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This article discusses the rationale of adeia (immunity) in the fifth-century Athenian legal system. It argues that adeia was designed to grant a temporary suspension of the effect of a law in exceptional circumstances without allowing for any permanent legal change. This article explores the origin of adeia and the relevant ideology underpinning the legal procedure. It provides a comprehensive reconstruction of the legal procedure and analyses the extensive use of adeia for collecting information during the investigation of the profanation of the Mysteries and the mutilation of the herms in 415 BC. This article also discusses the implications of the use of adeia for public investigation and emergency powers in Classical Athens.
Mucosal immunity of Indian Antarctic personnel was analysed during the 34th Indian Scientific Expedition to Antarctica (ISEA) by ship voyage. Serum and salivary IgA, IgA1 and IgA2 levels along with salivary cortisol and TGF-β were quantified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Samples were collected at three different time points (T1, T2 and T3) during the expedition. Serum and salivary IgA, IgA1 and IgA2 concentrations incrementally increased towards the end of the expedition as compared to the beginning of the expedition. Salivary IgA and TGF-β levels were significantly altered during the expedition. Levels of IgA1 (P = 0.0007) and IgA2 (P = 0.0135) increased significantly at T3 as compared to T1. Additionally, significant changes in serum IgA were observed, with peak levels at T3 (P = 0.0015) and T2 (P < 0.001). However, the level of serum IgA2 was also significantly altered at T3 (P < 0.05) and T2 (P = 0.0006) in comparison with T1. The exact cause of the changes in serum and salivary IgA, IgA1, IgA2 and TGF-β levels during the summer expedition are unknown; however, the changes are evident in mucosal immunity.
During COVID-19, the Internet was a prime source for getting relevant updates on guidelines and desirable information. The objective of the present study was to determine the nutritional immunity information-seeking behaviour during COVID-19 in India.
Google Trends (GTs) data on relevant COVID-19 and nutritional topics were systematically selected and retrieved. Data on newly reported COVID-19 cases were also examined on a daily basis. The cross-correlation method was used to determine the correlation coefficient between the selected terms and daily new COVID-19 cases, and the joinpoint regression models were utilised to measure monthly percent change (MPC) in relative search volumes (RSV).
People using Google search during the period 1 January 2020–31 August 2020 in India.
The date of peak searches can be attributed to the COVID-19 guidelines announcement dates. All the nutritional terms showed a significant increase in average monthly percentage change. The higher than the average daily rise in COVID-19 cases leads to a higher than average increase in RSV of nutritional terms with the greatest association after 14–27 d. The highest mean relative search volume for nutritional terms was from Southern India (49·34 ± 7·43), and the lowest was from Western India (31·10 ± 6·30).
There was a significant rise in the Google searches of nutritional immunity topics during COVID-19 in India. The local/regional terms can be considered for better outreach of public health guidelines or recommendations. Further automation of Google Trends using programming languages can help in real-time monitoring and planning various health/nutritional events.
The conflict between Henry II and Thomas Becket was often seen in the past as a collision between the first stirrings of real legal universalism (the same law for all) and claims to exemptions and immunities. Recent scholarship has seriously qualified this picture, recognising the degree to which Henry sought an unfettered authority for the Crown, overriding traditional patterns of obligation and mutuality. Becket's resistance to this was intelligible, but he was increasingly driven to oppose to it a controversial account of clerical immunity, in which the person of the cleric was sacrosanct and all punishment meted out to the cleric must be essentially reformatory in purpose. The origins of this are explored, and contemporary implications in regard to conscientious religious liberties and also to persisting high-risk cultures of clerical immunity are discussed.
