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In the present study, the levels and probable public health risks of selected metals (Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, Ni, Cd and Pb) in nine wheat flour samples collected from Amhara, Oromia, South region, and the Strategic Food Reserve Agency were determined using FAAS and compared with results of prior studies and critical level. The wet digestion method using 65 % HNO3 and 72 % HClO4 in 300°C for 3 h was used when preparing the sample. Validation of the optimised digestion method was assessed using the spiking method, and an acceptable percent recovery from all metals. The levels of Fe, Cu, Mn, Zn, Ni and Cd ranged between 8⋅5297 and 11⋅1535, 1⋅633 and 4⋅2346, 3⋅1875 and 8⋅5313, 2⋅3589 and 2⋅7719, 0⋅154 and 0⋅854, and 0⋅0411 and 0⋅216 mg/kg, respectively, for Ethiopian wheat flour, while the level of Fe, Cu, Mn, Zn, Ni, Cd and Pb were ranged between 8⋅0099 and 8⋅1089, 1⋅663 and 1⋅6691, 4⋅5625 and 4⋅6250, 2⋅3015 and 2⋅3072, 0⋅9423 and 1⋅1346, 0⋅1593 and 0⋅1606, and 0⋅13 and 0⋅1381 mg/kg, respectively, for imported wheat flour. However, Pb had a concentration of less than 0⋅043 mg/kg for Ethiopian wheat flour. Findings indicate that Ethiopian wheat is comparatively higher in Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn and Cd, but lower in Ni and Pb than imports. From the result of the study, it can be concluded that the level of heavy metals determined in this study was within the permissible limit, and no probable health risk because both the Hazard quotient (HQ) and the Hazard Index (HI) are found to be below 1⋅0 regarding study metals.
Copper is a candidate for use as an overpack material in deep underground nuclear waste disposal. Copper, however, is susceptible to corrosion following closure of the repository and migration of the corrosion products through the buffer material may affect the migration of redox-sensitive radionuclides. Electromigration experiments were performed whereby a copper coupon, which was in contact with compacted bentonite, served as the working electrode and was held at a constant potential of between +100 to +400 mV vs. Ag/AgCl electrode for up to 48 h. The amounts of copper that migrated into the bentonite specimens were found to be in good agreement with the calculated values based on the corrosion current flow for the assumption that copper underwent anodic dissolution as Cu(II). A model based on dispersion and electromigration was able to explain the measured copper profiles in the bentonite specimens. The fitted values of the dispersion coefficient did not depend on the applied potential and were about 10-12 m2/s.
In a bid to further reduce the cost of the front Ag contact metallization in Si solar cells, Cu is the potential alternative to replace the Ag in the Ag paste. However, this requires an understanding of the contact mechanism of screen-printable Ag/Cu paste in Si solar cell through rapid thermal process. The pastes with different weight percent of Cu (0 wt%, 25 wt% and 50 wt%) were used and the Voc of the cells was reduced with the increasing weight percent of Cu. This is because the presence of Cu in the paste changed the microstructure of the Ag/Cu/Si contact through Cu doping of the glass frits and hence increasing the Tg of the glass. The increased Tg of the glass impeded the uniform spreading of the molten glass and resulted in poor wetting and etching of the SiNx, which impacted the contact as evident in ideality factor of less than unity. This also led to the formation of agglomerated Ag crystallites with features of 700 nm in length and 200 nm in depth, which is close to the p-n junction, of which depth is ∼300 nm. However, the interface glass layer acted as an effective diffusion barrier layer to prevent Cu atoms from diffusing into the Si emitter, which is quite remarkable for Cu not to diffuse into silicon at high temperature. Further investigation of the Ag/Cu contacts with the conductive AFM in conjunction with the SEM and STEM analyses revealed that the growth of Ag crystallites in the Si emitter is responsible for carrier conduction the gridlines as with the pure Ag paste.
