To save content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about saving content to .
To save content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about saving to your Kindle.
Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Three factors also related to impacts on wildlife are climate change, disease and disturbance. The UK has warmed significantly in recent decades, particularly in winter. This is having two main consequences for wildlife. Many plants and animals that reproduce in spring are doing so ever earlier. This phenological change has the potential to disturb food webs, although this does not yet seem to have happened to any significant extent. However, a second consequence, changes in species distributions, has certainly occurred. Many plants and animals have expanded northwards in Britain, and some newcomers have arrived from mainland Europe. On the downside, high alpine plants have declined and some seabirds have suffered from warming-related faunal changes in surrounding seas. Disease is a second factor that has caused some major species declines, including viral infections of rabbits and amphibians, as well as fungal mortality in trees. Finally, excessive disturbance by human footfall has generated environmental damage and at least local declines of sensitive species. This factor clearly relates to human numbers, but climate change is also influenced by the number of people on the planet as a whole.
Late blight, caused by the oomycete Phytophthora infestans, poses a significant challenge to organic tomato and potato production systems across the globe. To enhance education and outreach programming pertaining to tomato organic late blight management in Wisconsin, we sought to identify grower strategies and needs through an online survey conducted during spring 2018. Our findings demonstrated that organic growers emphasized crop diversity, crop rotation and soil health in their late blight management decisions. Grower concerns about biopesticides were identified and suggest that the use of input-based products within integrated management programs could be enhanced by further research on effectiveness and modes of actions. Additionally, stronger emphasis on oomycete pathogen biology and the significance of late blight as a community disease were identified as important areas of emphasis in the development of organic disease management education programming and resources that promote more effective cultural and chemical disease management strategies that adhere to the regulation and principles underlying the USDA National Organic Program. The integration of a live polling questionnaire conducted in winter 2019 allowed us to corroborate findings from the online survey and underscored the importance of two-way learning to enhance outreach efforts between Extension and organic growers in Wisconsin and the surrounding upper Midwestern states.
Chapter 7 provides a comprehensive study of the legal and illegal trade in wildlife and the resulting consequences, namely pandemics such as COVID-19. At no time in recent history have we seen the effect of our use and abuse of wildlife in such a direct, immediate, and catastrophic way as we have with COVID-19. In reality, a pandemic such as this could have originated anywhere in the world because governance at global and local levels does not adequately respond to the vulnerability that humanity shares with the environment. Also, the use and abuse of wildlife is a worldwide phenomenon. Specifically, and despite the Chinese origins of the pandemic, international and domestic wildlife and environmental laws continue to allow for the same exploitation that resulted in the initial disease transmission. This chapter analyses this proposition from an eco-vulnerability point of view with emphasis on gaps in international wildlife governance and missing institutional collaboration opportunities. It considers the larger failings of environmental governance considering this pandemic and suggests ways of moving forward.
Based on probability theory, a methodology that allows diagnosing neonatal cardiac dynamics was previously developed; however, diagnostic applications of this method are required to validate it to the neonatal cardiac dynamics was conducted, allowing to differentiate normal from pathological dynamics. The hourly maximum and minimum heart rate values from 39 continuous and ambulatory electrocardiographic records with a minimum length of 21 hours were taken, from newborns between 0 and 10 days of life, 9 clinically within normality limits and 30 with cardiac pathologies. The probability of occurrence of heart rates in ranges of 5 beats/minute was calculated. The distributions of probability were analysed, and finally the diagnosis was determined by the physical-mathematical methodology. Then, a statistical validation of sensitivity, specificity, and diagnostic agreement was performed. Normal registries showed probability distributions with absent or minimal presence of heart rates of the ranges between 125 and 135 beats/minute, while the abnormal ones had values within these ranges, as well as absence or minimal presence of heart rates from 75 beats/minute to 85 beats/minute. The sensitivity and specificity were 100%, and the Kappa coefficient had a value of 1. Hereby, it is concluded that through an application of a physical–mathematical methodology of neonatal cardiac diagnosis, it is possible to differentiate normality from disease.