Excessive hepatic glycogen accumulation commonly impairs hepatocytes function and further produces negative effects on growth and health status of carnivorous fish. A 9-week feeding trial was conducted to explore the potential regulation of resveratrol (RSV) on high-carbohydrate-induced glycogen deposition and immune response of largemouth bass. Results showed that high dietary carbohydrate (10 % inclusion of starch) led to hepatic glycogen accumulation and post-prandial hyperglycemia compared with the diet with 5 % starch, which was both alleviated with the inclusion of RSV. The use of RSV promoted the expression of sirtuin 1, which was down-regulated by high dietary carbohydrate. Meanwhile, RSV inclusion promoted the expression of genes involved in insulin pathway and glycolysis and inhibited the expression of gluconeogenesis-related genes. Additionally, high dietary carbohydrate significantly reduced lysozyme content but increased complement C4 content, which were both reversed with RSV supplementation. Meanwhile, RSV inclusion inhibited the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines but promoted anti-inflammatory cytokines expression, compared with the high carbohydrate treatment. In conclusion, RSV inclusion was beneficial in alleviating high-dietary-carbohydrate-induced glycogen accumulation and immune response in largemouth bass.
This review provides an overview of the composition, structure, and biological activities of milk fat globule membrane (MFGM) compounds with focus on the future application of this compound as a food ingredient. MFGM is a particular component of mammalian milks and is comprised of a tri-layer of polar lipids, glycolipids and proteins. In recent years, MFGM has been extensively studied for the purpose of enhancing the efficacy of infant nutrition formula. For example, infant formulas supplemented with bovine MFGM have shown promising results with regard to neurodevelopment and defense against infections. Components of MFGM have been shown to present several health benefits as the proteins of the membrane have shown antiviral activity and a reduction in the incidence of diarrhea. Moreover, the presence of sphingomyelin, a phospholipid, implies beneficial effects on human health such as enhanced neuronal development in infants and the protection of neonates from bacterial infections. The development of a lipid that is similar to human milk fat would represent a significant advance for the infant formula industry and would offer high technology formulas for those infants that depend on infant formula. The complexity of the structure of MFGM and its nutritional and technological properties is critically examined in this review with a focus on issues relevant to the dairy industry.
SARS-CoV2 infects respiratory epithelial cells via its cellular receptor angiotensin-converting enzyme 2, causing a viral pneumonia with pronounced inflammation resulting in significant damage to the lungs and other organ systems, including the kidneys, though symptoms and disease severity are quite variable depending on the intensity of exposure and presence of underlying conditions that may affect the immune response. The resulting disease, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), can cause multi-organ system dysfunction in patients requiring hospitalisation and intensive care treatment. Serious infections like COVID-19 often negatively affect nutritional status, and the resulting nutritional deficiencies may increase disease severity and impair recovery. One example is the viral infection measles, where associated vitamin A (VA) deficiency increases disease severity and appropriately timed supplementation during recovery reduces mortality and hastens recovery. VA may play a similar role in COVID-19. First, VA is important in maintaining innate and adaptive immunity to promote clearance of a primary infection as well as minimise risks from secondary infections. Second, VA plays a unique role in the respiratory tract, minimising damaging inflammation, supporting repair of respiratory epithelium and preventing fibrosis. Third, VA deficiency may develop during COVID-19 due to specific effects on lung and liver stores caused by inflammation and impaired kidney function, suggesting that supplements may be needed to restore adequate status. Fourth, VA supplementation may counteract adverse effects of SARS-CoV2 on the angiotensin system as well as minimises adverse effects of some COVID-19 therapies. Evaluating interactions of SARS-CoV2 infection with VA metabolism may thus provide improved COVID-19 therapy.