Microscale testing has enjoyed significant developments, with the majority of testing focused on tensile/compression type tests and little focus on shear testing. With the recent advances in macroscale shear testing, we developed a novel shear structure for evaluating shear properties of bulk materials and films at the microscale. The shear response in single-crystal copper oriented along the  direction was found to have a yield strength of ∼180 MPa. Nanocrystalline copper specimens with different orientations showed sensitivity to the film texture with a shear yield strength nearly three times that of single-crystal copper. Shear specimens were fabricated with Cu film–Si substrate interface near the middle of the shear region and compressed to fracture. The shear response showed a mixed behavior of the stiff Si substrate and softer nanocrystalline film and failed in a brittle manner, indicating a response unique to the interface.
Size control of copper fine particles is highly important for their application for conductive materials. In this study, easy size tuning of the copper fine particles coated by n-hexylamine was achieved via controlling the ratio of n-hexylamine and the precursor CuO. The obtained particles were stable and had a hydrophobic surface. TG-DTA measurement revealed the formation of thin layer of n-hexylamine on the particles.
Tricalcium phosphate (TCP) is a promising candidate in bone and dental tissue engineering applications. Though osteoconductive, its low osteoinductivity is a major concern. Trace elements addition at low concentrations are known for their impact on not only the osteoinductivity, but also physical and mechanical properties of TCP. Copper (Cu) is known for its role in vascularization and angiogenesis in biological systems. Here, we studied the effects of Cu addition on phase composition, porosity, microstructure and in vitro interaction with osteoblast (OB) cells. Our results showed that Cu stabilized the TCP structure, while no significant effect of microstructure and porosity was found. Cu at concentrations less than 1 wt.% did not have any cytotoxic effect while decreased proliferation of OBs were observed at 1 wt.% Cu doped TCP. Addition of Cu upregulated collagen type I and vascular endothelial growth factor expression in a dose dependent manner at early time-point. Furthermore, Cu reduced inflammatory gene expression by human osteoblasts. These findings show that addition of Cu to TCP may provide a therapeutic strategy that can be applied in bone tissue engineering applications.
Metallic Copper nanoparticles (Cu NPs) were obtained via sputtering of Cu target onto liquid polymer, i.e., poly(ethylene glycol), PEG, under vacuum condition. The Cu NPs growth significantly right after the sputtering deposition from 3.1 nm to 4.1 nm in 4 hours as monitored by TEM. There was negligible growth of NPs for longer time and completely PEG acts as the coating material of Cu NPs so no agglomeration was observed for 1 week. The challenge of characterization of Cu NPs was also discussed.
In this paper, a colloidal solution of copper nanoparticles was prepared from a Cu ion aqueous solution with the protein casein surfactant by a liquid phase reduction method at low temperature below 373K. For the casein concentration ranging from 6g/L to 75g/L, the formation of copper nanoparticle colloid were observed. As a result, the peak was observed at the ranging of 450 to 650 nm corresponding to the copper nanoparticle colloid plasmon absorption. As the surfactant concentration increases, the absorption spectrum tends to blue-shift and the particle diameter decreases. Thus, it indicated that the optical property and particle diameter of copper nanoparticle colloidal solution will be controlled by the protein casein surfactant concentration.
The electrical reliability of multilayer high density interconnection printed circuit boards (HDI-PCBs) is mainly affected by the thermo-mechanical stability of stacked micro via interconnections. Here, a critical failure mode is the stress related crack between the electrolytically filled via and the target pad, commonly known as target pad separation. The junction includes two Cu-Cu-interfaces, one between the target Cu pad and the thin electroless Cu layer and the second between electroless Cu and electrolytic Cu. In this paper we will show that state-of-the-art electroless Cu plating processes are able to provide solid, completely recrystallized and highly reliable stacked via junctions. Defect free interfaces were achieved by using ionic Pd-activators and electroless Cu baths with a cyanide based stabilizer system. Cyanide free electroless Cu baths tend more to the formation of nanometer sized defects, discovered via Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). In this case a precise adjustment of single stabilizer components is mandatory to achieve defect free layers. The defects are hollow and were identified as “nano voids”. A critical density of these nano voids weakens the interface, predefines the crack path and reduces the overall reliability of the junction. A precise localization of the nano voids within the junction was enabled by detecting the Ni-containing electroless Cu layer via TEM-Ni mapping. Slower volume exchange of the electroless Cu solution within the blind micro via (BMV) substantially increases the nano void density. The ability of nano voids to migrate and coalesce at elevated temperatures was investigated as well.
