To save content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about saving content to .
To save content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about saving to your Kindle.
Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
The advances in machine learning (ML) software availability, efficiency, and friendliness, combined with the increase in the computation power of personal computers, are harnessed to rapidly and (relatively) effortlessly analyze time-lapse image series of adherent cell cultures, taken with phase-contrast microscopy (PCM). Since PCM is arguably the most widely used technique to visualize adherent cells in a label-free, noninvasive, and nondisruptive manner, the ability to easily extract quantitative information on the area covered by cells, should provide a valuable tool for investigation. We demonstrate two cases, in one we monitor the shrinking of cells in response to a toxicant, and in the second we measure the proliferation curve of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs).
What Bernard Brodie said about nuclear weapons in 1946 continues to be true: The most important thing about nuclear weapons is that they exist and are terribly powerful. This was true in both the Cold War and the subsequent era. Although the situation has changed a great deal, there are striking continuities, especially in American attitudes and policies. Most obviously, the United States has consistently opposed nuclear proliferation, with only a very few exceptions for its closest friends. Second, the debate within the United States about the role of nuclear weapons has been altered only slightly by the end of the Cold War. The fundamental division between those who see nuclear weapons as having a revolutionary impact on world politics and those who do not continues. Trump’s Nuclear Posture Review makes arguments that are remarkably similar to those made under the Raegan administration. In parallel, the arguments made against Anti-Ballistic Missile (ABM) systems today are quite similar to those advanced during the Cold War, despite the radically changed conditions. This indicates that ways of thinking about nuclear weapons have become deeply engrained.
While China is building nuclear reactors faster than any other country in the world, major constraints may limit nuclear energy’s ability to grow to the scale of hundreds of gigawatts that would be required for it to play a major part in decarbonizing China’s energy system. This chapter explores the major constraints on, and risks of, large-scale nuclear energy growth in China, and how both new policies and new technologies might address them. It focuses particularly on the two biggest constraints – economics and siting. Substantial government policies to support nuclear power and advanced reactor systems designed to address some of the key constraints are both likely to be needed for nuclear to have a chance of playing a major role in decarbonizing China’s energy system; nuclear energy’s role may be bigger in the second half of this century than in the first half.
This chapter offers an introduction to Romantic form, focusing on ways of organising musical forms that were especially prevalent amongst composers working in Germany between 1825 and 1850 but that survived in the music of selected composers until the final years of the century. Using examples drawn from vocal and instrumental works by Felix Mendelssohn, Robert Schumann, Richard Wagner, Clara Schumann, and Antonín Dvořák, it discusses a number of characteristics that are typical of Romantic form as well as the ways they relate to theoretical models that have been developed for classical music. The chapter is organised in two sections. The first addresses matters of formal syntax, that is, the construction and interrelation of musical phrases. The second explores issues of formal incompleteness as well as connections that go beyond the single-movement level.
Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) exert vital functions in the occurrence and development of various tumours. The aim of this study was to examine the regulatory effect and underlying molecular mechanism of lncRNA small nucleolar RNA host gene 14 (SNHG14) on the proliferation, invasion and migration of thyroid tumour cells. The expression of SNHG14 in thyroid tumour cell lines was determined using qRT-PCR. CCK-8 and western blot were used to detect the effects of SNHG14 on proliferation and apoptosis of thyroid tumour cells. The effect of SNHG14 on the migration and invasion of thyroid tumour cells was analyzed using immunofluorescence, wound-healing and transwell assays. A targeting relationship between SNHG14 and miR-93-5p was determined using bioinformatics software and luciferase reporter assays. In addition, CCK-8, immunofluorescence, wound-healing and transwell assays were applied to demonstrate that SNHG14 promoted the proliferation, migration and invasion of thyroid tumour cells by targeting miR-93-5p. The biological function of SNHG14 in vivo was explored through a xenograft model and immunohistochemistry. SNHG14 was upregulated in thyroid tumour cells compared with normal cells. Downregulation of SNHG14 effectively reduced the proliferation, migration and invasion of TPC-1 cells, and induced cell apoptosis. Moreover, SNHG14 directly targeted miR-93-5p and there was a negative correlation between them. Further functional experiments illustrated that miR-93-5p overexpression dramatically reversed the promoting role of SNHG14 in proliferation, migration and invasion of TPC-1 cells. Our results demonstrated that SNHG14 promotes the proliferation, invasion and migration of thyroid tumour cells by downregulating miR-93-5p.
