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Gray matter morphometry studies have lent seminal insights into the etiology of mental illness. Existing research has primarily focused on adults and then, typically on a single disorder. Examining brain characteristics in late childhood, when the brain is preparing to undergo significant adolescent reorganization and various forms of serious psychopathology are just first emerging, may allow for a unique and highly important perspective of overlapping and unique pathogenesis.
A total of 8645 youth were recruited as part of the Adolescent Brain and Cognitive Development study. Magnetic resonance imaging scans were collected, and psychotic-like experiences (PLEs), depressive, and anxiety symptoms were assessed three times over a 2-year period. Cortical thickness, surface area, and subcortical volume were used to predict baseline symptomatology and symptom progression over time.
Some features could possibly signal common vulnerability, predicting progression across forms of psychopathology (e.g. superior frontal and middle temporal regions). However, there was a specific predictive value for emerging PLEs (lateral occipital and precentral thickness), anxiety (parietal thickness/area and cingulate), and depression (e.g. parahippocampal and inferior temporal).
Findings indicate common and distinct patterns of vulnerability for varying forms of psychopathology are present during late childhood, before the adolescent reorganization, and have direct relevance for informing novel conceptual models along with early prevention and intervention efforts.
Quantum sensing is the most exciting quantum technology and it has the most potential to change our lives in the next decade and beyond. Quantum sensors will offer new capabilities with benefits for medicine, defense, intelligence, extractive industries and many others. Quantum sensing is a precursor technology to quantum computing and communications. Quantum sensors use quantum properties and effects to measure or sense physical things. This chapter explores quantum sensing as a topic in its own right, because the capabilities of quantum sensing are surprising and offer new forms of knowledge discovery and at new levels of analysis. Furthermore quantum sensors are here today---indeed, they have been in use for more than fifty years.
A total of 80% of fibromyalgia (FM) population have reported poor sleep. In this regard, the pineal gland, involved in circadian rhythm processes as a key neuroendocrine organ which mainly synthesises and secretes melatonin, has never been studied before in this population. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the parenchyma pineal volume and its relation to sleep hours, sleep quality index and melatonin level at night. A total of 50 participants, 30 women with FM and 20 healthy control women underwent cranial magnetic resonance imaging. The total pineal volume, cyst pineal volume and parenchyma pineal volume were manually calculated in cubic millimetres. Also, the total pineal volume was estimated using Hasehawa method. Parenchyma pineal volume was significantly correlated with sleep hours (p-value = 0.041) and nocturnal melatonin level (p-value = 0.027). Moreover, there was also a non-significant correlation between parenchyma pineal volume and sleep quality index (p-value = 0.055). Furthermore, a mean parenchyma pineal volume of 102.00 (41.46) mm³ was observed, with a prevalence of 29.60% cyst in FM group. This is the first study that has reported pineal gland volumes, cyst prevalence and correlative relationships between parenchyma pineal volume and sleep hours and melatonin levels in women with FM.
With a lifetime prevalence of up to 75%, uterine fibroids are the most common benign tumour of the female reproductive system. Fibroids present the most common indication for hysterectomy and are associated with high health-related costs. They can severely affect the quality of life of these women and may diminish fertility. This chapter provides an overview of the aetiology, prevalence, diagnosis and treatment options for uterine fibroids. As the reproductive phase is shifting ever further back into the life of a woman, conservative therapy options are becoming increasingly important.
In this chapter, we provide a historical and a contemporary overview of the hearing brain. We will review how various brain-imaging methods are employed to study how sounds and meanings are represented in the brain. These studies have provided the foundation from which network models of the brain are built. We will conclude with a discussion of the practical aspects of the neuroscience of language, such as how it will further our understanding of the brain and lead to clinical applications.