As a pure element, bismuth is a semimetal which possesses several interesting physical properties, not all of them well understood. The recent discovery of superconductivity, as predicted by our group, and the increasing superconducting transition temperature as the pressure applied increases, are some examples of its particularities. Also, the fact that the amorphous phase is superconductive with a transition temperature several orders of magnitude larger than the crystalline at ambient pressure is unusual. These phenomena have also motivated our predictions for the transition temperatures of Bi-bilayers and the Bi-IV phase. When mixed with other elements, bismuth seems to contribute to the superconducting character of the resulting material. Here we study the binary copper-bismuth amorphous system which is known to superconduct in diverse compositions. Using ab initio molecular dynamics and the undermelt-quench method, we generate an amorphous structure for a 144-atom supercell corresponding to the Cu61Bi39 system. We calculate the electronic and vibrational densities of states for the amorphous system and estimate a superconducting critical temperature of 4.2 K for the amorphous state.
The work presents an electrochemical study of the corrosion behaviour of two TiC/Cu-Ni metal matrix composites with a content of 10 and 20 wt.% Ni immersed in synthetic seawater. The composites were synthesized by a capillary infiltration technique, obtaining dense materials TiC/Cu-10Ni and TiC/Cu-20 Ni with a residual porosity of 1.8 and 1.7%, respectively. The corrosion rate (CR) was evaluated from the techniques of polarization curves (PC), linear polarization resistance (LPR) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Electrochemical measurements were carried out under static conditions, ambient temperature and atmospheric pressure at 24 hours exposure in the electrolytic medium. The corrosion rate is affected by the Ni content in the matrix, with less corrosion in the composite with a higher Ni content. The higher content of Ni in the Cu-Ni alloy provides higher passivation and stability to the corrosion products film that are absorbed on the composite surface. Microscopic examination (SEM) showed a characteristic morphology of a corrosion mechanism of the localized type (pits and crevices) generated by a differential aeration, where the TiC/Cu-10Ni composite showed greater degradation.
Pure metallic nanofoams in the form of interconnected networks have shown strong potentials over the past few years in areas such as catalysts, batteries and plasmonics. However, they are often fragile and difficult to integrate in engineering applications. In order to better understand their deformation mechanisms, a multiscale approach is required to simulate the mechanical behavior of the nanofoams, although these materials will operate at the macroscale, they will still be maintaining an atomistic ordering. Hence, in this work we combine molecular dynamics (MD) and finite element analysis (FEA) to study the mechanical behavior of copper (Cu) nanofoams. Molecular dynamics simulations were performed to study the yield surface of a representative cell structure. The nanofoam structure has been generated by spinodal decomposition of binary alloy using an atomistic approach. Then, the information obtained from the molecular dynamics simulations in the form of yield function is transferred to the finite element model to study the macroscopic behavior of the Cu nanofoams. The simulated mechanical behavior of Cu nanofoams is in good agreement of the real experiment results.
A new generation of cementitious materials is being engineered to selectively inhibit the growth of Acidithiobacillus, which are a key genera of acid-generating bacteria responsible for microbially induced concrete corrosion (MICC). In this context, the substitution of metal-laden granular activated carbon (GAC) particles and/or steel slag for a fraction of the fine aggregates traditionally used in concrete mixture has proven useful. While the antimicrobial properties of specific heavy metals (i.e. copper and cobalt) have been leveraged to inhibit acid-generating bacteria growth on sewer pipes, few studies have researched how biocidal aggregates may affect the microstructural and mechanical properties of cementitious materials. We report here on the effects that these biocidal aggregates substitutions can have on compressive strength, flowability, and setting times of cement-based formulations. Results showed that increases in compressive strength, regardless of the presence or absence of biocidal metals, resulted from the GAC incorporation where sand replacement was 3% by mass or lower, while flowability decreased when percentages higher than 3% of GAC was incorporated in a cement mix. When substituting fine aggregate with steel slag particles in mass ratios between 5% and 40%, compressive strength was not affected, regardless of the presence or absence of copper. Setting times were not affected by the inclusion of GAC or steel slag particles except when substituting GAC particles at 10% of the fine aggregate mass; under this condition both initial and final setting times were decreased. Results suggest that in order to have enhanced inhibition potential against acidophilic microorganisms and equal or improved mechanical properties, a combination of 1% metal-laden GAC and 40% copper-laden steel slag is an optimum fine aggregate substitution scenario.