To explore the effect of lncRNA TINCR on the biological behaviours of trophoblasts, we detected and analyzed the expression of terminal differentiation-induced non-protein coding RNA (TINCR) in the placenta tissues of pre-eclamptic and non-pre-eclamptic pregnant women. The gain- and loss-of-function of TINCR was performed to examine the proliferation, migration and invasion abilities of Htr-8/Svneo cells. The levels of epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT)-related proteins, cyclin and Wnt/β-catenin pathway were detected. High expression of lncRNA TINCR appeared in placental tissues of patients with pre-eclampsia. The proliferation, invasion and migration of Htr-8/Svneo cells were promoted by TINCR downregulation; the cells were transited from G0/G1 to S phase; and EMT was promoted and the Wnt/β-catenin pathway was activated. In summary, the downregulation of lncRNA TINCR activated the Wnt/β-catenin pathway and promoted the proliferation, invasion and migration of Htr-8/Svneo cells. This study may provide a theoretical basis for treatment of patients with pre-eclampsia.
There is widespread anxiety about human rights ‘inflation’: positing too many human rights, it is said, will lead to their devaluation. This article seeks to disentangle the inflation objection from other concerns about rights expansionism and to critically assess it. It considers the scope and implications of the inflation objection by reference to several issues – e.g., which modes of human rights proliferation it covers and which restrictions follow from it – and argues that it is characterized by a formal emptiness since it lacks any specific criteria to indicate which human rights lead to inflation and which do not. The formal emptiness of the inflation objection does not, however, mean that it is politically neutral, for despite its inability to generate closure it does generate a sense of closure by drawing strict boundaries around the corpus of ‘proper’ human rights. This sense of closure, the article argues, entrenches currently dominant (neo)liberal understandings of human rights while generating suspicion of claims to far-reaching social transformation. In light of this, an alternative to the anti-inflation mindset is suggested: a mindset of wonder, which understands human rights claims outside of dominant understandings not as a threat, but as an opportunity to question the status quo.
Chapter 9 addresses the manner in which the case law of international courts and tribunals has influenced the interpretation and application of the remedies of international law before the International Court of Justice. Illustratively, using equity as a tool for awarding compensation for moral damages, the distinction between pecuniary and non-pecuniary satisfaction, are issues that have been dealt with by courts and tribunals such as the International Court of Human Rights or arbitral tribunals that resolved interstate disputes. The Diallo Case confirms that the Court observes the case-law of other bodies that resolve international disputes and this approach is justified, especially because contemporary international law is undergoing a process of fragmentation while the dispute resolution institutions are in a process of proliferation.
Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular protozoan parasite, which can infect almost all warm-blooded animals, including humans, leading to toxoplasmosis. Currently, the effective treatment for human toxoplasmosis is the combination of sulphadiazine and pyrimethamine. However, both drugs have serious side-effects and toxicity in the host. Therefore, there is an urgent need for the discovery of new anti-T. gondii drugs with high potency and less or no side-effects. Our findings suggest that lumefantrine exerts activity against T. gondii by inhibiting its proliferation in Vero cells in vitro without being toxic to Vero cells (P ≤ 0.01). Lumefantrine prolonged mice infected with T. gondii from death for 3 days at the concentration of 50 μg L−1 than negative control (phosphate-buffered saline treated only), and reduced the parasite burden in mouse tissues in vivo (P ≤ 0.01; P ≤ 0.05). In addition, a significant increase in interferon gamma (IFN-γ) production was observed in high-dose lumefantrine-treated mice (P ≤ 0.01), whereas interleukin 10 (IL-10) and IL-4 levels increased in low-dose lumefantrine-treated mice (P ≤ 0.01). The results demonstrated that lumefantrine may be a promising agent to treat toxoplasmosis, and more experiments on the protective mechanism of lumefantrine should be undertaken in further studies.
