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This first chapter begins with the reader, the early childhood educator/teacher. It poses the questions: Why have you chosen early childhood education? What do you bring to the profession? In considering these questions, you will reflect upon your current beliefs about teaching as inquiry and teaching as relationship, and consider diverse ideas, knowledge and ways of teaching and learning that shape your current and continuously evolving identity as an early childhood teacher. Research has demonstrated that reflecting upon and changing one’s beliefs and ways of teaching is a challenging and complex process of ongoing self-improvement. It is a critical requirement of the profession to be engaged in continuing reflection and improvement of the self.
The impact of nutrition information on public health is partly determined by the population's level of nutrition literacy (NL), which involves functional NL (such as knowledge of dietary guidelines) and critical NL (such as the ability to distinguish between evidence-based nutrition information and alternative facts). The aim of this cross-sectional study was to describe aspects of functional and critical NL and predictors of NL scores among university students and employees. We recruited at different university campuses, 414 students and 112 employees, of which 80 % were females and 69 % were in the ages of 18–30 years. In total, 82 % reported knowledge about where to find information on nutrition issues, and 70 % were familiar with Norwegian dietary guidelines. Being female, having higher age, being highly physically active and studying or working within health sciences were significant predictors of higher levels of functional nutrition knowledge. Significantly more women than men found it difficult to judge if media information on nutritional issues could be trusted (69 v. 54 %) and found it hard to distinguish between scientific and non-scientific information about diet (60 v. 42 %). Our findings indicate that for a sample of university students and employees, affiliation with health sciences, being female, having a higher age and being physically active were associated with higher functional NL. Women did, however, seem to have lower levels of some aspects of critical NL, e.g. how to critically judge nutrition information. A more thorough assessment of NL in university students and employees should therefore be conducted.
The Lactation at Work Law not only provided more leverage and legitimacy to lactating employees and their allies, but it also created opportunities for critical educational conversations between employees and their managers that shifted how certain managers approached workplace lactation. These managers moralized the law by framing compliance through a morality of child health. This framing shifted to include a morality focus because their lactating employees not only taught them about the health benefits of breastfeeding but also modeled their ideological commitment to workplace lactation. Compliance motivated by morality rather than managerial goals might better establish lactation accommodations within the cultural of the organization over time. Yet, these crucial educational conversations were most likely to happen where lactating employees had enough-but-not-too-much power. Where time and space accommodations were adequate or workers had autonomy and private space so they did not need accommodations, no discussion between worker and manager was needed. And where workers had insufficient power within the organization that they could not approach managers with problems, no discussion could happen. Thus, the lactation accommodations might become best established in those organizations in which lactating workers experienced some problems, but not too many difficulties.
Multiculturalism gives preference to group rights over individual rights. This may challenge democratic values. This chapter focuses on the Amish denial of education from their adolescents. Criticizing Wisconsin v. Yoder (1972), the analysis focuses on the power of the Amish community over its members. The main questions are: Is it reasonable to deny the Amish adolescents’ standard American education? What are the limits of state interference in norms of illiberal communities who invoke separatism as a mechanism of cultural and religious preservation? It questions the extent that the discussed court ruling has suggested reasonable compromises to accommodate multiculturalism and outline the limits of state interference in practices of illiberal communities that deny basic rights to children.
Learning and Teaching in Early Childhood: Pedagogies of Inquiry and Relationships is an introduction for early childhood educators beginning their studies. Reflecting the fact that there is no single correct approach to the challenges of teaching, this book explores teaching through two lenses: teaching as inquiry and teaching as relating. The first part of the book focuses on inquiry, covering early childhood learning environments, learning theories, play pedagogies, approaches to teaching and learning, documentation and assessment, and the policy, curriculum and regulatory requirements in Australia. The second part explores relationships in early childhood contexts and covers topics such as fostering meaningful and respectful relationships with children, and working with families, staff and the wider community. Written by well-respected academics in the field, Learning and Teaching in Early Childhood is a vital resource for those entering the early childhood education and care profession.
In the medical education field, the use of highly sophisticated simulators and extended reality (XR) simulations allow training complex procedures and acquiring new knowledge and attitudes. XR is considered useful for the enhancement of healthcare education; however, several issues need further research.
The main aim of this study is to define a comprehensive method to design and optimize every kind of simulator and simulation, integrating all the relevant elements concerning the scenario design and prototype development.
A complete framework for the design of any kind of advanced clinical simulation is proposed and it has been applied to realize a mixed reality (MR) prototype for the simulation of the rachicentesis. The purpose of the MR application is to immerse the trainee in a more realistic environment and to put him/her under pressure during the simulation, as in real practice.
The application was tested with two different devices: the headset Vox Gear Plus for smartphone and the Microsoft Hololens. Eighteen students of the 6th year of Medicine and Surgery Course were enrolled in the study. Results show the comparison of user experience related to the two different devices and simulation performance using the Hololens.
