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Methionine is a precursor of s-adenosylmethionine, the main donor of methyl radicals for methylation of DNA and other compounds. Previous studies have shown that reduced availability of methyl radicals during pregnancy/lactation decreased offspring perigonadal white adipose tissue (PWAT) and body weight. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the effects of methionine supplementation during early development, a time of great ontogenic plasticity, by assessing the biometric, biochemical and behavioural parameters of the offspring of adult Swiss female mice supplemented with 1 % methionine in water 1 month before pregnancy, during pregnancy or pregnancy/lactation. After birth, the offspring were distributed into three groups: control (CT), methionine supplementation during pregnancy (SP) and methionine supplementation during pregnancy and lactation (SPL), and were followed until postnatal day (PND) 300. No changes were observed in offspring birth weight in both sexes. At PND 5, 28 and 90, no differences in body weight were found in females; however, at PND 300, SP and SPL females showed an increase in body weight when compared with the control group. This increase in body weight was accompanied by a total and relative increase in PWAT, and a decrease in locomotor activity in these groups. No differences in the body and organ weights were found in male offspring. In conclusion, the increased availability of methyl radicals during pregnancy and lactation impacted long-term body composition and locomotor activity in female offspring.
Commercial diets for tilapia juveniles contain high levels of plant protein sources. Soybean meal has been utilised due to its high protein content; however, soy-based diets are limited in methionine (Met) and require its supplementation to fulfil fish requirements. dl-Methinone (dl-Met) and Ca bis-methionine hydroxyl analogue (MHA-Ca) are synthetic Met sources supplemented in aquafeeds, which may differ in biological efficiency due to structural differences. The present study evaluated the effect of both methionine sources on metabolism and growth of Nile tilapia. A growth trial was performed using three isonitrogenous and isoenergetic diets, containing plant ingredients as protein sources: DLM and MHA diets were supplemented on equimolar levels of Met, while REF diet was not supplemented. Hepatic free Met and one-carbon metabolites were determined in fish fed for 57 d. Metabolism of dl-Met and MHA was analysed by an in vivo time-course trial using 14C-labelled tracers. Only dl-Met supplementation significantly increased final body weight and improved feed conversion and protein efficiency ratios compared with the REF diet. Our findings indicate that Met in DLM fed fish follows the transsulphuration pathway, while in fish fed MHA and REF diets it is remethylated. The in vivo trial revealed that 14C-dl-Met is absorbed faster and more retained than 14C-MHA, resulting in a greater availability of free Met in the tissues when fish is fed with DLM diet. Our study indicates that dietary dl-Met supplementation improves growth performance and N retention, and that Met absorption and utilisation are influenced by the dietary source in tilapia juveniles.
This study evaluated how different forms of selenium (Se) supplementation into rainbow trout broodstock diets modified the one-carbon metabolism of the progeny after the beginning of exogenous feeding and followed by hypoxia challenge. The progeny of three groups of rainbow trout broodstock fed either a control diet (Se level: 0·3 µg/g) or a diet supplemented with inorganic sodium selenite (Se level: 0·6 µg/g) or organic hydroxy-selenomethionine (Se level: 0·6 µg/g) was cross-fed with diets of similar Se composition for 11 weeks. Offspring were sampled either before or after being subjected to an acute hypoxic stress (1·7 mg/l dissolved oxygen) for 30 min. In normoxic fry, parental Se supplementation allowed higher glutathione levels compared with fry originating from parents fed the control diet. Parental hydroxy-selenomethionine treatment also increased cysteine and cysteinyl–glycine concentrations in fry. Dietary Se supplementation decreased glutamate–cysteine ligase (cgl) mRNA levels. Hydroxy-selenomethionine feeding also lowered the levels of some essential free amino acids in muscle tissue. Supplementation of organic Se to parents and fry reduced betaine-homocysteine S-methyltransferase (bhmt) expression in fry. The hypoxic stress decreased whole-body homocysteine, cysteine, cysteinyl-glycine and glutathione levels. Together with the higher mRNA levels of cystathionine beta-synthase (cbs), a transsulphuration enzyme, this suggests that under hypoxia, glutathione synthesis through transsulphuration might have been impaired by depletion of a glutathione precursor. In stressed fry, S-adenosylmethionine levels were significantly decreased, but S-adenosylhomocysteine remained stable. Decreased bhmt and adenosylmethionine decarboxylase 1a (amd1a) mRNA levels in stressed fry suggest a nutritional programming by parental Se also on methionine metabolism of rainbow trout.