We evaluated whether early-life protein restriction alters structural parameters that affect β-cell mass on the 15th day and 20th day of gestation in control pregnant (CP), control non-pregnant (CNP), low-protein pregnant (LPP) and low-protein non-pregnant (LPNP) rats from the fetal to the adult life stage as well as in protein-restricted rats that recovered after weaning (recovered pregnant (RP) and recovered non-pregnant). On the 15th day of gestation, the CNP group had a higher proportion of smaller islets, whereas the CP group exhibited a higher proportion of islets larger than the median. The β-cell mass was lower in the low-protein group than that in the recovered and control groups. Gestation increased the β-cell mass, β-cell proliferation frequency and neogenesis frequency independently of the nutritional status. The apoptosis frequency was increased in the recovered groups compared with that in the other groups. On the 20th day of gestation, a higher proportion of islets smaller than the median was observed in the non-pregnant groups, whereas a higher proportion of islets larger than the median was observed in the RP, LPP and CP groups. β-Cell mass was lower in the low-protein group than that in the recovered and control groups, regardless of the physiological status. The β-cell proliferation frequency was lower, whereas the apoptosis rate was higher in recovered rats compared with those in the low-protein and control rats. Thus, protein malnutrition early in life did not alter the mass of β-cells, especially in the first two-thirds of gestation, despite the increase in apoptosis.
To investigate the roles of lncRNA deleted in lymphocytic leukaemia 1 (DLEU1) on migration and invasion of human trophoblast cells. Human chorionic trophoblast cell line HTR8/SVneo was cultured and transfected using lncRNA DLEU1 small interfering RNA. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction was used to detect lncRNA DLEU1 expression. The activity of migration regulatory protein CDC42 was detected by western blot. The downstream miRNA targets of lncRNA and mRNAs targeted by corresponding miRNAs were respectively predicted using bioinformatics analyses. Compared with the control group, the expression of lncRNA DLEU1 in the small interfering RNA group was significantly decreased (P < 0.05). There was no significant change in cell proliferation capacity for transfected cells (lncRNA DLEU1 siRNA-1, P = 0.537; lncRNA DLEU1 siRNA-2, P = 0.384), but cell migration (lncRNA DLEU1 siRNA-1, P = 0.025; lncRNA DLEU1 siRNA-2, P = 0.019) and invasion (lncRNA DLEU1 siRNA-1, P = 0.0327; lncRNA DLEU1 siRNA-2, P = 0.021) was significantly reduced. CDC42 activity in the lncRNA DLEU1 knockdown group decreased and the phosphorylation of cofilin increased. Therefore, downregulation of lncRNA DLEU1 suppressed the migration and invasion of human trophoblast cells.
This chapter first illustrates the fundamental characteristics of nuclear energy, by outlining: (i) The history of nuclear energy; (ii) The current key technological aspects of nuclear energy; (iii) The key global trends in nuclear energy production; (iv) The prospects for its future potential use. It then outlines the security and geopolitical risks related to nuclear energy, also with a focus on the cases of Iran and North Korea.
The abnormal expression of lncRNAs and miRNAs has been found in the placentas of patients with preeclampsia (PE). Therefore, we determined the role of lncRNA FOXD2-AS1/miR-3127 in trophoblast cells. The expression of lncRNA FOXD2-AS1 was detected by qRT-PCR. The proliferation, migration and invasion ability of trophoblast cells were evaluated using CCK-8, wound healing and transwell assays. The target gene of lncRNA FOXD2-AS1 was determined by StarBase and luciferase reporter assays. Western blotting was used to analyze the expression of matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP2) and matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9). The results showed that FOXD2-AS1 affected trophoblast cell viability in vitro, while the expression of miR-3127 was decreased. FOXD2-AS1 silencing decreased the promotion effects on trophoblast cell induced by miR-3127 inhibition. In addition, FOXD2-AS1 and miR-3127 presented the same effect on MMP2 and MMP9 levels. lncRNA FOXD2-AS1 modulated trophoblast cell proliferation, invasion and migration through downregulating miR-3127 expression. Therefore, lncRNA FOXD2-AS1 could act as a latent therapeutic marker in preeclampsia.