Multidisciplinary Design Optimization (MDO) is a method that has shown many promising results in the development of complex engineered products. To this date, research on MDO has been extensive, but at the same time, very few publications have addressed the aspect of how it can be taught to students and young professionals. In this light, this paper aims to present the experiences of the authors in respect to the development and management of an MDO course at Linköping University. First, this work will describe the authors' teaching approaches, and in particular, it will present the various educational activities that have been considered over the years as well as the lessons learnt. Secondly, this work will attempt to investigate how students perceive a set of common MDO concepts, and more specifically, it will present an analysis based on the results of two surveys that took place in 2016 and 2020, respectively. Given the above foundation, this paper will try to establish guidelines regarding the activities which are suitable for teaching each concept, while finally, it will also touch upon the challenges as well as the solutions for adjusting an MDO course to a distance learning mode.
This study centers on using different types of brief information to support creative outcomes in architectural and engineering design and its relation to design expertise. We explore the influence of design briefs characterized by abstract representations and/or instructions to frame design problems on the creativity of concept sketches produced by novice and advanced students. Abstract representations of problem requirements served as stimuli to encourage associative thinking and knowledge transfer. The Ishikawa/Fishbone Diagram was used to foster design restructuring and to modify viewpoints about the main design drives and goals. The design outcomes generated by novice and advanced engineering/architecture students were assessed for their creativity using a pairwise experimental design. Results indicated that advanced students generated more novel design solutions while also contributing the most useful solutions overall. Implications for creativity in design education and professional practice are presented. Educational programs aimed at promoting creativity in the design studio may find it helpful to consider that the way design briefs are constructed can either promote or inhibit different aspects of design creativity.
Prototyping is essential for fuzzy front-end product development. The prototyping process answers questions about critical assumptions and supports design decisions, but it is often unstructured and context-dependent. Previously, we showed how to guide novice designers in early development stages with prototyping milestones. Here, we studied the prototyping success perceived by novice design teams. This was done in two steps: (1) teams were asked to assign each prototype to a milestone, a specific purpose, a fidelity level, and a human-centered design lens, and then evaluate the success using a predefined set of criteria. (2) Teams were interviewed about the success of the prototyping process, this time using self-chosen criteria. Results related to (1) show that teams perceived prototyping activities with respect to desirability and problem validation significantly less successful than prototyping activities towards feasibility and solution validation. Results related to (2) show that teams mostly chose success criteria related to how well prototypes supported communication, decision making, learning, and tangibility. This insight may be used to give priorities to further improvement of methods and guidance in these areas.
With an ever-increasing body of primary school children and the degradation of mental health among young people, the development of a high self-esteem at a primary school level has been recognised as a huge driving force towards the wellbeing of the next generation. Although the poor mental health of young people in their teenage years is widely talked about and addressed, it is often missed that this stems from a much younger age. The people most likely to suffer with a lower self-esteem at a young age are those with a learning differences, weather mild, diagnosed or undiagnosed. This paper will explore how emerging cognitive differences, and positive social interaction can help steer a child’s self-development away from problems later in life such as anxiety and depression. Using these findings, a physical classroom-based game was conceived, designed and tested on the end users in the classroom environment.
Teachers in schools, tutors in colleges, and lecturers in universities are all required to have specific teaching qualifications. As part of the qualification, it is normal to study tried and tested pedological theories. Some examples are Bloom’s Taxonomy, Constructivism, and Experiential Learning. This paper identifies a gap in the information and knowledge required of student design engineers studying on a full-time course, when compared to part-time students. To redress this gap, it is suggested that no new theories are required but just a new method of applying an old theory, the application of Bloom’s Taxonomy in reverse alongside reverse engineering. An example of applying this method to a class of design engineers in their final year of a BEng (Hons) Mechanical Engineering is provided.
Today we live a high increasing digitalization in industry 4.0. As part of the evolution of CAD solutions on the market, there is a particular interest in new generation software which are distributed as Software-as-a- Service (SaaS) such as Onshape, 3D Experience, Fusion 360, etc. In order to prepare engineering students for integrating such software within the Université de Technologie de Compiègne (UTC), a further practicing study is carried out in this paper. This study aims to identify, analyze, experiment, evaluate and compare the capacities of Cloud-based CAD solutions on the market and in scientific research work in order to define potential benefits for their implementation in mechanical engineering education. Therefore, we tested two use scenarios of the two Cloud-based software; Onshape and Fusion 360 on a case study. Then, we discussed the comparison results.
This chapter provides an overview of Roth’s life, focusing on the author's upbringing in the Weequahic neighborhood of Newark, his education at Bucknell University and University of Chicago, his first forays into publication, his teaching positions at the Iowa Writers Workshop and University of Pennsylvania, his marriages, health struggles, and the significant peaks and valleys of his career, from critical setbacks to major awards and recognitions, including The Pulitzer Prize, National Book Awards, and PEN/Faulkner awards.
