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Inconsolable distress is neither a universal nor inevitable response to inability to have biological children. In Chapter 14, the author criticizes research with clinic samples that has produced a problem-saturated account of childlessness that obscures a wide range of alternative responses. The author examines the influence of pronatalist ideology on people who are impacted by infertility including many people with sex variations. Away from the treatment context, psychological input can guide individuals, couples and groups to explore personal meaning of nonparenthood. It can facilitate service users to grieve for what is not possible, challenge feelings of deviance and shame, reengage with a range of life goals and, perhaps most important of all, recast adult identities. Through the practice vignette built around a heterosexual couple, one of whom has a late diagnosis of Klinefelter syndrome, the author teases out the difficulties of working psychologically in a treatment context, where complex existential issues and relational dynamics are compressed into the frame of pressurized treatment decisions.
This chapter considers the more complicated process of becoming a parent when one or both parents is not genetically related to the child, and there is a third party (donor, relinquishing parent, or surrogate) involved. The chapter first sets out the key psychological and social challenges that are shared across all modes of non-biological parenthood, and then examines theory and research evidence on the transition to parenthood for heterosexual couples conceiving with donated sperm, eggs, or embryos, women who choose to embark on parenthood alone, with the assistance of a sperm donor, lesbian couples, gay couples, and those who adopt a child.
Parental reflective functioning (PRF) plays a protective role in the development of children with histories of early adversity, including adopted children. This is the first study to investigate the developmental trajectories of PRF and children’s socio-emotional problems in the first 4 years after international adoption (N = 48 families, mean age (T1) = 20.7 months) and to examine the mediating role of parenting stress in the relation between PRF and child socio-emotional problems. Multilevel modeling indicated that age at adoption and parent gender moderated the development of PRF and child socio-emotional problems. Moreover, decreases in PRF were associated with more socio-emotional problems in the children. These relations were mediated by parenting stress, and particularly feelings of incompetence and marital dissatisfaction.
Climate change and soil degradation are the issues depleting the soil's ability to promote good yield. One of the ways to combat this is the practice of conservation agriculture (CA). This study was carried out to explore and investigate the impact of CA. Multinomial endogenous switching regression model and cross-sectional data were used to investigate the determinants and the impact of the adoption of CA on the income of smallholder maize farmers in Mpumalanga Province, South Africa. Three categories of CA (minimum tillage, crop diversification and a combination of both minimum tillage and crop diversification) were considered. The empirical results revealed that regardless of the choices of CA practices adopted by the maize farmers, the income realized was higher for adopters than for non-adopters of CA practices. The average treatment effect for the adopters of both minimum tillage and crop diversification was the highest, showing an increase in income by 60.31% (R15575.99/$996.57USD) compared to the non-adopters. The policy implication for these results is that there is a need to promote the adoption of CA practices, particularly a combination of both minimum tillage and crop diversification, given their significant impact on farmer income, an important welfare outcome that has significant implications on food security and poverty alleviation.
Soil and water are crucial resources for agriculture, especially in arid and semi-arid rain-fed areas, yet farm-level economic impacts and the factors influencing the adoption of measures for their conservation are little studied. The present study used data from 400 farm households to assess factors influencing the adoption of soil and water conservation measures (SWCMs) and their impacts on farm productivity and income in a semi-arid region of central India. We employed a probit model to determine the factors influencing the on-farm adoption of SWCMs and a propensity score matching technique for assessing their impacts. The findings indicate that farmer age and education, off-farm income, farm size and land ownership and access to training are key drivers of the adoption of SWCMs. SWCMs accentuated the input costs by INR 1689–2847 per ha during the rabi cropping season (October–February), but also increased crop productivity and net revenue from farming. The impact in the rabi season was less sensitive to the unobserved confounders than in the kharif season (June–September). Therefore, SWCMs could represent an important strategy for unlocking the cultivation potential of large rain-fed areas and for sustaining the livelihoods of farm households in the ecologically fragile arid and semi-arid tropics.
