer are theoretically investigated with different numbers of layers and thicknesses. The optimized structures appear various dark-tone colors with high NIR-reflectivity over 90%.
Chitosan has attracted significant attention in the past decade because of its potential applications in water engineering, the food and nutrition technology, the textile and paper industries, and drug delivery. Recently, a particularly interesting application of chitosan has been proposed in transparent flexible electronic devices, including memristors and transistors. In this work, the resistive switching (RS) effect of chitosan thin films in a capacitor-like structure with Ag and Al as alternative top electrodes was studied. Both the devices showed a bistable RS effect under an external electric field with a high endurance of 102. The electrical conduction and RS mechanisms of chitosan-based devices were investigated. The trap-controlled space charge–limited current was responsible for electrical transport at the low-resistance state of both devices, while direct tunneling and Schottky emission at the high-resistance state were related to Ag/chitosan/fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) and Al/chitosan/FTO, respectively. The RS mechanism of the Ag/chitosan/FTO device was attributed to the formation and dissociation of Ag filaments through the dielectric layer, whereas the change in the barrier height at the Al and chitosan interface under an external electric field could control the RS mechanism of the Al/chitosan/FTO device.