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The parasitic barnacle, Anelasma squalicola, is a rare and evolutionary fascinating organism. Unlike most other filter-feeding barnacles, A. squalicola has evolved the capability to uptake nutrient from its host, exclusively parasitizing deepwater sharks of the families Etmopteridae and Pentanchidae. The physiological mechanisms involved in the uptake of nutrients from its host are not yet known. Using stable isotopes and elemental compositions, we followed the fate of nitrogen, carbon and sulphur through various tissues of A. squalicola and its host, the Southern lanternshark Etmopterus granulosus, to better understand the trophic relationship between parasite and host. Like most marine parasites, A. squalicola is lipid-rich and clear differences were found in the stable isotope ratios between barnacle organs. It is evident that the deployment of a system of ‘rootlets’, which merge with host tissues, allows A. squalicola to draw nutrients from its host. Through this system, proteins are then rerouted to the exterior structural tissues of A. squalicola while lipids are used for maintenance and egg synthesis. The nutrient requirement of A. squalicola was found to change from protein-rich to lipid-rich between its early development stage and its definitive size.
Oceania comprises those islands scattered through the Pacific Ocean bounded by Australia and Papua New Guinea to the west, the Hawaiian Islands to the north, New Zealand to the south, and Easter Island to the east. Although there are many cultures and nations in Oceania, psychological assessment as practiced today developed mainly in Australia and New Zealand. The history of testing and assessment in the chapter on Oceania is thus a history of testing and assessment in Australia, in New Zealand, and in the islands that in the twentieth century fell into the sphere of influence of those two countries. The chapter on Oceania seeks to briefly sketch the development of testing and assessment, its successes, and its limitations.
Little is known about Se intakes and status in very young New Zealand children. However, Se intakes below recommendations and lower Se status compared with international studies have been reported in New Zealand (particularly South Island) adults. The Baby-Led Introduction to SolidS (BLISS) randomised controlled trial compared a modified version of baby-led weaning (infants feed themselves rather than being spoon-fed), with traditional spoon-feeding (Control). Weighed 3-d diet records were collected and plasma Se concentration measured using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). In total, 101 (BLISS n 50, Control n 51) 12-month-old toddlers provided complete data. The OR of Se intakes below the estimated average requirement (EAR) was no different between BLISS and Control (OR: 0·89; 95 % CI 0·39, 2·03), and there was no difference in mean plasma Se concentration between groups (0·04 μmol/l; 95 % CI −0·03, 0·11). In an adjusted model, consuming breast milk was associated with lower plasma Se concentrations (–0·12 μmol/l; 95 % CI −0·19, −0·04). Of the food groups other than infant milk (breast milk or infant formula), ‘breads and cereals’ contributed the most to Se intakes (12 % of intake). In conclusion, Se intakes and plasma Se concentrations of 12-month-old New Zealand toddlers were no different between those who had followed a baby-led approach to complementary feeding and those who followed traditional spoon-feeding. However, more than half of toddlers had Se intakes below the EAR.
By the year 2030, 19–21 per cent of the population of New Zealand (NZ) is projected to be aged 65 and over. Like many countries, life expectancy in NZ differs by gender but also ethnicity: in 2019, life expectancy for Māori (indigenous) women was 77.1 years compared with 84.4 years for non-Māori women. If Māori and NZ European women are to flourish in later life, examining the factors associated with their wellbeing is paramount. The current study draws on the Life Course Perspective to explore how wellbeing is associated with age-related life events among mid- to later-life NZ women. The women in this study (N = 19,624) are participants in the 2018 wave of the New Zealand Attitudes and Values Study, a national probabilistic 20-year longitudinal study (mean age = 55.62; Māori = 10.8%, NZ European = 89.2%). We found that stressful life events were negatively associated with life satisfaction but positively associated with meaning in life. Māori women exhibited lower levels of life satisfaction but there were no ethnic differences for meaning in life; however, Māori and NZ European women showed different patterns of significant correlates associated with meaning in life. Findings highlight the necessity of an intersectional approach to the study of mid- to later-life wellbeing and the utility of measuring wellbeing in more than one way within NZ's unique cultural-historical context.