The focus of this chapter is to discuss a multidisciplinary approach to maternal-fetal patients undergoing minimally invasive (shunt or fetoscopic) procedures, open fetal surgery, or the ex-utero intrapartum therapy (EXIT) procedure. The team requires a diverse group of personnel. We will discuss the nature of this team and the pertinent aspects of the preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative phase of care for the maternal-fetal patient. The preparation required for the team members providing care for these patients as well as the long-term follow-up and research aspects are outlined. Comprehensive expert care for these interventions requires administrative, institutional, research, and philanthropic support.
Progressive brain structural MRI changes are described in schizophrenia and have been ascribed to both illness progression and antipsychotic treatment. We investigated treatment effects, in terms of total cumulative antipsychotic dose, efficacy and tolerability, on brain structural changes over the first 24 months of treatment in schizophrenia.
A prospective, 24-month, single-site cohort study in 99 minimally treated patients with first-episode schizophrenia, schizophreniform and schizoaffective disorder, and 98 matched healthy controls. We treated the patients according to a fixed protocol with flupenthixol decanoate, a long-acting injectable antipsychotic. We assessed psychopathology, cognition, extrapyramidal symptoms and BMI, and acquired MRI scans at months 0, 12 and 24. We selected global cortical thickness, white matter volume and basal ganglia volume as the regions of interest.
The only significant group × time interaction was for basal ganglia volumes. However, patients, but not controls, displayed cortical thickness reductions and increases in white matter and basal ganglia volumes. Cortical thickness reductions were unrelated to treatment. White matter volume increases were associated with lower cumulative antipsychotic dose, greater improvements in psychopathology and cognition, and more extrapyramidal symptoms. Basal ganglia volume increases were associated with greater improvements in psychopathology, greater increases in BMI and more extrapyramidal symptoms.
We provide evidence for plasticity in white matter and basal ganglia associated with antipsychotic treatment in schizophrenia, most likely linked to the dopamine blocking actions of these agents. Cortical changes may be more closely related to the neurodevelopmental, non-dopaminergic aspects of the illness.
Exercise has been found to be important in maintaining neurocognitive health. However, the effect of exercise intensity level remains relatively underexplored. Thus, to test the hypothesis that self-paced high-intensity exercise and cardiorespiratory fitness (peak aerobic capacity; VO2peak) increase grey matter (GM) volume, we examined the effect of a 6-month exercise intervention on frontal lobe GM regions that support the executive functions in older adults.
Ninety-eight cognitively normal participants (age = 69.06 ± 5.2 years; n = 54 female) were randomised into either a self-paced high- or moderate-intensity cycle-based exercise intervention group, or a no-intervention control group. Participants underwent magnetic resonance imaging and fitness assessment pre-intervention, immediately post-intervention, and 12-months post-intervention.
The intervention was found to increase fitness in the exercise groups, as compared with the control group (F = 9.88, p = <0.001). Changes in pre-to-post-intervention fitness were associated with increased volume in the right frontal lobe (β = 0.29, p = 0.036, r = 0.27), right supplementary motor area (β = 0.30, p = 0.031, r = 0.29), and both right (β = 0.32, p = 0.034, r = 0.30) and left gyrus rectus (β = 0.30, p = 0.037, r = 0.29) for intervention, but not control participants. No differences in volume were observed across groups.
At an aggregate level, six months of self-paced high- or moderate-intensity exercise did not increase frontal GM volume. However, experimentally-induced changes in individual cardiorespiratory fitness was positively associated with frontal GM volume in our sample of older adults. These results provide evidence of individual variability in exercise-induced fitness on brain structure.
Survivors of patients with artery of Percheron infarction (API) often have a prolonged and disabling form of cognitive impairment that remains insufficiently characterized. We aimed to examine the clinical and cognitive features of API in the short and long term after stroke.
We reviewed 6400 patients with a first-ever stroke included in the Stroke Registry between 2011 and 2021. The diagnosis of API was based on clinical diagnosis and imaging confirmation. All patients underwent neuropsychological assessment at hospital stay and 1 year after stroke. A z-score of each patients’ cognitive test point was calculated, and a z-score inferior to 2 was considered as pathological.