In the current research, a 60-d experiment was conducted with the purpose of exploring the impacts of methionine (Met) on growth performance, muscle nutritive deposition, muscle fibre growth and type I collagen synthesis as well as the related signalling pathway. Six diets (iso-nitrogenous) differing in Met concentrations (2·54, 4·85, 7·43, 10·12, 12·40 and 15·11 g/kg diets) were fed to 540 grass carp (178·47 (SD 0·36) g). Results showed (P < 0·05) that compared with Met deficiency, optimal level of dietary Met (1) increased feed intake, feed efficiency, specific growth rate and percentage weight gain (PWG); (2) increased fish muscle protein, lipid and free amino acid contents and improved fish muscle fatty acid profile as well as increased protein content in part associated with the target of rapamycin complex 1 (TORC1)/S6K1 signalling pathway; (3) increased the frequency distribution of muscle fibre with >50 µm of diameter; (4) increased type I collagen synthesis partly related to the transforming growth factor-β1/Smads and CK2/TORC1 signalling pathways. In conclusion, dietary Met improved muscle growth, which might be due to the regulation of muscle nutritive deposition, muscle fibre growth and type I collagen synthesis-related signal molecules. Finally, according to PWG and muscle collagen content, the Met requirements for on-growing grass carp (178–626 g) were estimated to be 9·56 g/kg diet (33·26 g/kg protein of diet) and 9·28 g/kg diet (32·29 g/kg of dietary protein), respectively.
The objective of this study was to assess the nutritional quality of pea protein isolate in rats and to evaluate the impact of methionine (Met) supplementation. Several protein diets were studied: pea protein, casein, gluten, pea protein–gluten combination and pea protein supplemented with Met. Study 1: Young male Wistar rats (n 8/group) were fed the test diets ad libitum for 28 d. The protein efficiency ratio (PER) was measured. Study 2: Adult male Wistar rats (n 9/group) were fed the test diets for 10 d. A protein-free diet group was used to determine endogenous losses of N. The rats were placed in metabolism cages for 3 d to assess N balance, true faecal N digestibility and to calculate the Protein Digestible-Corrected Amino Acid Score (PDCAAS). They were then given a calibrated meal and euthanised 6 h later for collection of digestive contents. The true caecal amino acid (AA) digestibility was determined, and the Digestible Indispensable Amino Acid Score (DIAAS) was calculated. Met supplementation increased the PER of pea protein (2·52 v. 1·14, P < 0·001) up to the PER of casein (2·55). Mean true caecal AA digestibility was 94 % for pea protein. The DIAAS was 0·88 for pea protein and 1·10 with Met supplementation, 1·29 for casein and 0·25 for gluten. Pea protein was highly digestible in rats under our experimental conditions, and Met supplementation enabled generation of a mixture that had a protein quality that was not different from that of casein.