Community-based undergraduate research (CBUR) engages students as learners in research partnerships with community members, groups or agencies, for the purpose of identifying or solving community issues or effecting social change. This chapter explores the roles of the various parties in CBUR, which include, besides students and community, faculty and university managers. It is illustrated with three case studies: the University of British Columbia in Canada, which integrates CBUR with undergraduate learning; the city of Christchurch in New Zealand, where it is used to advance the process of post-earthquake recovery; and Luneburg in northern Germany, which has established a transdisciplinary CBUR programme between the city and university to encourage urban sustainability. In conclusion, future opportunities and challenges for both students and faculty in developing CBUR are discussed.
The question of how agencies can work together has been central to the field of public administration for several decades. Despite significant research, the process of collaboration can still be a fraught endeavour for practitioners. Nevertheless, agencies keep trying to work together because it is the only way to make progress on the biggest challenges facing public administrators. This Element reveals the deeply contingent nature of collaboration, rejecting the idea that collaboration can be reduced to a universal best practice. The New Zealand government has implemented such a contingent approach that maps different collaborative methods against problem settings and the degree of trade-off required from the actors' core or individual work. This Element provides a detailed case study of the New Zealand approach, and 18 embedded elements or 'model' collaborative forms for joined-up government. It explains how New Zealand public servants approach the important question: 'when to use which models?'.
Throughout the world, Aotearoa-New Zealand is recognised for its extraordinary biodiversity. However, many species that make up this distinctive biodiversity are under threat of extinction due to human impacts, such as the ill-considered introduction of particular animals. Many New Zealanders participate in the protection and restoration of their environment, which involves the lethal control of these introduced animals. Primary school children (5–13 years old) engage in conservation education as part of their learning, which aims to develop their abilities to take informed action to protect and restore our environment, sometimes including lethal control of introduced animals. Recently, concerns have been raised that children learning about the lethal control of introduced animals does not align with the values that should be explored and encouraged according to Aotearoa-New Zealand’s national curriculum. We argue that conservation education, including learning about the lethal control of introduced animals, encourages children to explore and encourage these values, namely valuing the diversity in their heritages, ecological sustainability, participation for the common good, equity, innovation, and respect for others.
This chapter provides an overview of the application of competition law to workers in New Zealand. The chapter starts with a brief historical background to the relevant legislation regulating labour and competition, and then summarises the key provisions of the Commerce Act that apply to workers. It then specifically explores the application of competition law to collective action by independent contractors, focusing on the unusual legal position of film workers. New Zealand law in this area is currently in a state of transition. While the literature and case law is less developed than in other jurisdictions, there is draft legislation and a number of law reform proposals currently being considered by the Government. The chapter provides a brief survey of the proposed Screen Industry Workers Bill and the relevant law reform proposals being considered.
A nationally generalisable cohort (n 5770) was used to determine the prevalence of non-timely (early/late) introduction of complementary food and core food groups and associations with maternal sociodemographic and health behaviours in New Zealand (NZ). Variables describing maternal characteristics and infant food introduction were sourced, respectively, from interviews completed antenatally and during late infancy. The NZ Infant Feeding Guidelines were used to define early (≤ 4 months) and late (≥ 7 months) introduction. Associations were examined using multivariable multinomial regression, presented as adjusted relative risk ratios and 95 % confidence intervals (RRR; 95% CI). Complementary food introduction was early for 40·2 % and late for 3·2 %. The prevalence of early food group introduction were fruit/vegetables (23·8 %), breads/cereals (36·3 %), iron-rich foods (34·1 %) and of late were meat/meat alternatives (45·9 %), dairy products (46·2 %) and fruits/vegetables (9·9 %). Compared with infants with timely food introduction, risk of early food introduction was increased for infants: breastfed < 6months (2·52; 2·19–2·90), whose mothers were < 30 years old (1·69; 1·46–1·94), had a diploma/trade certificate v. tertiary education (1·39; 1·1–1·70), of Māori v. European ethnicity (1·40; 1·12–1·75) or smoked during pregnancy (1·88; 1·44–2·46). Risk of late food introduction decreased for infants breastfed < 6 months (0·47; 0.27–0·80) and increased for infants whose mothers had secondary v. tertiary education (2·04; 1·16–3·60) were of Asian v. European ethnicity (2·22; 1·35, 3·63) or did not attend childbirth preparation classes (2·23; 1·24–4·01). Non-timely food introduction, specifically early food introduction, is prevalent in NZ. Interventions to improve food introduction timeliness should be ethnic-specific and support longer breast-feeding.