In these articles Black writers addressed the perceived need to create stable families and the consequences of not doing so. Most contributors to the Black press shared their larger societies' conviction that orderly, disciplined families were foundational to orderly, disciplined nations. They deemed efforts to reform sexual behavior and family relations even more essential for the Black population, who because of the vicissitudes of slavery and poverty found it especially difficult to constitute family units that fit the national ideal. The Black press included articles asserting that women and children should be governed by male patriarchs and calls for Black people to work toward racial improvement by investment in hygienic families. While some criticized the ways that conventions about honor and legitimacy harmed women who became pregnant outside of wedlock and illegitimate children, others condemned women who handed their children over to be servants in wealthy White households. Writers similarly debated whether Black parents (and by extension the Black community) had dedicated themselves sufficiently or correctly to the project of educating children. Some argued for limiting education to training in manual trades. Others complained that criticisms of the supposed failings of Black morality and education failed to recognize the great progress made by the community.
The new adoption law, which was introduced in Greece in 2018, brought radical changes in adoption.
This presentation aimed to investigate the emotions of the prospective stepparents, based on the changes which were effectuated by the new law of adoption.
This survey was conducted through mixed methodology. Quantitative research was addressed to investigate the emotions of the to prospective stepparents. Qualitative research was addressed to social workers and its goal was to depict their opinion about the new law and the prospective stepparents’ expressed emotions.
The findings of the survey have demonstrated that the stepparents had a variety of emotions that changed throughout the adoption process. The dominant feelings of parents at the first visit with the social worker were stress and anxiety. However, at the end of the training process, these feelings were replaced by confidence and impatience. This emotional rotation of prospective stepparents was confirmed in the social workers’ interviews. In addition, social workers interviews highlighted the importance of the amendment of the old law of adoption’s process.
To sum up, this research has shown the importance of the new law and therefore the significance of its right application from all children’s placements in Greece. Nevertheless, it seems that due to the recent application of the new law, many placements have not yet complied with it and therefore there is urgent need for reinforcement of its application, according to the guidelines of the European Union that demanded gradual deinstitutionalization using the alternative types of child care.
The themes of adoption, assimilation and whiteness merged on the question of Korean children fathered by Australian servicemen. Chapter 9 examines the vast correspondence between Australians who pleaded with the government to allow adoption of these children. The public response to the predicament of the Japanese–Australian children borne of Australian servicemen and Japanese mothers offers an intriguing narrative of post-war humanitarianism that articulates the beginning of several historic shifts. The first is the paternalistic reaction of the day promoting the traditional nuclear family life after the war, based on the victimhood and dependency of children, and romantic views of blameless childhood innocence. Children were to be ‘saved’, but any suggestion of the rights of the child had not yet entered the popular lexicon, at least not in relation to the campaign surrounding the welfare of these children. The clamour to bring Japanese children to Australia paradoxically also challenged the White Australia policy, as many raised the need for flexibility surrounding this policy to make an exception for the children. Attitudes to the plight of the children also illustrate the collaboration of both religious and secular organisations working together when these organisations did not unite on other issues and were, otherwise, philosophically and politically at odds. Humanitarian causes often brought these and other groups together, but the question of children, I argue, did so unconditionally, and this was the case with the Japanese-Australian children.
Some children are more affected by specific family environments than others, as a function of differences in their genetic make-up. However, longitudinal studies of genetic moderation of parenting effects during early childhood have not been conducted. We examined developmental profiles of child behavior problems between 18 months and age 8 in a longitudinal parent–offspring sample of 361 adopted children. In toddlerhood (18 months), observed structured parenting indexed parental guidance in service of task goals. Biological parent psychopathology served as an index of genetic influences on children’s behavior problems. Four profiles of child behavior problems were identified: low stable (11%), average stable (50%), higher stable (29%), and high increasing (11%). A multinominal logistic regression analysis indicated a genetically moderated effect of structured parenting, such that for children whose biological mother had higher psychopathology, the odds of the child being in the low stable group increased as structured parenting increased. Conversely, for children whose biological mother had lower psychopathology, the odds of being in the low stable group was reduced when structured parenting increased. Results suggest that increasing structured parenting is an effective strategy for children at higher genetic risk for psychopathology, but may be detrimental for those at lower genetic risk.