Nutritionists have been discussing whether the dietary supplementation of cyst(e)ine is required as a part of the dietary methionine (Met) in the total sulfur amino acid (TSAA) requirement to achieve optimum performance in broilers. Part of Met is converted to cysteine (Cys) to meet the Cys requirement, especially for feather growth. The TSAA requirement has been determined by using graded levels of free Met in the diet, without supplementation of free cyst(e)ine. It has also been argued that the Met to Cys ratio (Met : Cys) changes with age and even with different Met sources. The objective of this study was to evaluate the two sources of Met, while determining the proportion of Met and Cys in total dietary TSAA that optimize the performance of broilers. A performance assay was carried out in a factorial arrangement (5 × 2) using 1080 broilers from 42 to 56 days of age fed diets having different dietary proportions of Met and Cys (44 : 56, 46 : 54, 48 : 52, 50 : 50 or 52 : 48) while maintaining the same dietary TSAA in the diets. Two synthetic Met sources (dl-Met or l-Met) were used for each of the diets with different dietary Met : Cys ratios. Twenty-one broilers of the same age were fed the diets 44 : 56, 48 : 52 and 52 : 48 by supplementing the diet with L-(15N) Met or L-(15N2) Cystine to study the metabolism of TSAA. No differences were observed between Met sources for feed intake, BW gain and feed conversion ratio (FCR; P > 0.05); however, FCR was numerically improved at 50 : 50 Met : Cys. Regarding TSAA utilization, the conversion of Met to Cys increased with increase in Met : Cys ratios, but the concentration of Met intermediates decreased. Broiler chickens responded to different dietary proportions of sulfur amino acids by altering their sulfur amino acid metabolism, and diets containing 50 : 50 Met : Cys is recommended for broilers of age 42 to 56 days.
In this research communication, a cell model with elevated β-CASEIN synthesis was established by stimulating bovine mammary epithelial cells with 0.6 mM methionine, and the genome-wide gene expression profiles of methionine-stimulated cells and untreated cells were investigated by RNA sequencing. A total of 458 differentially expressed genes (DEGs; 219 upregulated and 239 downregulated) were identified between the two groups. Gene Ontology (GO) analysis showed that the two highest-ranked GO terms in ‘molecular function’ category were ‘binding’ and ‘catalytic activity’, suggesting that milk protein synthesis in methionine-stimulated cells requires induction of gene expression to increase metabolic activity. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes analysis revealed that within the ‘environmental information processing’ category, the subcategory that is most highly enriched for DEGs was ‘signal transduction’. cGMP-PKG, Rap1, calcium, cAMP, PI3K-AKT, MAPK, and JAK-STAT are the pathways with the highest number of DEGs, suggesting that these signaling pathways have potential roles in mediating methionine-induced milk protein synthesis in bovine mammary epithelial cells. This study provides valuable insights into the physiological and metabolic adaptations in cells stimulated with methionine. Understanding the regulation of this transition is essential for effective intervention in the lactation process.
Ruminants fed high-forage diets usually have a low feed efficiency, and their performances might be limited by methionine (Met) supply. However, the INRA feeding system for growing cattle does not give recommendation for this amino acid (AA). This study aimed to assess the effects of Met-balanced diets on animal performance and N metabolism in young bulls fed high-forage diets formulated at or above protein requirements. Four diets resulting from a factorial arrangement of two protein levels (Normal (13·5 % crude protein) v. High (16·2 % crude protein)) crossed with two Met concentrations (unbalanced (2·0 % of metabolisable protein) v. balanced (2·6 % of metabolisable protein)) were tested on thirty-four fattening Charolais bulls for 7 months before slaughter. Animal growth rate was greater in Met-balanced diets (+8 %; P = 0·02) with a trend for a greater impact in High v. Normal protein diets (P = 0·10). This trend was observed in lower plasma concentrations of branched-chain AA only when Met supplementation was applied to the Normal protein diet (P ≤ 0·06) suggesting another co-limiting AA at Normal protein level. Feed conversion efficiency and N use efficiency were unaffected by Met supplementation (P > 0·05). However, some plasma indicators suggested a better use of AA when High protein diets were balanced v. unbalanced in Met. The proportion of total adipose tissue in carcass increased (+5 percent units; P = 0·03), whereas that of muscle decreased on average 0·8 percent units (P = 0·05) in Met-balanced diets. Our results justify the integration of AA into dietary recommendations for growing cattle.