To explore the effect of manno-oligosaccharide (MOS) on intestinal health in weaned pigs upon enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli K88 (ETEC) challenge, thirty-two male weaned pigs were randomly assigned into four groups. Pigs fed with a basal diet or basal diet containing MOS (0·6 g/kg) were orally infused with ETEC or culture medium. Results showed that MOS significantly elevated the digestibility of crude protein and gross energy in both ETEC-challenged and non-challenged pigs (P < 0·05). MOS also elevated serum concentrations of IgA and IgM (P < 0·05), but decreased serum concentrations of TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 (P < 0·05) in ETEC-challenged pigs. Interestingly, MOS increased villus height and the ratio of villus height:crypt depth in duodenum and ileum (P < 0·05). MOS also increased duodenal sucrase and ileal lactase activity in ETEC-challenged pigs (P < 0·05). MOS decreased the abundance of E. coli, but increased the abundance of Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium and Bacillus in caecum (P < 0·05). Importantly, MOS not only elevated the expression levels of zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1), claudin-1 and GLUT-2 in duodenum (P < 0·05) but also elevated the expression levels of ZO-1, GLUT-2 and L-type amino acid transporter-1 in ileum (P < 0·05) upon ETEC challenge. These results suggested that MOS can alleviate inflammation and intestinal injury in weaned pigs upon ETEC challenge, which was associated with suppressed secretion of inflammatory cytokines and elevated serum Ig, as well as improved intestinal epithelium functions and microbiota.
Exposure to childhood adversity is a critical risk factor for the development of psychopathology. A growing field of research examines how exposure to childhood adversity is translated into biological risk for psychopathology through alterations in immune system functioning, most notably heightened levels of inflammation biomarkers. Though our knowledge about how childhood adversity can instantiate biological risk for psychopathology is growing, there remain many challenges and gaps in the field to understand how inflammation from childhood adversity contributes to psychopathology. This paper reviews research on the inflammatory outcomes arising from childhood adversity and presents four major challenges that future research must address: (a) the measurement of childhood adversity, (b) the measurement of inflammation, (c) the identification of mediators between childhood adversity and inflammation, and (d) the identification of moderators of inflammatory outcomes following childhood adversity. We discuss synergies and inconsistencies in the literature to summarize the current understanding of the association between childhood adversity, a proinflammatory phenotype, and the biological risk for psychopathology. We discuss the clinical implications of the inflammatory links between childhood adversity and psychopathology, including possibilities for intervention. Finally, this review conclude by delineates future directions for research, including issues of how best to detect, prevent, and understand these “hidden wounds” of childhood adversity.
The global COVID-19 (coronavirus disease 2019) pandemic has become a complex problem that overlaps with a growing public health problem, obesity. Obesity alters different components of the innate and adaptive immune responses, creating a chronic and low-grade state of inflammation. Nutritional status is closely related to a better or worse prognosis of viral infections. Excess weight has been recognised as a risk factor for COVID-19 complications. In addition to the direct risk, obesity triggers other diseases such as diabetes and hypertension, increasing the risk of severe COVID-19. The present review explains the diets that induce obesity and the importance of different foods in this process. We also review tissue disruption in obesity, leading to impaired immune responses and the possible mechanisms by which obesity and its co-morbidities increase COVID-19 morbidity and mortality. Nutritional strategies that support the immune system in patients with obesity and with COVID-19 are also discussed in light of the available data, considering the severity of the infection. The discussions held may contribute to combating this global emergency and planning specific public health policy.
Chapter 1 problematises the classic history of diplomacy in relation to extraterritoriality and presents the key debates in IR and international law to which this study contributes. This chapter further shows that classic diplomatic history's focus on embassies and Grotius to historicise extraterritoriality has contributed to the Westphalian imaginaries that remain dominant and maintain linear trajectories of the shift from personal to territorial concepts of sovereignty. If a range of new studies, focused on biographical and cultural aspects of diplomacy, are also contesting this approach and account of early modern jurisdiction, they nevertheless remain limited in terms of not fundamentally questioning the link between extraterritorial and territorial sovereignty based on the analysis of ambassadorial immunity and the shift from the personal – the ambassador – to the territorial – the embassy. These limitations call for new approaches to the history of extraterritoriality.
The quantification of physiological and immunological functions provides fundamental information on individual state. It fosters our understanding of the costs of and constraints on life-history strategies. Research in this area on kestrels has mainly focused on immunity, energetics, hormones and antioxidants. This chapter discusses the factors that impact the immune function and describes a number of parasites and pathogens that can be detected in kestrels. It shows how the different phases of reproduction face males and females with different energetic and physiological demands. It discusses the costs associated with sibling competition, and how male and female nestlings may differ in how they optimise the trade-off between growth and self-maintenance. Finally, this chapter describes the moult phase, which represents an understudied feature of kestrel biology.