Sometimes two males combine their efforts in the sexual killing of women. Each brings a damaged history and personality. The combination then shows such additional features as male bravado, bonding and loyalty. In the best-known cases, one of the pair is the junior partner and the other the senior. This chapter looks at the lives of two such pairs: (1) Leonard Lake and Charles Ng and (2) the so-called Hillside Stranglers, Angelo Buono and Kenneth Bianchi. Leonard Lake was disturbed by being abandoned by his mother. Charles Ng was subject to harsh discipline. Lake, who exhibited murderous sibling rivalry, formed the senior partner of the two. They aimed to collect a population of sex slaves. Angelo Buono and Kenneth Bianchi both had disturbed backgrounds, Buono being the senior partner of the two. Bianchi was shunted around before being adopted. They sexually abused and tortured women before killing them.
This chapter integrates different parts of the book. A general model of motivation involves dopamine underlying the 'wanting' part and opioids the 'liking' part. Humans (and other mammals) appear to strive to maintain their mood within a tolerable zone, if necessary, through addictive activities. A widely observed feature amongst sexual serial killers is an early history of abuse, bullying and taunting. Many killers have failed to develop any bonding with an adult caregiver. High levels of stress are evident throughout their lives. Stressors that seem to carry particular weight are those of humiliation in social interaction, where revenge might seem appropriate. Chronic stressors repeated over years can be distinguished from the acute stressors that often immediately precede a killing. Many heterosexual killers disapproved of what they perceived to be immorality of an important female, such as a mother or wife. Sibling rivalry and excessive drug/alcohol intake characterize some of those described here.
The chapter looks at two heterosexual killers who made extensive confessions of their crimes: Gerald Stano and Gary Ridgway. It looks at their similarities and differences. Both had unhappy childhoods with sibling rivalry and the experience of bullying and taunting, and both felt inferior and failures in life. Each killer revealed a fusion of sex and violence, and showed evidence of stress exacerbating their toxic behaviour, both chronically and acutely (e.g. mocking remarks by a sex worker). As a difference, Stano but not Ridgway was adopted. Stano’s physical condition was very poor at the time of adoption, which might have been associated with brain damage. Ridgeway but not Stano was married and had secure employment. Stano displayed considerable sexual envy towards courting couples. The two killers either exclusively (Ridgway) or commonly (Stano) targeted sex workers. Each showed non-lethal choking of a regular partner.
A relatively large number of serial lust killers were adopted as young children. It appears that those who commit sexual violence against women feel a resentment against their mothers for their adoption. In turn, this fuels resentment against either women in general or those having characteristics in common with their mothers. This would be in addition to the general factor of the disturbance of bonding, which might be common in cases of adoption. The chapter looks at three cases of killers who held such resentment. David Berkowitz was sexually excited by shooting at courting couples, but did not have any sexual contact with his victims. He masturbated to associated imagery. Jack Unterweger was a celebrity in Viennese cultural circuits but killed sex workers in association with having sex with them. Steve Wright killed sex workers in association with having sex with them.
The practice of leaving infants and children to the care of their grandmothers has a long history. Separation could be the result of parental death or inadequacy, or an outcome of war or political turbulence. Separation could be related to a father being away to work in another part of China or abroad. The Communist Party’s victory in 1949 precipitated a mass flight from the Mainland to Taiwan; soldiers had to abandon their families. In the Mao Era millions of young people had to leave home. Some were assigned to jobs; some were sent to the borderlands or to labour camps. Their children were left with their grandmothers.
As modern educational opportunities grew, young men, some already married, left home to study in universities or abroad. In the Reform Era hundredsof thosuands have gone abroad to study, many leaving small children behind them. From the 1980s on millions of young peasants have left home to work in factories and in construction. As before, the grandmother accepted without question the obligation to care for her grandchildren, perhaps for years on end.