Methionine, an essential sulphur-containing amino acid (SAA), plays an integral role in many metabolic processes. Evidence for the methionine requirements of adult dogs is limited, and we employed the indicator amino acid oxidation (IAAO) method to estimate dietary methionine requirements in Labrador retrievers (n 21). Using semi-purified diets, the mean requirement was 0·55 (95 % CI 0·41, 0·71) g/4184 kJ. In a subsequent parallel design study, three groups of adult Labrador retrievers (n 52) were fed semi-purified diets with 0·55 g/4184 kJ (test diet 1), 0·71 g/4184 kJ (test diet 2) or 1·37 g/4184 kJ (control diet) of methionine for 32 weeks to assess the long-term consequences of feeding. The total SAA content (2·68 g/4184 kJ) was maintained through dietary supplementation of cystine. Plasma methionine did not decrease in test group and increased significantly on test diet 1 in weeks 8 and 16 compared with control. Reducing dietary methionine did not have a significant effect on whole blood, plasma or urinary taurine or plasma N-terminal pro B-type natriuretic peptide. Significant effects in both test diets were observed for cholesterol, betaine and dimethylglycine. In conclusion, feeding methionine at the IAAO-estimated mean was sufficient to maintain plasma methionine over 32 weeks when total SAA was maintained. However, choline oxidation may have increased to support plasma methionine and have additional consequences for lipid metabolism. While the IAAO can be employed to assess essential amino acid requirements, such as methionine in the dog using semi-purified diets, further work is required to establish safe levels for commercial diet formats.
B vitamins (including folate, vitamin B2, vitamin B6 and vitamin B12) and methionine are essential for methylation reactions, nucleotide synthesis, DNA stability and DNA repair. However, epidemiological evidence among Chinese populations is limited. The objective of this study was to evaluate B vitamins and methionine in relation to colorectal cancer risk in a Chinese population. A case–control study was conducted from July 2010 to April 2019. A total of 2502 patients with colorectal cancer were recruited along with 2538 age- (5-year interval) and sex-matched controls. Dietary data were collected using a validated FFQ. Multivariable logistic regression was used to assess OR and 95 % CI. The intake of folate, vitamin B2, vitamin B6 and vitamin B12 was inversely associated with colorectal cancer risk. The multivariable OR for the highest quartile v. the lowest quartile were 0·62 (95 % CI 0·51, 0·74; Ptrend < 0·001) for folate, 0·46 (95 % CI 0·38, 0·55; Ptrend < 0·001) for vitamin B2, 0·55 (95 % CI 0·46, 0·76; Ptrend < 0·001) for vitamin B6 and 0·72 (95 % CI 0·60, 0·86; Ptrend < 0·001) for vitamin B12. No statistically significant association was found between methionine intake and colorectal cancer risk. Stratified analysis by sex showed that the inverse associations between vitamin B12 and methionine intake and colorectal cancer risk were found only among women. This study indicated that higher intake of folate, vitamin B2, vitamin B6 and vitamin B12 was associated with decreased risk of colorectal cancer in a Chinese population.