We propose and analyse an age-structured model for within-host HIV virus dynamics which is incorporated with both virus-to-cell and cell-to-cell infection routes, and proliferations of both uninfected and infected cells in the form of logistic growth. The model turns out to be a hybrid system with two differential-integral equations and one first-order partial differential equation. We perform some rigorous analyses for the considered model. Among the interesting dynamical behaviours of the model is the occurrence of backward bifurcation in terms of the basic reproduction number R0 at R0 = 1, which raises new challenges for effective infection control. We also discuss the cause of such a backward bifurcation, based on our analytical results.
Annexin A2 (ANXA2) is reported to be associated with cancer development. To investigate the roles ANXA2 plays during the development of cancer, the RNAi method was used to inhibit the ANXA2 expression in caco2 (human colorectal cancer cell line) and SMMC7721 (human hepatocarcinoma cell line) cells. The results showed that when the expression of ANXA2 was efficiently inhibited, the growth and motility of both cell lines were significantly decreased, and the development of the motility relevant microstructures, such as pseudopodia, filopodia, and the polymerization of microfilaments and microtubules were obviously inhibited. The cancer cell apoptosis was enhanced without obvious significance. The possible regulating pathway in the process was also predicted and discussed. Our results suggested that ANXA2 plays important roles in maintaining the malignancy of colorectal and hepatic cancer by enhancing the cell proliferation, motility, and development of the motility associated microstructures of cancer cells based on a possible complicated signal pathway.
This study aimed to set up methodology to monitor parasite-specific T-cell activation in vitro using Eimeria tenella-infected chickens. A sonicated E. tenella sporozoite protein preparation was used for the activation of chicken spleen cell cultures. Proliferation assessed by 3H-thymidin incorporation or blast transformation of T-cells assessed by immunofluorescence labelling and flow cytometry were used as read-outs for activation. Results showed that E. tenella-specific proliferation was detected in cultures of spleen cells collected in a ‘window’ between 8 and 14 days after primary infection. However, due to high variation in proliferative responses between individuals and to high background proliferation, large numbers of observations were needed to obtain significant results. Moreover, the outcome was not improved by increasing the infection dose to chickens or by depletion of T-cell receptor (TCR) γ/δ expressing cells from cultures. An E. tenella-specific blast transformation response was observed for TCRα/β expressing cells within the same ‘window’, confirming the identity of the responding cells as classic T-cells. Thus, it is possible to study the kinetics of E. tenella-specific T-cell responses in vitro. However, more in-depth phenotypic identification of the responding T-cells could improve the methodology.
‘Third countries’ are frequently exploited by those involved in networks to transfer proliferation-sensitive technologies, allowing procurement agents to obscure the end user or vendor located in the proliferating state, and to deceive industry, export licensing officials, and intelligence services. While ‘third countries’ frequently feature in illicit transactions, the academic literature exploring the roles played by entities in these jurisdictions is limited. Building on the sanctions busting literature, this article proposes a loose typology considering the ways in which third countries can be exploited by proliferation networks. The typology is illustrated using three cases involving entities based in Malaysia – A. Q. Khan’s nuclear black market network, and Iran and North Korea’s efforts to procure and market WMD-related and military goods. These cases are used to generate insights into proliferators’ selection of ‘third country’ hubs. The article argues that while exploitation of third countries by proliferation networks is a similar, but distinct phenomenon to trade-based sanctions busting, hubs of both activities share characteristics. Furthermore, the article argues that other factors beyond the lax regulatory environment, such as level of development, and personal connections, are often as important in driving the decisions of proliferation networks. The article concludes with implications for nonproliferation policy.