This chapter explores plural or ‘polynomic’ standards, with special emphasis on the case of Corsica, where a polynomic standard is officially enshrined in Corsican language policy and practice. The principle of ‘polynomy’ is the mutual recognition, by all speakers and writers, of the legitimacy of all varieties of Corsican. Nowhere is this more visible than in orthographic standards, where there is a baseline of sound-to-spelling conventions to be used by writers to write as they speak. The chapter begins with a comparison of the Corsican case with the handful of other contexts in which variant spelling standards are legitimated. The discussion continues with polynomy in school contexts, where the polynomic standard for Corsican is visible to students in allof their Corsican textbooks, but is actively taught to varying degrees. The standard also exists in maximal contrast with French standard language ideology and practice that shapes most of these students’ schools. The chapter then analyses the ‘banal polynomy’ of public signage and webpages in both the public and private sphere, before closing with a critical assessment of the ways in which a polynomic standard both enables and constrains social actors, and its implications for how a minority language is defined and used.
This chapter examines how certain attitudes toward science and technology during the Cold War contributed to the shaping of transformative educational policies in Iran, from the 1950s to the eve of the revolution. Different agents of social change – from the royal court at the top down to high school administrators – embraced modern learning in mathematics and the natural sciences not only as a corpus of essential knowledge but also as a vehicle to advance their respective political plans and ideological preferences. The impact on the transformation of Iranian society can hardly be exaggerated. Among other social indicators, the impact of such policies is reflected in the high number of former students and graduates of engineering and technical schools among the revolutionaries who imagined modernity and progress primarily in terms of construction and control.
Discusses education, looking specifically at how religious language interacts with educational settings where a teacher’s religious identity is a key part of their motivation for their work: Christians teaching English as a second or additional language in contexts where teachers are explicitly motivated by their religious beliefs.
The content and significance of Hammurabi’s law code stela, including material and artistic aspects as well as text, are described and related to earlier law codes from other cities and biblical parallels. Protection of property, trade, family, warfare, and personal injury are among the topics. The separate content of its prologue and epilogue are discussed. The system of scribal education that lay behind its composition, from primary school to tertiary, was based on a formal curriculum beginning with sign lists and word lists. Model contracts and model letters, and extracts from myths and epics are found alongside satire and humour. The importance of divination and oracles for military success is emphasized. Precursors to themes later found in the Epic of Creation, such as gods waging war against Chaos can already be found in contemporary literature. The rise of Marduk can be traced in relation to Hammurabi’s conquests. The downside of warfare is explored in the Poem of Agushaya. The Epic of Creation is of central importance for Marduk and Babylon as world leaders, superseding earlier claimants. Epics from southern Mesopotamia are earlier and do not feature Marduk or Babylon.
As a result of the rapid ageing of societies, meeting the demands for long-term care has become increasingly difficult. In the Netherlands, informal care is recognised as a key element to compensate for cut-backs in formal care provision. Formal, informal and privately paid long-term care services, however, are not used equally across socio-economic status (SES) groups and whether these inequalities have been reduced or exacerbated over time has not been researched. This study investigates to what extent educational and income inequalities in the use of formal, informal and privately paid care have changed over time. Data from the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam (LASA) was used from three points in time: 1995 (N = 787), 2005 (N = 550) and 2015 (N = 473). Participants were between 75 and 85 years of age and living independently. The results indicate that lower SES groups are consistently more likely to use formal and informal care, and less likely to use privately paid care compared to higher SES groups. An increase in inequality was only found in the use of informal care; while informal care use is stable among lower SES groups, it decreases steeply among higher SES groups. These findings highlight the importance of education for explaining variation and changes over time in care use. Governmental efforts to mobilise informal care-givers might be outweighed by trends towards less long-term care.
This chapter focuses on credit as a bounded social investment in light of financial shortfalls that arise during the life course. The Danish welfare state provides strong financial support, particularly for low-income households, through comprehensive family and educational policies such as childcare services and other in-kind benefits that limit families’ financial exposures and lower households’ opportunity costs for taking time off work, sending children to childcare, and pursuing education and training programs. Middle- and high-income households are the ones that draw on credit to smooth income losses when a spouse temporarily leaves work, for example to care for children or to get training. This "investment borrowing" is more prevalent than "consumption borrowing" to cope with labor market-related risks. By contrast, many more American households, including low- and middle-income ones, borrow money to cope with the financial consequence that arise throughout the life course, including income losses due to parental leave or expenses for childcare, education, and training–which would be covered or subsidized by most European welfare states. As life course trajectories have become more fluid and flexible and the traditional single-breadwinner model has declined, Germany’s restrictive credit regime continues to make it hard for households to borrow money.
Frederick Douglass’s relationship to education was multifaceted and at times paradoxical. Douglass’s accounts of his denied access to education while enslaved, his history of unsanctioned self-education, his role as an activist-educator and promoter of Black education, and his evolution into an iconic subject for education on U.S. slavery and Black history more generally demand that a discussion of Douglass and education be addressed from several angles. This essay traces the consonance of and tensions between the various ways we must consider education’s place within Douglass studies. Douglass’s overrepresentation in educational materials for children further compounds tendencies to view Douglass in more simplistically individualistic terms. Though exceptional in his ability, learning methods, and educational circumstances, Douglass is best understood within the larger historical context of Black education. Moreover, Douglass himself recognized that education was not a simple cure for racism and criticized the educational elitism attached to prestigious institutions and occupations.