Orphans were adopted within the family. Impersonal adoption was almost unknown until the One Child policy came in to force (1980s). After that numbers of baby girls were given up for adoption, many in the West.
Justices Matthew L. M. FLETCHER and Kathryn E. FORT delivered the opinion of the Court.*
This case is about a little girl (Baby Girl) who is a citizen of the Cherokee Nation, like her father, grandparents, and a multitude of generations before her. American Indian tribal citizenship with a federally recognized tribe is a unique concept in American law. See, e.g., Santa Clara Pueblo v. Martinez, 436 U.S. 49, 55 (1978) (“[Indian tribes] have power to make their own substantive law in internal matters… .”). Tribal citizens are beneficiaries of the federal government’s trust relationship with Indian tribes, and the federal government has promised to tribal citizens for centuries to assist in the maintenance of tribal governments, cultures, and sovereignty.
In the 1870s and 1880s, some of Japan’s leading intellectuals and modernizers discussed human rights, reintroduced the binary difference between male and female, and declared motherhood the core principle of women’s nature. As gender displaced status as the primary system of social and legal classification, women began adopting the language of rights and representing themselves in public. By the beginning of the twentieth century, women forcefully entered and shaped a range of debates. Chapter 2, “Controlling Reproduction and Motherhood,” discusses women’s struggle to both define motherhood for themselves and take control of reproduction – the debate about motherhood being closely tied to the quest for legalizing abortions. Notably, this demand was increasingly at odds with the country’s advancing imperialism, which relied on rapid population growth. The end of the Japanese empire constituted a major rupture within the question of reproductive control, ultimately leading to today’s effects of rapid population decline and the lack of will among the young generation to have babies.
A legacy of the transatlantic slave trade, Brazil is home to the largest number of African descendants outside Africa and the greatest number of domestic workers in the world. Drawing on ten years of interviews and ethnographic research, the author examines the lives of marginalized informal domestic workers who are called 'adopted daughters' but who live in slave-like conditions in the homes of their adoptive families. She traces a nuanced and, at times, disturbing account of how adopted daughters, who are trapped in a system of racial, gender, and class oppression, live with the coexistence of extreme forms of exploitation and seemingly loving familial interactions and affective relationships. Highlighting the humanity of her respondents, Hordge-Freeman examines how filhas de criação (raised daughters) navigate the realities of their structural constraints and in the context of pervasive norms of morality, gratitude, and kinship. In all, the author clarifies the link between contemporary and colonial forms of exploitation, while highlighting the resistance and agency of informal domestic workers.
This chapter discusses the tension and synthesis between uniform law and legal pluralism. This is done by highlighting aspects of the production and circulation of uniform commercial law, using the example of international sales law and the law related to electronic transactions. It is argued that uniform law is of increasing importance in the production and circulation of legal models. Given so, it is desirable to make the uniform legislative process more efficient and effective than it currently is. Solutions are proffered.
This chapter describes the next steps in a WTO dispute settlement proceeding after the issuance of panel or Appellate Body reports. The chapter describes the rules governing the adoption and implementation of reports. It explains the process for negotiating a “reasonable period of time” (RPT) for a defending party to implement adverse findings. The chapter also explains the process for arbitration under Article 21.3(c) of the DSU on the RPT in the event that the parties cannot agree. Next, the chapter explains the process for resolving disputes as to whether the defending party has properly implemented any adverse findings under Article 21.5 of the DSU. The chapter explains the similarities and differences between the Article 21.5 process and normal panel process.
Drawing on institutional records and oral testimonies, Chapter 4 shows that racial beliefs and prejudices did not just exist among the educated classes, but were present also among ordinary Italians. It reconstructs the difficulties that the children had to face as they entered adolescence in the late 1950s in a society that was not particularly kind to people who looked “different” or did not profess the dominant religion. This chapter describes the attempts on the part of some social workers to shelter these children from social hostility and marginalization in the communities in which they lived, and the rather mixed results of these attempts. The difficulties of adoption are also examined, along with stories of mothers who kept the children, and who were stigmatized along with them.