A 6-week growth trial was conducted to evaluate the influences of dietary valine (Val) levels on growth, protein utilisation, immunity, antioxidant status and gut micromorphology of juvenile hybrid groupers. Seven isoenergetic, isoproteic and isolipidic diets were formulated to contain graded Val levels (1·21, 1·32, 1·45, 1·58, 1·69, 1·82 and 1·94 %, DM basis). Each experimental diet was hand-fed to triplicate groups of twelve hybrid grouper juveniles. Results showed that weight gain percentage (WG%), protein productive value, protein efficiency ratio, and feed efficiency were increased as dietary Val level increased, reaching a peak value at 1·58 % dietary Val. The quadratic regression analysis of WG% against dietary Val levels indicated that the optimum dietary Val requirement for hybrid groupers was estimated to be 1·56 %. Gut micromorphology and expression of growth hormone in pituitary, insulin-like growth factor 1, target of rapamycin and S6 kinase 1 in liver were significantly affected by dietary Val levels. In serum, fish fed 1·58 % dietary Val had higher superoxide dismutase, catalase, lysozyme activities and IgM concentrations than fish fed other dietary Val levels. Fish fed 1·58 % dietary Val had higher expression of NF-E2-related factor 2 in head kidney than fish fed other dietary Val levels. Generally, the optimum dietary Val requirement for maximal growth of hybrid groupers was estimated to be 1·56 % of DM, corresponding to 3·16 % of dietary protein, and dietary Val levels affected growth, protein utilisation, immunity and antioxidant status in hybrid groupers.
Solicitation of foreign interference in an election represents a betrayal of public trust because it threatens to undermine the people’s right of self-determination – a foundational norm of our constitutional order. Section 1 of the chapter focuses on candidate Trump’s solicitation of Russian email hacking during his speech in Florida in July of 2016 – a speech that set the tone for much of what was to come during the Trump presidency. Likewise, Section 2 focuses on an even more daring solicitation: President Trump’s solicitation of interference from Ukraine during a call with its President, Volodymyr Zelensky. Section 3 looks at the legal status of the domestic norm against soliciting foreign interference. This chapter argues that, for the removal of all doubt, Congress should pass a new statute criminalizing the solicitation of foreign involvement in elections. Section 4 responds to the argument that such a statute could not be applied against the President because doing so would conflict with the President’s constitutional authority to conduct foreign relations. Finally, Section 5 examines the ultimate remedy of impeachment as a tool for sanctioning a President who solicits foreign involvement in an election.
Chapter 4 describes the inherently political character of international justice and shows the working paradox between the UNSC and the ICC. The UNSC is the institution that allows the ICC to gain jurisdiction over states that have not ratified the Rome Statute, and this chapter asks whether international treaties such as the Rome Statute apply to states who are not signatories. The example of Libya is studied in detail to highlight the ways in which a non-ICC member chose to engage the Court by introducing an admissibility challenge and how the Court’s response to the challenge showed the inconsistency of its ruling, which also brings back the political dimension of international justice.
In many parts of the United States, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) cases have reached peak infection rates, prompting administrators to create protocols to resume elective cases. As elective procedures and surgeries get scheduled, ambulatory surgery centers (ASCs) must implement some form of widespread testing in order to ensure the safety of both the ASC staff and the patients being seen. The US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recently announced the approval of new serological testing for SARS-CoV-2, a test that can indicate the presence of IgM and IgG antibodies in the serum against viral particles. However, the possibility for reinfection raises questions about the utility of this new serological test, as the presence of IgG may not correspond to long-term immunity. SARS-CoV-2 has been known to form escape mutations, which may correspond to a reduction in immunoglobulin binding capacity. Patients who develop more robust immune responses with formation of memory CD8+ T-cells and helper CD4+ T-cells will be the most equipped if exposed to the virus, but, unfortunately, the serology test will not help us in distinguishing those individuals. Given the inherent disadvantages of serological testing, antibody testing alone should not be used when deciding patient care and should be combined with polymerase chain reaction testing.