Despite the well-characterised mechanisms of amino acids (AA) regulation of milk protein synthesis in mammary glands (MG), the underlying specific AA regulatory machinery in bovine MG remains further elucidated. As methionine (Met) is one of the most important essential and limiting AA for dairy cows, it is crucial to expand how Met exerts its regulatory effects on dairy milk protein synthesis. Our previous work detected the potential regulatory role of seryl-tRNA synthetase (SARS) in essential AA (EAA)-stimulated bovine casein synthesis. Here, we investigated whether and how SARS participates in Met stimulation of casein production in bovine mammary epithelial cells (BMEC). With or without RNA interference against SARS, BMEC were treated with the medium in the absence (containing all other EAA and devoid of Met alone)/presence (containing 0·6 mm of Met in the medium devoid of Met alone) of Met. The protein abundance of β-casein and members of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and general control nonderepressible 2 (GCN2) pathways was determined by immunoblot assay after 6 h treatment, the cell viability and cell cycle progression were determined by cell counting and propidium iodide-staining assay after 24 h treatment, and protein turnover was determined by l-[ring-3H5]phenylalanine isotope tracing assay after 48 h treatment. In the absence of Met, there was a general reduction in cell viability, total protein synthesis and β-casein production; in contrast, total protein degradation was enhanced. SARS knockdown strengthened these changes. Finally, SARS may work to promote Met-stimulated β-casein synthesis via affecting mTOR and GCN2 routes in BMEC.
The work described in this research communication aimed to investigate whether rumen-protected methionine (Met) supplementation during the periparturient period would affect the expression of galectins in blood-derived neutrophils, and secretion of galectins, IL (interleukin)-1β, IL-6, myeloperoxidase (MPO), and glucose in plasma. Because supplementation of rumen-protected Met would alleviate inflammation and oxidative stress during the peripartal period, we hypothesized that enhancing Met supply would benefit the innate immune response at least in part by altering the expression of galectin genes associated with neutrophil activity and inflammation. Galectins (Gal) have an immuno-modulating effect acting like cell-surface receptors whose activation often results in signaling cascades stimulating cells such as neutrophils. This study revealed an association between Met supplementation and galectin expression and secretion. This implies that galectin expression and secretion can be modulated by Met supplementation. Further studies are needed to evaluate the regulation of galectin gene expression for therapeutic and dietary intervention in the peripartal cow.
An 8-week feeding experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of dl-methionine (Met) supplementation in a low-fishmeal diet on growth, key gene expressions of amino acid transporters and target of rapamycin (TOR) pathway in juvenile cobia, Rachycentron canadum. Seven isonitrogenous and isolipidic diets were formulated, containing 0·72, 0·90, 1·00, 1·24, 1·41, 1·63 and 1·86 % Met. Weight gain and specific growth rates increased gradually with Met levels of up to 1·24 % and then decreased gradually. In dorsal muscle, mRNA levels of ASCT2 in the 1·00 % Met group were significantly up-regulated compared with 0·72, 1·63, and 1·86 %. The insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) mRNA levels in the dorsal muscle of fish fed 1·00 and 1·24 % Met were higher than those in fish fed other Met levels. In addition, fish fed 1·24 % Met showed the highest mRNA levels of TOR and phosphorylation of TOR on Ser2448. The phosphorylation of ribosomal p70-S6 kinase (S6K) on Ser371 in the dorsal muscle of fish fed 1·86 % Met was higher than those in the 0·72 % group. In conclusion, straight broken-line analysis of weight gain rate against dietary Met level indicates that the optimal Met requirement for juvenile cobia is 1·24 % (of DM, or 2·71 % dietary protein). Met supplementation in a low-fishmeal diet increased cobia growth via a mechanism that can partly be attributed to Met’s ability to affect the TOR/S6K signalling pathway by enhancing ASCT2 and IGF-I transcription in cobia dorsal muscle.
The dipeptide dl-methionyl-dl-methionine (Met-Met) has extremely low water solubility and better absorption than other methionine sources (such as dl-methionine and l-methionine) available in the market. Therefore, six diets (D1, D2, D3, D4, D5 and D6) containing 0, 0·07, 0·15, 0·21, 0·28 and 0·38 % Met-Met were formulated to investigate the effects of Met-Met in juvenile Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (17 g initial body weight). The results indicated that percentage weight gain and specific growth rate of fish fed with D2 and D3 diets were higher than those fed with D1, D4–D6 diets. The levels of total essential amino acid in whole body of fish fed with D3 and D4 diets were significantly higher than those fed the D1 diet. Superoxide dismutase activity and malondialdehyde content have no significant difference in fish fed the diet with or without Met-Met supplementation. Majority of reads derived from the fish intestine belonged to members of Fusobacteria, followed by Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria. Diversity of intestinal microbiota and total antioxidant capacity in fish fed with D3 diet was significantly higher than that of other groups. Based on the growth results, the authors conclude that the optimal level of Met is 0·61 % Met with the addition of 0·15 % Met-Met for grower-phase O. niloticus.
