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Cities are responsible for over 70% of global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from energy use. Building and upgrading city infrastructure in developing countries could release 226 gigatonnes of carbon dioxide by 2050, if these cities obtain levels of infrastructure in developed countries today. Urban GHG emissions vary across economies, geography, wealth and urban form. The largest direct and indirect GHG emission sources are buildings, industry and transport. Urban climate change impacts of heat, sea-level rise, extreme weather, and water scarcity will exacerbate extant stressors in developing countries. Mitigation and adaptation measures interact, sometimes with unintended consequences. Systems approaches, integrated planning and strategy that recognises synergies and conflicts, are crucial to optimal outcomes. The city scale is good for innovation, aligned with national governance, for effective climate action. Many cities are committed to 100% renewable energy and net zero emissions by 2030. Key enablers are: a shared city region vision; effective stakeholder engagement; relevant, credible, accessible knowledge for decision-making; and aligned institutional arrangements.
A value reinforcement hypothesis expects that governance structures reinforce the values of the representative governments they serve. If a political system embraces pluralism and collective rationality as process values, its governance structures will enhance those process beliefs. If a government faces strong electoral accountability, its governance structures will emphasize accountability values, making identifiable managers likely to face sanctions for their performance. Correlations such as these would be observed if the hypothesis has potential for guiding a positive research agenda. The value reinforcement hypothesis has both institutional and behavioral mechanisms behind it.
Summarizes the arguments of the book, explains why other attempts to reduce incarceration have failed, and calls for a fair test of the proposition that presumptively applied risk algorithms can fairly lead to significant reductions in incarceration rates
The literature on design distinguishes between exploration-based experimentation and validation-based experimentation. This typology relies on an assumption that exploration and validation cannot and should not be performed simultaneously in the same experimentation. By contrast, some practitioners, such as les Sismo, propose that proof of concept might combine these two logics. This raises the question of what design logic might enable this type of combination of exploration and validation. We first use design theory to build an experimentation design framework. This framework highlights a typology of proof logics in experimentation related to proof of the known and proof of the unknown. Second, we show that these proof models are supported by les Sismo's cases and describe a diversity of arrangements of exploration and validation mechanisms: sequential, parallel, and combinational. Through the formalisation of proof of concept as a double proof (proof of the known and proof of the unknown), we show that proof of concept can be more than a tool for the go/no-go decision by gradually validating propositions, questioning the relevance of propositions, and discovering new propositions to be investigated and tested.
“Art is in the eye of the beholder.” Yet, although still photographic images predated moving cinematic images, it took longer for photography to attain widespread artistic and creative appreciation. “Art for the sake of art” assumes that art has no practical purpose. Indeed, some have claimed that “everything useful is ugly.” Perhaps that’s why commercial photography initially overshadowed artistic or creative photography. Famed photographer Ansel Adams succeeded in both worlds: the commercial and artistic. What explains his success? How did he ever take up photography in the first place? How did Adams’ personal development coincide with the evolution of photography as an art form? How and why did Adams embrace environmentalism? And, how did his landscape photography advance the environmental movement in the United States? Answering these questions goes to the very essence of the creative arts and how art conveys meaning to those who behold it.
For millions of people, normal eating is impossible, including persons with chronic bowel disorders, individuals suffering from extensive burns, and patients recovering from major surgery. Not only adults but also newborns and young children are vulnerable. Stanley Dudrick was not the first surgeon to confront this grave reality, but he was the first to devise a highly effective method to feed those who would otherwise succumb from undernourishment. The method is known as Total Parenteral Nutrition. It involves injecting liquid food directly into the bloodstream by a tube connected to a vein, thus bypassing the stomach and small intestine. In the 1960s, medical professionals claimed that feeding a patient entirely by vein was impossible; even if possible, it would be impractical; and even if practical, it would be unaffordable. Through tenacious experimental research, Dudrick proved them wrong, in the process giving life and hope to many who would otherwise have perished.