This paper explores policy mechanisms behind New Zealand's remarkable track record of cost containment in public pharmaceutical spending, contrasting with most other advanced economies. We drew on a review of official policy documents and 28 semi-structured expert interviews. We found that decision making in pricing and reimbursement policy was dominated by a small group of managers at the Pharmaceutical Management Agency (PHARMAC), the country's drug reimbursement and Health Technology Assessment Agency, who negotiated pharmaceutical prices on behalf of the public payer. In formal negotiation over patented pharmaceutical prices these managers applied an array of pricing strategies, most notably, ‘bundling’ consisting of discounted package deals for multiple pharmaceuticals, and ‘play-off tenders’, whereby two or more pharmaceutical companies bid for exclusive contracts. The key pricing strategy for generic drugs, in contrast, was ‘blind-tenders’ taking the form of an annual bidding process for supply contracts. An additional contextual condition on bargaining over pharmaceutical prices was an indirect strategy that involved the cultivation of the PHARMAC's ‘negotiation leverage’. We derived two cost containment mechanisms consisting in the relationship between pricing strategy options and various reimbursement actors. Our findings shed light on aspects of the institutional design of drug reimbursement that may promote the effective use of competitive negotiations of pharmaceutical prices, including specific pricing strategies, by specialist public payer institutions. On this basis, we formulate recommendations for countries seeking to develop or reform policy frameworks to better meet the budgetary challenge posed by pharmaceutical expenditure.
In this paper, we provide a reflection upon the influence of the Swanwick–Tillman (ST) model (1986) from the perspectives of music research in Aotearoa New Zealand. In this paper we take stock of where music education in New Zealand currently sits in relation to the Swanwick Tillman theory of musical development. We examine the strengths and the weakness of the model 35 years on to ask what it might still offer music educators in a context where issues of culture and colonisation have taken centre stage. We also reflect upon the impact of a visit to New Zealand by Keith Swanwick in 1989. Despite the postmodern or colonial critiques we might make now, we consider if the model may still signify a holistic way of conceiving music development and might still have implications for curriculum design and curriculum making in the 21st century.
Chapter 3 discusses how the captive population of Germans, Italians and Japanese, their patriotism sharpened by group incarceration, railed against confinement in Australian and New Zealand’s camps. Using “escape” as its central theme, the chapter examines breakout attempts at camps in Murchison, Cowra and Featherston, offering insights into enforcement of 1929 Geneva Convention regulations for POW treatment. The chapter introduces the dodecagon-shaped POW camp as a unique design tested in Australia for the accommodation of racially different combatants and a continuation of a longer history of convictism. New Zealand’s wartime camps repurpose and adapt facilities associated with quarantine.
The modern state of New Zealand was founded on the signing of the Treaty of Waitangi between the British Crown and indigenous Maori tribes. New Zealand’s partly uncodified, partly unwritten constitution is thus structured around questions of indigenous rights and the treaty relationship between the Maori and the Crown. This chapter examines how and why the Treaty and indigenous rights play a fundamental role in New Zealand’s constitutional system, and it uses the example of New Zealand to challenge conventional understandings as to what counts as a “constitution.”
Chapter 13 describe COVID-19 as a wicked problem and show how different CI-mechanisms have been used to cope with the pandemic. The first CI-mechanism is the transparent information flows during the pandemic. Knowledge is being shared at a rapid pace in the global online setting. Most of the big news sites provide citizens with updated statistics on the spread of the virus. Another example is the governmental “test and trace”-strategy that aims to maximize information about the spread of the virus at all times. A second CI-mechanism is citizen responsibility. Citizens in all countries have faced the challenge of complying with behavioral rules enforced by the government. Rules on social distancing and voluntary quarantines depend on citizen cooperation. Here, New Zealand stands out as one of the most successful countries. Third, collective learning at a system level has been important in dealing with the pandemic. One example is South Korea who learned a lot from the Middle East Virus (MERS) in 2015 a couple of years before the COVID-19 outbreak. Their past failure in coping with that outbreak, made them much better prepared than other countries.
The health of babies, children and young people is fundamentally different from that of adults, so their healthcare must reflect their unique needs and engage their parents, family members and communities. Paediatric Nursing in Australia and New Zealand introduces nursing students to the care of infants, children, young people and their families in a range of clinical and community settings across Australasia. This third edition includes New Zealand content and an increased focus on families. New chapters cover health services available for Aboriginal, Torres Strait Islander and Māori children, the transition to parenthood for new families, children's sleep patterns and behaviour, and paediatric health in school settings. Case studies and reflective questions encourage students to develop critical thinking and problem-solving skills. Written by an expert team, Paediatric Nursing in Australia and New Zealand equips future nurses with the knowledge and skills to provide evidence-based care to babies, children and their families.