The chapter explores the role of Italian opera in the Brazilian Amazon during the Belle Époque and its effects on national and transnational identities. It focuses on the region’s most famous opera house – the Teatro Amazonas – and on the successes and misfortunes of the travelling companies that performed there between 1897 and 1907. The chapter probes the extent to which the opera house was considered a means of engaging with a ‘global fantasy of civilisation’, foregrounding the effects that local tropical diseases had on opera production and on global perceptions of the region during a period of keen interest in its commercial exploration. The shift from the Italian to the French repertoire at the start of the twentieth century sheds new light on Amazonian understandings of different notions of italianità, of Europe and of civilisation.
Of the monkeys in Africa, the colobines comprise 19% of the 16 genera and 30% of the 79 species. They occur all across tropical African from sea level to 3,400 m above sea level, and where temperatures range from -7°C to 41°C and mean annual rainfall ranges from 50 cm to 1,100 cm. Ninety-six percent of the 24 species of Africa’s colobines are threatened with extinction, whereas 68% of the subspecies are threatened with extinction. Six of the species are ‘Critically Endangered’, including one that is probably already extinct. The two primary proximate threats to colobines in Africa are forest loss and hunting by humans, while the ultimate threat is humans and their widespread over-exploitation of natural resources. This chapter reviews the biological traits that make Africa’s colobines especially susceptible to extinction through forest loss and hunting, the threats they face, and the impacts of those threats. Predictions are presented concerning which species of African colobine will be among the first extinctions and where Africa’s colobines are expected to persist for at least the coming 30 years. Finally, this chapter presents an overview of the main conservation actions that Africa’s colobines require and gives priorities for research that will support their conservation.
Given the destruction that humans are bringing to the natural habitat of colobine monkeys, it is important to understand the factors affecting colobine population dynamics so that effective conservation programs can be planned and put into action. Here we consider the effects of food quality and availability, competition, predation, and disease in determining colobus abundance. We find there is little evidence that natural disasters, predation, or disease play a strong role in regulating colobine numbers, but they can cause dramatic declines in populations at specific points in time and space. Given the difficulty of determining niche overlap and competition, no conclusion can be made regarding the role of interspecific competition in limiting colobine abundance. It seems most likely that colobines are limited by the availability of quality food, but the exact nature of that limitation remains unclear.
In this book, Yitzhaq Feder presents a novel and compelling account of pollution in ancient Israel, from its emergence as an embodied concept, rooted in physiological experience, to its expression as a pervasive metaphor in social-moral discourse. Feder aims to bring the biblical and ancient Near Eastern evidence into a sustained conversation with anthropological and psychological research through comparison with notions of contagion in other ancient and modern cultural contexts. Showing how numerous interpretive difficulties are the result of imposing modern concepts on the ancient texts, he guides readers through wide-ranging parallels to biblical attitudes in ancient Near Eastern, ethnographic, and modern cultures. Feder demonstrates how contemporary evolutionary and psychological research can be applied to ancient textual evidence. He also suggests a path of synthesis that can move beyond the polarized positions which currently characterize modern academic and popular debates bearing on the roles of biology and culture in shaping human behavior.
This commentary highlighted the background, take-home messages, and impacts of our 2007 British Journal of Nutrition paper entitled “Amino acids and immune function”. In 2003–2004, there was an outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) caused by SARS coronavirus-1 (CoV-1) in Asian countries. By the mid-2000’s, clinical and experimental evidence indicated important roles for amino acids (AA) in improving innate and adaptive immunities in humans and animals. Based on our long-standing interest in AA metabolism and nutritional immunology, we decided to critically analyze advances in this nutritional field. Furthermore, we proposed a unified mechanism responsible for beneficial effects of AA and their products (including nitric oxide, glutathione, antibodies, and cytokines) on immune responses. We hoped that such integrated knowledge would be helpful for designing AA-based nutritional methods (e.g., supplementation with glutathione, arginine and glutamine) to prevent and treat SARS-like infectious diseases in the future. Our paper laid a framework for subsequent studies to quantify AA metabolism in intestinal bacteria, determine the effects of functional AA on cell-mediated and humoral immunities, and establish a much-needed database of AA composition in foodstuffs. Unexpectedly, COVID-19 (caused by SARS-CoV-2) emerged in December 2019 and has become one of the deadliest pandemics in history. Notably, glutathione, arginine and glutamine have now been exploited to effectively relieve severe respiratory symptoms of COVID-19 in affected patients. Functional AA (e.g., arginine, cysteine, glutamate, glutamine, glycine, taurine and tryptophan) and glutathione, which are all abundant in animal-sourced foodstuffs, are crucial for optimum immunity and health in humans and animals.