This paper focuses on Internet intermediaries’ civil liabilities for contents produced by third parties. By comparing Chinese law with the laws of the US and EU, it argues that the US law grants broad civil immunity to Internet intermediaries, and the EU and China restrict civil immunity to intermediaries but in different ways. This is on account of how, in the US, Internet intermediaries enjoy civil immunity as long as they do not become content providers. In the EU, aside from mere conduit intermediaries, all other intermediaries are subject to the notice-and-take-down mechanism before enjoying civil immunity. In contrast, in China, even after an intermediary properly follows the notice-and-take-down mechanism, it may still be subject to civil liability under the Chinese Consumer Law. Further, this paper argues that the policy priority for the law for Internet intermediaries varies fundamentally in the three jurisdictions. The US law for intermediaries’ liability focuses on protecting freedom of speech. The EU emphasizes the protection of personal information as a fundamental human right. Contrastingly, Chinese policy priority is unclear. Consumer protection has boomed in public popularity and increasingly attracted the attentions of the legislature and judiciary in China. However, it is doubtable that the protection of consumers can provide a prevailing policy support for Chinese law in the same way as freedom of speech and the protection of personal information do under the laws of the US and the EU, respectively.
The purpose of this chronoepidemiologic study was to investigate the time-relationships between the yearly variations in occurrence of violent suicide in Belgium and the yearly variations in various biochemical, metabolic and immune variables in the Belgian population. The weekly mean number of deaths due to violent suicide for all of Belgium for the period 1979–1987 was computed. Twenty-six normal volunteers had monthly blood samplings during one calendar year for assays of plasma L-tryptophan (L-TRP), competing amino acids (CAA), and melatonin levels, maximal [3H]paroxetine binding to platelets, serum total cholesterol, calcium, magnesium, and soluble interleukin-2 receptor concentrations, and number of CD4+ T, CD8+ T and CD20+ B lymphocytes. The annual rhythm in violent suicide rate is highly significantly synchronized with the annual rhythms in L-TRP, [3H]paroxetine binding, cholesterol, calcium, magnesium, CD20+ B cells, and CD4+/CD8+ ratio; the mean peak (violent suicide, [3H]paroxetine binding) or nadir (all other variables) occurs around 3 May. There were significant inverse time-relationships between the time series of violent suicide rate and L-TRP, L-TRP/CAA ratio, total cholesterol, calcium and magnesium, CD4+/CD8+ T cell ratio and number of CD20+ B cells. Maximal [3H]paroxetine binding to platelets was significantly and positively related to the time series of violent suicide. An important part (56.4%) of the variance in mean weekly number of violent suicide rate was explained by the time series of L-TRP, cholesterol and melatonin.
Emerging evidence started to delineate multiple layers of memory B cells, with distinct effector functions during recall responses. Whereas most studies examining long-lived memory B cell responses have focussed on the IgG+ memory B cell compartment, IgM+ memory B cells have only recently started to receive attention. It has been proposed that unlike IgG+ memory B cells, which differentiate into antibody-secreting plasma cells upon antigen re-encounter, IgM+ memory B cells might have the additional capacity to establish secondary germinal centre (GC) responses. The precise function of IgM+ memory B cells in the humoral immune response to malaria has not been fully defined. Using a murine model of severe malaria infection and adoptive transfer strategies we found that IgM+ memory B cells induced in responses to P. berghei ANKA readily proliferate upon re-infection and adopt a GC B cell-like phenotype. The results suggest that that IgM+ memory B cells might play an important role in populating secondary GCs after re-infection with Plasmodium, thereby initiating the induction of B cell clones with enhanced affinity for antigen, at faster rates than naive B cells.