Guidelines for sustainability linked to the government-approved National Curriculum for education in New Zealand emphasise values of empathy and respect for all life. These instruct educators to discuss different values around sustainability and conservation.
I reviewed educational resources published or endorsed by government agencies to determine compliance with these sustainability Guidelines. The resources reviewed promote the view that non-native mammals should be killed. Some resources go further in giving instructions to children on how to do this, and how to source kill traps.
Children are provided with material designed to engender dislike towards non-native mammals, particularly possums. Resources conflate issues of conservation by tying it in with protection of tourism, ornamental plants and primary industries.
This encouragement of killing in environmental educational resources appears unique to New Zealand. It is discussed in light of increasing evidence that performing or witnessing animal abuse is a causal factor for future violence towards human and non-human animals.
There is still much unclear about the nature of the origins of Australia’s most respected and hallowed national day, namely Anzac Day, 25 April, and about who was primarily responsible for instituting a day of solemn commemoration for the fallen in the Great War of 1914–18. Much has been written by mostly unqualified would-be ‘authorities’ that is either patently false, uninformed or hostile to the commemoration. This is either because of resentment in some quarters of the distinctly Anglican contribution to the nature of the commemoration or pacifist misunderstanding that the celebration of Anzac Day is somehow a glorification of war. This paper based on original research into the files of the Queensland Anzac Day Commemoration Committee establishes the key role of Canon David John Garland (1864–1939) in shaping a liturgy of civic religion for the day which he hoped would become a means of reminding the population of their calling as part of the British Empire to emphasize the reign of Almighty God over all nations of the earth. That was the hidden Christian agenda in the mind of Canon Garland. Naturally he had his opponents to this objective.
This provides an overview of trends in heritage language research focusing on Aotearoa New Zealand and Australia. Each country has its own history of colonization, historical and contemporary policies affecting heritage language transmission, and current areas of interest and concern, and these are explored at the beginning of each country’s respective section as necessary contextual background. Then, the past and current research trends for heritage languages in Aotearoa New Zealand and Australia, respectively, are presented. This discussion, situated alongside a broad definition of “heritage languages,” includes both native and immigrant languages in each of the two countries. Aotearoa New Zealand’s more than 160 languages and Australia’s more than 360 languages are acknowledged and broadly discussed. Similarities and differences in research across heritage language groups (e.g., te reo Māori, New Zealand Sign Language, Pasifika languages, Aboriginal languages, Torres Strait Islander languages, and immigrant languages) and across countries are presented, revealing which areas have been focused on as well as areas in need of future research.
In response to annual outbreaks of human cercarial dermatitis (HCD) in Lake Wanaka, New Zealand, ducks and snails were collected and screened for avian schistosomes. During the survey from 2009 to 2017, four species of Trichobilharzia were recovered. Specimens were examined both morphologically and genetically. Trichobilharzia querquedulae, a species known from four continents, was found in the visceral veins of the duck Spatula rhynchotis but the snail host remains unknown. Cercaria longicauda [i.e. Trichobilharzia longicauda (Macfarlane, 1944) Davis, 2006], considered the major aetiological agent of HCD in Lake Wanaka, was discovered, and redescribed from adults in the visceral veins of the duck Aythya novaeseelandiae and cercariae from the snail Austropeplea tomentosa. Recovered from the nasal mucosa of Ay. novaeseelandiae is a new species of Trichobilharzia that was also found to cycle naturally through Au. tomentosa. Cercariae of a fourth species of Trichobilharzia were found in Au. tomentosa but the species remains unidentified.
This story from the Korean War goes to the heart of the unique bond between Australian and New Zealand soldiers, one cemented in mutual respect, expressed by a fierce rivalry and a steadfastness to stand shoulder-to-shoulder against any foe, perceived or real. The old coat of arms for New Zealand carried the motto ‘Onward’ (also the motto of the 1 New Zealand Expeditionary Force during the First World War and of the 1 Royal New Zealand Infantry Regiment today). It is a motto of modest intent somewhat in keeping with the retiring, nocturnal and flightless kiwi emblazoned on the sleeves of members of the New Zealand Army.