This chapter traces the evolution of the term ‘addiction’ over time, demonstrating how its meaning has altered in the face of social and political changes in society. The second half explores the story behind the diagnostic terminology used in clinical practice today, and describes the recent changes to the addiction section of the major classificatory systems. Addiction is conceptualised as a disorder involving a loss of the normal flexibility of human behaviour, leaving a dehumanised state of compulsive behaviour (‘overwhelming involvement’). It has acquired a variety of terminology over time, much of it inferring moral weakness. Addiction may be associated with psychoactive substances or other pleasurable behaviours and occurs on a spectrum of use and harms, which vary in severity. The term ‘dependence’ may refer to physiological aspects of addiction (tolerance or withdrawal), but is also used to define the severe end of the spectrum. Confusion around this terminology has led to it being removed from the latest version of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM-5).
Cognitive processes underlying verbal and design fluency, and their neural correlates in patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and behavioural variant Frontotemporal Dementia (bvFTD) remain unclear. We hypothesised that verbal and design fluency may be associated with distinct neuropsychological processes in AD and FTD, showing different patterns of impairment and neural basis.
We enrolled 142 participants including patients with AD (n = 80, mean age = 74.71), bvFTD (n = 34, mean age = 68.18), and healthy controls (HCs) (n = 28, mean age = 71.14), that underwent cognitive assessment and 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography imaging.
Semantic and phonemic fluency showed the largest effect sizes between groups, showing lower scores in bvFTD than AD and HCs, and lower scores in AD than HC. Both AD and bvFTD showed a lower number of unique designs in design fluency in comparison to HC. Semantic fluency was correlated with left frontotemporal lobe in AD, and with left frontal, caudate, and thalamus in bvFTD. Percentage of unique designs in design fluency was associated with the metabolism of the bilateral fronto-temporo-parietal cortex in AD, and the bilateral frontal cortex with right predominance in bvFTD. Repetitions in AD were correlated with bilateral frontal, temporal, and parietal lobes, and with left prefrontal cortex in bvFTD.
Our findings demonstrate differential underlying cognitive processes in verbal and design fluency in AD and bvFTD. While memory and executive functioning associated with fronto-temporo-parietal regions were key in AD, attention and executive functions correlated with the frontal cortex and played a more significant role in bvFTD during fluency tasks.
Foreseeable threats to life such as from accidents, disease, and natural disasters, demand both preventive and reparative action from the authorities, and such action must be of a minimum level of competence. The General Comment on the right to life issued by the African Commission on Human and Peoples’ Rights in 2015 stipulates that the African Charter demands that States act to protect life against threats from natural disasters, famines, and outbreaks of infectious diseases.
This chapter accepts that biomedicine is the dominant influence on our ideas about health and disease but considers what qualifications need to be introduced to do justice first to the more complicated issues to do with mental health and then to the very diverse conceptions that have been entertained in this area in non-Western societies, ancient and modern. Drawing on Hacking’s work on natural kinds and Luhrmann’s analysis of the uncertainties of modern psychiatry, it suggests further respects in which we need to exercise caution in assessing competing claims for expertise in this area.
The inspiration for this volume comes from the work of its dedicatee, Brent D. Shaw, who is one of the most original and wide-ranging historians of the ancient world of the last half-century and continues to open up exciting new fields for exploration. Each of the distinguished contributors has produced a cutting-edge exploration of a topic in the history and culture of the Roman Empire dealing with a subject on which Professor Shaw has contributed valuable work. Three major themes extend across the volume as a whole. First, the ways in which the Roman world represented an intricate web of connections even while many people's lives remained fragmented and local. Second, the ways in which the peculiar Roman space promoted religious competition in a sophisticated marketplace for practices and beliefs, with Christianity being a major benefactor. Finally, the varying forms of violence which were endemic within and between communities.