Some amino acids (AA) act through several signalling pathways and mechanisms to mediate the control of gene expression at the translation level, and the regulation occurs, specifically, on the initiation and the signalling pathways for translation. The translation of mRNA to protein synthesis proceeds through the steps of initiation and elongation, and AA act as important feed-forward activators that are involved in many pathways, such as the sensing and the transportation of AA by cells, in these steps in many tissues of mammals. For the translation, phosphorylation of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2α (eIF2α) is a critical molecule that controls the translation initiation and its functions can be regulated by some AA. Another control point in the mRNA binding step in the translation initiation is at the regulation by mammalian target of rapamycin, which requires a change of phosphorylation status of ribosomal protein S6. In fact, the change of phosphorylation status of ribosomal protein S6 might be involved in global protein synthesis. The present review summarises recent work on the molecular mechanisms of the regulation of protein synthesis by AA and highlights new findings.
Maternal one-carbon metabolism during pregnancy is crucial for fetal development and programming by DNA methylation. However, evidence on one-carbon biomarkers other than folate is lacking. We, therefore, investigated whether maternal plasma methyl donors, that is, choline, betaine and methionine, are associated with birth outcomes. Blood samples were obtained from 115 women during gestation (median 26·3 weeks, 90 % range 22·7–33·0 weeks). Plasma choline, betaine, methionine and dimethylglycine were measured using HPLC-tandem MS. Multivariate linear and logistic regression models were used to estimate the association between plasma biomarkers and birth weight, birth length, the risk of small-for-gestational-age and large-for-gestational-age (LGA). Higher level of maternal betaine was associated with lower birth weight (–130·3 (95 % CI –244·8, –15·9) per 1 sd increment for log-transformed betaine). Higher maternal methionine was associated with lower risk of LGA, and adjusted OR, with 95 % CI for 1 sd increase in methionine concentration was 0·44 (95 % CI 0·21, 0·89). Stratified analyses according to infant sex or maternal plasma homocysteine status showed that reduction in birth weight in relation to maternal betaine was only limited to male infants or to who had higher maternal homocysteine status (≥5·1 µmol/l). Higher maternal betaine status was associated with reduced birth weight. Maternal methionine was inversely associated with LGA risk. These findings are needed to be replicated in future larger studies.
Supplementation of methionine (Met) in broiler chicken diets is essential to support productive performance and optimise carcass yield. Met is the first limiting amino acid in corn and soybean-meal based diets for poultry. The DL-Met form is the main source used in broiler diets, but other sources such as acid free hydroxy-analogous methionine (HMA-FA) are available. Studies have indicated that the molar bioequivalence of HMA-FA is approximately 88% compared with DL-Met at 99% for growth traits. However, differences in absorption and metabolism between Met sources can influence their efficacy, especially when broilers are exposed to high temperatures. The substitution of DL-Met by HMA-FA is a potential strategy to mitigate the negative effects of heat stress because it is passively absorbed in the upper portion of the gastrointestinal tract. This review highlights the effects of substituting HMA-FA for DL-Met in diets for broiler chickens reared in different thermal environments.