Two separate experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of betaGRO® supplementation on in vitro porcine fetal myoblasts (PFM) and porcine satellite cells (PSC) proliferation, fusion and myotube thickness. The PFM and PSC were isolated from the m. longissimus dorsi of day 60 of gestation fetuses and piglets within 24 h of birth, respectively. Proliferation assays were conducted as 4×3 factorial arrangements with time of culture (24, 48, 72, 96 h) and media treatment (standard porcine media supplemented with 10% (vol/vol) fetal bovine serum (HS); HS without 10% fetal bovine serum (LS); and LS supplemented with 10 mg/ml betaGRO® (BG)) as main effects. Fusion and myotube growth assays were conducted as 2×2 factorial designs with serum concentration (HS or LS), and betaGRO® inclusion (0 or 10 mg/ml) as main effects. There was a treatment×time interaction and betaGRO®×serum interactions for proliferation, fusion and myotube thickness of PFM (P<0.01). At all-time points, HS and BG-PFM had greater proliferation rates compared LS (P<0.01). The HS treatment had greater proliferation rates than BG (P<0.02) except at 72 h of culture (P=0.44). When betaGRO® was added to LS media, fusion percentage and myotube thickness decreased (P<0.01), while fusion percentage increased (P<0.01) and myotube thickness was unaffected (P=0.63) when betaGRO® was added to HS media. There were treatment×time and betaGRO®×serum interactions for proliferation rate and fusion rate of PSC, respectively (P<0.01). At all-time points, HS had greater proliferation rates than LS and BG (P<0.01), and LS had greater proliferation rates than BG (P<0.02). When betaGRO® was added to LS and HS media, fusion percentage increased for both media types (P<0.01). There was no betaGRO®×serum interaction (P=0.63) for PSC myotube thickness; however, betaGRO® supplemented myotubes were thicker (P<0.01) than non-betaGRO® supplemented myotubes. These two experiments indicate in vitro betaGRO® supplementation stimulates divergent responses based on the age of cell examined.
Proliferation of major conventional weapons (MCW) in larger numbers, at greater levels of sophistication, and to more actors is at best a waste of valuable resources and at worst fuel for more and bloodier conflicts. Given a track record of violence, repression, and corruption, norms against exporting weapons to active conflicts and human rights abusers, as well as norms in favor of transparency in weapons transfers, have grown more salient in recent years. Yet international efforts such as the UN Conventional Arms Trade Treaty show little promise for mitigating these ills. This article finds an alternate route toward moderating global arms transfers. It shows, with supporting data, how the United States, pursuing its own political interests, leverages its massive market power to slow the proliferation of dangerous technology, reduce resources spent in the developing world on weapons, stymie the deadweight losses of corruption in the arms industry, and lower the rewards for human rights abusers.
Toxoplasmosis is a serious zoonoses disease and opportunistic, and can be life-threatening. Dexamethasone (DEX) is widely used in the clinic for treatment of inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. However, long-term use of DEX is often easy to lead to acute toxoplasmosis in patients, and the potential molecular mechanism is still not very clear. The aims of this study were to investigate the effect of DEX on proliferation of Toxoplasma and its molecular mechanisms, and to establish the corresponding control measures. All the results showed that dexamethasone could enhance the proliferation of Toxoplasma gondii tachyzoites. After 72 h of DEX treatment, 566 (±7) tachyzoites were found in 100 host cells, while only 86 (±8) tachyzoites were counted from the non-treated control cells (P < 0·01). Gas chromatography (GC) analysis showed changes in level and composition of fatty acids in DEX-treated host cells, and T. gondii. Fish oil was added as a modulator of lipid metabolism in experimental mice. It was found that mice fed with fish oil did not develop the disease after infection with T. gondii, and the structure of fatty acids in plasma changed significantly. The metabolism of fatty acid in the parasites was limited, and the desaturase gene expression was downregulated. These results indicate that the molecular mechanism of dexamethasone to promote the proliferation of T. gondii may be that dexamethasone induces the change of fatty acids composition of tachyzoites and host cells. Therefore, we recommend supplementation of fatty acid in immunosuppressive and immunocompromised patients in order to inhibit toxoplasmosis.