Since its promotion in 1974, the Heimlich Maneuver has been an invaluable first-aid procedure, which is believed to have saved the lives of countless thousands of choking victims. Henry Heimlich’s life story is one motivated by saving people from unnecessary death and injury. His painstaking development of the abdominal thrust technique is an arresting tale in and of itself. But, so too were his determined efforts to popularize the method in order that ordinary citizens too could become lifesaving heroes. Nevertheless, suffocation by ingestion or inhalation remains the fourth most common cause of preventable death in the United States, requiring that the general public be simply and properly taught on a continuing basis how to administer this vital technique.
In Culture and Imperialism (1993) Edward W. Said argues that “the most prominent characteristics of modernist culture, which we have tended to derive from purely internal dynamics in Western society, include a response to external pressures on culture from the imperium.” This chapter explores ways in which modernism is a literary historical development of significance for Asian American literature, and vice versa. As Said notes, it may have once seemed a coincidence that the onset of Western modernism was roughly in parallel with the delegitimation of its colonialism, but the case for connections may be hard to dismiss. Asian American literature, then, can be a crucial site for grasping how modernism and decolonization converged and were correlated. And a key way that that correlated convergence becomes evident is through acts of historical recovery, both of texts and within texts.
In the context of earth system governance today, experimentation is no longer merely a virtue but a basic survival skill. Administrative professionals – understood to include administrators national, international, and subnational, both governmental and nongovernmental, across the entire range of policy arenas – are in a position to engage in this best practice for learning from experience, perhaps to a greater degree than any other agents of governance. Protected by both their relative anonymity and their institutional affiliations, they enjoy the dual benefits of relative invisibility and administrative discretion. Administrative professionals can experiment with social and political arrangements that are not only adaptive but are also democratic and effective in reconciling humans to their environment. The volatility of their environments has meant that they face devolved responsibility in governance for both acquiring resources and achieving results. Administrative professionals succeed by being scavengers par excellence, such that approaches that work well anywhere are destined eventually to be tried everywhere.
When assessing epistemic justification in the biblical narratives, we must consider how much the author reveals about justification in the text itself, and, only then, what types of justification appear to be employed by the characters. There are at least three possible type-scenes used across these texts to justify a conclusion: tests, ouija, and witnesses.In this chapter, I review the twentieth-century discussions of logical necessity and justification and how the biblical authors employ means of justification similar, but not identical, to scientific inquiry.
This Element presents a philosophical exploration of the concept of the 'model organism' in contemporary biology. Thinking about model organisms enables us to examine how living organisms have been brought into the laboratory and used to gain a better understanding of biology, and to explore the research practices, commitments, and norms underlying this understanding. We contend that model organisms are key components of a distinctive way of doing research. We focus on what makes model organisms an important type of model, and how the use of these models has shaped biological knowledge, including how model organisms represent, how they are used as tools for intervention, and how the representational commitments linked to their use as models affect the research practices associated with them.
This essay looks at the innovations in poetry and poetry publishing from 2001 to 2018, with a particular emphasis on the emerging generation of Indigenous poets like Sherwin Bitsui, Orlando White, Natalie Diaz, and Layli Long Soldier. While paying close attention to the themes and motifs that have been of interest to Native writers, this essay foregrounds innovations in poetic form, including erasures and strikethroughs, complicated syntax, and typographical experimentation. A good deal of recent Native poetry takes on English and its rules and structures as a tool of colonization, repression, identification, and misinformation, and in so doing, seeks to remake English so that it might be viewed through an Indigenous lens.
Electric vehicles are playing an increasingly important role in the agricultural sector. The selection of tyres for reducing energy loss due to rolling resistance is an important consideration in determining the viability of these vehicles. To date little is known about rolling resistance of small all-terrain vehicles. In this study a test rig was used to collect rolling resistance data for seven ATV tyres. The study verifies the relationship between normal load and rolling resistance and gives insight into some of the important considerations when selecting tyres for small off road vehicles.