The morphological traits of alfalfa under acid soil conditions with different mobile aluminium (Al) concentrations were investigated. The study site was Vėžaičiai Branch of the Lithuanian Research Centre for Agriculture and Forestry, 55°70 N, 21°49 E. The experiment featuring the 30 most Al-tolerant alfalfa accessions (populations and cultivars), determined from laboratory trials was established on a Bathygleyic Dystric Retisol in 2018. In 2019 and 2020, the biological and morphological traits were evaluated: plant regrowth, plant height before flowering, wintering, leafiness, stem thickness, plant vigour, stem density, seed yield and resistance to spring black stem leaf spot. The resistance of alfalfa to mobile Al toxicity was determined using a filter-based screening method of selection cycles C1 and C2. The accessions grown in the soil with mobile Al (20.6–23.4 mg/kg) showed better tolerance to Al toxicity in the cycle C2. The hypocotyl tolerance index of these accessions was better at 8, 16, 32 and 64 mm AlCl3 concentrations in the cycle C2. The correlation analysis showed strong significant positive and negative relationships between the morphological traits. A cluster analysis showed that the accessions, grown in the soil with mobile Al (20.6–23.4 mg/kg) were the most resistant to Al toxicity in the cycle C2. These accessions produced a better seed yield and demonstrated lower values of morphological traits compared to cluster 2. Also, these accessions are considered as tolerant to mobile Al toxicity and might be used as donors in breeding for Al toxicity tolerance.
This essay surveys some of the most prominent metaphors used to characterize infectious diseases in eighteenth-century literature. These include military metaphors that portray the disease as the enemy; ‘othering’ metaphors that categorize infection as a foreign immigrant, import, or invader; and commercial metaphors that compare the circulation of a disease with the circulation of currency or commodities. Using Defoe’s Journal of the Plague Year as a test case, I demonstrate that multiple disease metaphors often operate within a single text, creating a more nuanced and complex portrait of infection than we might otherwise expect in this period. Ultimately, I argue that disease metaphors in eighteenth-century literature are almost always complicated and equivocal, with writers like Defoe drawing attention to the social and ethical meanings of an epidemic, and not just its terrifying destructive force.
Do pandemics have lasting consequences for political behavior? The authors address this question by examining the consequences of the deadliest pandemic of the last millennium: the Black Death (1347–1351). They claim that pandemics can influence politics in the long run if the loss of life is high enough to increase the price of labor relative to other factors of production. When this occurs, labor-repressive regimes, such as serfdom, become untenable, which ultimately leads to the development of proto-democratic institutions and associated political cultures that shape modalities of political engagement for generations. The authors test their theory by tracing the consequences of the Black Death in German-speaking Central Europe. They find that areas hit hardest by that pandemic were more likely to adopt inclusive political institutions and equitable land ownership patterns, to exhibit electoral behavior indicating independence from landed elite influence during the transition to mass politics, and to have significantly lower vote shares for Hitler’s National Socialist Party in the Weimar Republic’s fateful 1930 and July 1932 elections.
In 2020, we are facing unprecedented times, and as some form of lockdown continues with no signs of ending feelings of hopelessness are completely natural and understandable. Unprecedented times does not mean that these current issues and struggles have never been faced by humanity before, however. The Spanish Flu which took place after World War One and the Black Death that was rampant in Asia and Europe in the 14th century quickly come to mind as examples of past pandemics, but these are only two examples of devastating diseases throughout human history. The Plague of Athens that was raging during the beginning of the Peloponnesian War in 430 BCE is another such example. Though removed from our current situation by many centuries, its symptoms and the effects it had on the population of Athens have been meticulously recorded by the general and historian Thucydides, giving us the opportunity to compare his account to our own experiences today. The disease may be different, and the image he portrays may be more violent and desperate than our own, but nonetheless we can see similarities in how these two separate societies have reacted to unforeseen hardships. In this comparison, we can come to understand at once our own good fortune at going through a pandemic with the support of modern technology and medicine as well as how universal our reactions are to this type of suffering, thereby making it natural rather than shameful. Humanity has faced a great deal of diversity before, and COVID-19 will likely prove to be no different.
The Northern Territories Protectorate and its people were located on the economic and political margins of Britain's Gold Coast Crown Colony (now Ghana) throughout the colonial period. The article examines how the region's peripherality allowed the Gold Coast Tsetse Control Department to carry out an extensive campaign of bush clearing and resettlement along northern river valleys from the 1930s to 1950s, with little supervision by the Gold Coast Medical Department or northern officials. Intended to control human and animal sleeping sickness and to meet the economic preferences of the colony's central administration, this campaign had the effect of greatly increasing the exposure of northern communities to another disease, onchocerciasis, causing widespread blindness and contributing to a serious public health crisis in the early independence era.