Of the 10 patients enrolled, all had cognitive impairment, consciousness, and behavioral disorders at stroke onset. Six patients had pure bilateral thalamic involvement while four had bilateral thalamic and rostral midbrain involvement. At 12 months, 50% of patients had global mental state scores 2 SD below the population mean (z-score mean ± SD, −2.17 ± 0.4). Most of the prefrontal cortex cognitive processes including executive functions such as planning and cognitive control (z-score mean ± SD, −3.92 ± 0.3), processing speed (−4.42 ± 0.5), working memory (−3.97 ± 0.3) were severely impaired at stroke onset. Especially in patients with thalamic and rostral midbrain involvement, deficiencies in executive function (z-score mean ± SD, −2.60 ± 0.4), processing speed (−2.22 ± 0.5), working (−3.76 ± 0.4), and episodic memory (−2.23 ± 0.3) continued 12 months after stroke.
The occlusion of the artery of Percheron results in severe behavioral and cognitive disorders in the short and long term after stroke.
The aim of this systematic review was to synthesise and summarise evidence surrounding the clinical use of fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for target volume delineation (TVD) in rectal cancer radiotherapy planning.
PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane library, CINAHL, Web of Science and Scopus databases and other sources were systematically queried using keywords and relevant synonyms. Eligible full-text studies were assessed for methodological quality using the QUADAS-2 tool.
Eight of the 1448 studies identified met the inclusion criteria. Findings showed that MRI significantly delineate larger tumour volumes (TVs) than FDG-PET/CT while diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DW-MRI) defined smaller gross tumour volumes (GTVs) compared to T2 weighted-Magnetic Resonance Image. CT-based GTVs were found to be larger compared to FDG-PET/CT. FDG-PET/CT also identified new lesions in 15–17% patients and TVs extending outside the routinely used clinical standard CT TV in 29–83% patients. Between observers, delineated volumes were similar and consistent between MRI sequences, whereas interobserver agreement was significantly improved with FDG-PET/CT than CT.
FDG-PET/CT and DW-MRI appear to delineate smaller rectal TVs and show improved interobserver variability. Overall, this study provides valuable insights into the amount of attention in the research literature that has been paid to imaging for TVD in rectal cancer.
Machine learning has increasingly been applied to classification of psychosis spectrum in neuroimaging research. However, a number of multimodal studies using MRI and electroencephalography (EEG) is quite limited.
To assess the power of multimodal structural MRI (sMRI) and EEG data to provide pairwise discrimination between first-episode schizophrenia (FES) patients, individuals at ultra-high-risk of psychosis (UHR), and healthy controls (HC) using machine learning algorithms.
46 FES male patients, 39 UHR individuals, and 54 matched HC underwent sMRI (3T Philips scanner) and electroencephalography. T1-weighted images were processed via FreeSurfer to obtain cortical and subcortical measures. L2 regularized logistic regression was used to evaluate the efficacy of diagnostic prediction.
The accuracies of pairwise discriminations were: 87% for FES vs HC (specificity 83%, sensitivity 91%); 77% for FES vs UHR (specificity 76%, sensitivity 79%); 75% for UHR vs HC (specificity 77%, sensitivity 73%).