This work features challenges of using integrated reflections in undergraduate Industrial Design and Engineering. Reflection activities can be challenging for the students and hard to implement in design and engineering classes. This report has two goals. The first is to introduce a process for more successful engagement for the students in problem solving and design. The second is to show that the process has validity and usefulness for Industrial Design students who are in a College of Design.
The world of Salman Rushdie’s 1981 novel Midnight’s Children is often cited as exemplary of a new wave of experimentation in British writing, a tradition drawing, as some have argued, from world-famous figures like the Columbian Gabriel Garcia Marquez, or earlier mentors such as the philosopher-turned-novelist and dramatist G. V. Desani. Rushdie’s so-called reinvention of ‘magical realism’ has often been said to have sparked the publication of a series of similarly hyper-realist and expansive novels by other subcontinental and British Asian writers. However, as Rushdie himself has noted, Midnight’s Children was not surrealistic but ‘realist’ and drew on the jangling contradictions of the India he grew up in. This chapter examines how a number of others, such as Ben Okri (The Famished Road), Pauline Melville (The Migration of Ghosts), Ravinder Randhawa (A Wicked Old Woman), and Helen Oyeyemi (The Icarus Girl) embrace ‘alternative’ versions of ‘reality’ and create differently constituted physical and cultural worlds.
The sixth chapter, “Gray Modernism,” argues that modernist experimentation with narrative form draws theoretical and disciplinary inspiration from the invention of gerontology and geriatrics as a science. During the twentieth century, aging becomes the subject of clinical interest, a temporal pathology detachable from the body it affects. Similarly, for modernist novels like Virginia Woolf’s Orlando, duration becomes separable from the highly charged aesthetic moments it contains. Though Orlando lives through many centuries, she does not grow old; instead, her greatest transformation occurs when her gender instantaneously switches from male to female. The novel creates a divide between the systems of duration and aging on the one hand, and the momentariness and constructedness of identity on the other. By breaking with the conventions that link duration and objective, shared time, Woolf situates aging in an ironic temporality that disrupts the forward press of years.
This chapter discusses the accretion of an extraordinary amount of criticism and commentary on Whitman over the past 150 years. It studies one as-yet underexplored area of his writing: his old-age poetry. This poetry was added to Leaves of Grass in Whitman’s last years in what he called “annexes.” Whitman’s experimental inclinations remained intense in these often-overlooked poems, as he invented new techniques involving open enjambment, transegmental drift, and pronoun disappearance, creating a poetry unlike most of his earlier work: shorter, less accepting of death, and yet still affirmative of many of the basic ideas he had developed from the 1855 Leaves on. These late poems introduced some formal qualities that we now associate much more with modernist and postmodern poets, and they also can be read as some of the most honest and powerful confrontations with old age and a decaying body that any poet has produced.
This chapter is an overview of experimentation and explains why experiments are important. The role of the laboratory notebook for keeping a faithful record of work is emphasised. Guidelines are given for keeping a laboratory notebook. Examples pages from the author's own notebook are included.
Responding to the developments of the past twenty years, Les Kirkup has thoroughly updated his popular book on experimental methods, while retaining the extensive coverage and practical advice from the first edition. Many topics from that edition remain, including keeping a record of work, how to deal with measurement uncertainties, understanding the statistical basis of data analysis and reporting the results of experiments. However, with new technologies influencing how experiments are devised, carried out, analyzed, presented and reported, this new edition reflects the digital changes which have taken place and the increased emphasis on the importance of communication skills in reporting results. Bringing together key elements of experimental methods into one coherent book, it is perfect for students seeking guidance with their experimental work, including how to acquire, analyse and present data. Exercises, worked examples and end-of-chapter problems are provided throughout the book to reinforce fundamental principles.