Nutritional science has traditionally used the reductionist approach to understand the roles of individual nutrients in growth and development. The macronutrient dense but micronutrient poor diets consumed by many in the Western world may not result in an overt deficiency; however, there may be situations where multiple mild deficiencies combine with excess energy to alter cellular metabolism. These interactions are especially important in pregnancy as changes in early development modify the risk of developing non-communicable diseases later in life. Nutrient interactions affect all stages of fetal development, influencing endocrine programming, organ development and the epigenetic programming of gene expression. The rapidly developing field of stem cell metabolism reveals new links between cellular metabolism and differentiation. This review will consider the interactions between nutrients in the maternal diet and their influence on fetal development, with particular reference to energy metabolism, amino acids and the vitamins in the B group.
The optimisation of nutritional support for the growing number of older individuals does not usually take into account medication. Paracetamol (acetaminophen; APAP) is the first intention treatment of chronic pain that is highly prevalent and persistent in the elderly. Detoxification of APAP occurs in the liver and utilises sulfate and glutathione (GSH), both of which are issued from cysteine (Cys), a conditionally indispensable amino acid. The detoxification-induced siphoning of Cys could reduce the availability of Cys for skeletal muscle. Consequently, APAP could worsen sarcopenia, an important component of the frailty syndrome leading to dependency. The present review provides the rationale for the potential pro-sarcopenic effect of APAP then recent results concerning the effect of chronic APAP treatment on muscle mass and metabolism are discussed. The principal findings are that chronic treatments with doses of APAP comparable with the maximum posology for humans can increase the requirement for sulfur amino acids (SAA), reduce Cys availability for muscle, reduce muscle protein synthesis and aggravate sarcopenia in animals. One clinical study is in favour of an enhanced SAA requirement in the older individual under chronic treatment with APAP. Few clinical studies investigated the effect of chronic treatment with APAP combined with exercise, in nutritional conditions that probably did not affect Cys and GSH homeostasis. Whether APAP can aggravate sarcopenia in older individuals with low protein intake remains to be tested. If true, nutritional strategies based on enhancing Cys supply could be of prime interest to cut down the pro-sarcopenic effect of chronic treatment with APAP.
Compensatory gain describes an accelerated growth seen in animals following a period of nutrient restriction. Methionine (Met) is the second limiting amino acid in typical swine diets and is essential for muscle growth. This study was conducted to determine (1) if a Met-deficient diet can cause growth retardation in growing pigs, (2) if returning to a normal feeding can yield compensatory gain in the pigs previously fed the Met-deficient diet, and (3) if this Met-deficiency followed by the normal feeding program affects carcass characteristics. Twenty individually-penned crossbred young barrows were randomly allotted to two dietary treatments (n = 10). One Met-deficient (D1) and one Met-adequate (D2) diets were formulated based on corn and soybean meal and fed to respective pigs for 31 days. After that, all pigs were fed the same commercial grower-finisher diet until market weight (around 125 kg), then slaughtered, and carcass characteristics measured. The D1 and D2 pigs began with similar body weights (23.5 vs. 23.6 kg; P = 0.935), but after 31-days on the dietary treatments, D1 pigs were lighter than D2 pigs (51.6 vs. 55.0 kg; P = 0.102). After feeding the normal diet for 55 days, D1 and D2 pigs had similar body weights (122.7 vs. 122.6 kg; P = 0.989). In terms of carcass characteristics, however, D1 pigs had thicker back-fat (at 10th rib; 2.95 vs. 2.51 cm; P = 0.015), heavier belly weight (11.0 vs. 9.6 kg; P = 0.005), lighter ham weights (untrimmed: 20.8 vs. 21.6 kg; P = 0.043; trimmed: 19.6 vs. 20.6 kg; P = 0.016), lighter picnic shoulder weight (8.72 vs. 9.80 kg; P = 0.041), lighter total lean cut weight (51.8 vs. 53.8 kg; P = 0.055), and lower lean cut percentage (56.4 vs. 59.0%; P = 0.012). These results indicate that the Met-deficient diet produced growth-retarded pigs, which showed compensatory gain after the normal feeding. At slaughter, the pigs previously fed the Met-deficient diet had more fat and less lean tissue than their non-deficient counterparts.