Current findings suggest that the patterns of anatomical and functional variability have potential as biomarkers for discrimination between schizophrenia, UHR, and healthy subjects. Furthermore, results show that the selection and multimodality of feature types are important. Specifically, adding EEG data to morphometric measures improved accuracy rates in FES vs HC and FES vs UHR contrasts, whereas standalone EEG data provided higher accuracy compared with morphometric or multimodal data in UHR vs HC discrimination. Expectedly, predictive power for the UHR was smaller than for the FES due to its intermediate anatomical features, located between those observed in healthy controls and those found in patients. The work was supported by RFBR grant 20-013-00748
Nut-based products may aid low-glycaemic dietary strategies that are important for diabetes prevention in populations at increased risk of dysglycaemia, such as Asian Chinese. This randomised cross-over trial assessed the postprandial glycaemic response (0–120 min) of a higher-protein nut-based (HP-NB) snack formulation, in bar format (1009 kJ, Nutrient Profiling Score, NPS, −2), when compared with an iso-energetic higher-carbohydrate (CHO) cereal-based bar (HC-CB, 985 kJ, NPS +3). It also assessed the ability to suppress glucose response to a typical CHO-rich food (white bread, WB), when co-ingested. Ten overweight prediabetic Chinese adults (mean, sd: age 47⋅9, 15⋅7 years; BMI 25⋅5, 1⋅6 kg/m2), with total body fat plus ectopic pancreas and liver fat quantified using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy, received the five meal treatments in random order: HP-NB, HC-CB, HP-NB + WB (50 g available CHO), HC-CB + WB and WB only. Compared with HC-CB, HP-NB induced a significantly lower 30–120 min glucose response (P < 0⋅05), with an approximately 10-fold lower incremental area under the glucose curve (iAUC0–120; P < 0⋅001). HP-NB also attenuated glucose response by approximately 25 % when co-ingested with WB (P < 0⋅05). Half of the cohort had elevated pancreas and/or liver fat, with 13–21 % greater suppression of iAUC0–120 glucose in the low v. high organ fat subgroups across all five treatments. A nut-based snack product may be a healthier alternative to an energy equivalent cereal-based product with evidence of both a lower postprandial glycaemic response and modulation of CHO-induced hyperglycaemia even in high-risk, overweight, pre-diabetic adults.
Delineating the proximal urethra can be critical for radiotherapy planning but is challenging on computerised tomography (CT) imaging.
Materials and methods:
We trialed a novel non-invasive technique to allow visualisation of the proximal urethra using a rapid sequence magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) protocol to visualise the urinary flow in patients voiding during the simulation scan.
Of the seven patients enrolled, four were able to void during the MRI scan. For these four patients, direct visualisation of urinary flow through the proximal urethra was achieved. The average volume of the proximal urethra contoured on voiding MRI was significantly higher than the proximal urethra contoured on CT, 4·07 and 1·60 cc, respectively (p = 0·02). The proximal urethra location also differed; the Dice coefficient average was 0·28 (range 0–0·62).
In this small, proof-of-concept prospective clinical trial, the volume and location of the proximal urethra differed significantly when contoured on a voiding MRI scan compared to that determined by a conventional CT simulation. The shape of the proximal urethra on voiding MRI may be more anatomically correct compared to the proximal urethra shape determined with a semi-rigid catheter in place.
Haematopoietic stem cell transplantation is an important and effective treatment strategy for many malignancies, marrow failure syndromes, and immunodeficiencies in children, adolescents, and young adults. Despite advances in supportive care, patients undergoing transplant are at increased risk to develop cardiovascular co-morbidities.
This study was performed as a feasibility study of a rapid cardiac MRI protocol to substitute for echocardiography in the assessment of left ventricular size and function, pericardial effusion, and right ventricular hypertension.
A total of 13 patients were enrolled for the study (age 17.5 ± 7.7 years, 77% male, 77% white). Mean study time was 13.2 ± 5.6 minutes for MRI and 18.8 ± 5.7 minutes for echocardiogram (p = 0.064). Correlation between left ventricular ejection fraction by MRI and echocardiogram was good (ICC 0.76; 95% CI 0.47, 0.92). None of the patients had documented right ventricular hypertension. Patients were given a survey regarding their experiences, with the majority both perceiving that the echocardiogram took longer (7/13) and indicating they would prefer the MRI if given a choice (10/13).
A rapid cardiac MRI protocol was shown feasible to substitute for echocardiogram in the assessment of key factors prior to or in follow-up after haematopoietic stem cell transplantation.