In this study, silver, zinc and copper nanoparticles, AgNPs, ZnNPs and CuNPs, were tested on photodegradation using phenol as a model contaminant. The nanoparticles were phytosynthesized from an aqueous extract of Eichhornia crassipes leaves, and were characterized by UV-visible spectroscopy, EDS (Dispersive Energy X-ray Spectroscopy), SEM (Scanning Electron Microscopy), and TEM (Transmission Electron Microscopy). The AgNPs, ZnNPs and CuNPs showed a characteristic plasmon determined by UV-Vis; in the case of the EDS analyses Ag, Zn and Cu were detected as the main components. The detected composition by TEM corresponded to a metallic oxide for the three nanoparticles. Finally, for the photocatalytic performance on the phenol degradation under UV radiation, they showed about 50%, 52% and 34% with a 10 mg/L phenol solution that was achieved within 200 min using AgNPs, ZnNPs and CuNPs, respectively.
The effect of Cu addition varied from 0 to 4 mass% on the corrosion resistance and electrochemical response in Ni–Co–Cr–Mo alloys was investigated using potentiodynamic polarization, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, and Mott–Schottky analysis. Results indicate that the Ni–Co–Cr–Mo alloy with 2 mass% Cu exhibited the most superior corrosion resistance, and the presence of Cu greatly influenced the outer porous layer. The Ni–Co–Cr–Mo alloys’ corrosion resistance was not simply increasing with copper addition increasing from 0 to 4 mass%. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy etching analysis was also conducted to illustrate the fraction of Cu at various depths in the passive film, and the results reveal that a maximum limit on Cu content (appropriately 3.10 mass%) existed in the outermost surface in the present condition. Among the studied alloys, the Ni–Co–Cr–Mo–2%Cu alloy formed the thickest passive film with the lowest donor density.
Desorption experiments performed on four Cu-adsorbed palygorskites suggest that the leached Cu2+ ion originates at the surface and/or net-like interstice of the palygorskite fibres. The leached fraction, calculated from the quantities of adsorbed Cu2+ before and after desorption, is <1%. This may indicate that the majority of Cu is in inaccessible structural sites. X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and electron spin resonance (ESR) were used to determine the mineralogical character of the Cu-adsorbed palygorskite. Two photoelectron lines at 932.5 and/or 933.7 eV in the narrow scan Cu 2p3/2 spectra show that Cu adsorbed on the surface of palygorskite is in the Cu+ and Cu2+ state. The stretching vibrations of the octahedral cation shift ~3–5 cm–1 towards a greater wavenumber in the FTIR spectra of Cu-adsorbed palygorskite. It can be deduced that the Cu2+ is trapped in the channel of the palygorskite structure. The ESR spectra of the palygorskite give g values of 2.34, 2.12, 2.08 and 2.05, suggesting that some Cu ions cannot be reached by H+. These results confirm that Cu is adsorbed by palygorskite via three possible mechanisms: (1) the Cu is adsorbed onto the surface or in a net-like interstice, and its oxidation states are +1 and +2; (2) Cu forms a complex ion – [Cu(H2O)4]2+ or [Cu(H2O)6]2+, and is trapped in the channel; or (3) Cu enters into the hexagonal channel of the tetrahedral sites or the unoccupied octahedral sites of palygorskite.
In this paper, the role of Cu in the adsorption of the cationic pesticide chlormequat (CCC) on montmorillonite is studied. The adsorption of CCC was measured in various media, e.g. water and aqueous solutions of NaCl, CaCl2 and Ca(NO3)2 at the same ionic strength (I= 0.01 mol l–1). The retention of CCC on montmorillonite in aqueous media is due principally to a cationic exchange process with inorganic cations which saturate the interlamellar positions on this mineral. However, the amount of inorganic cations liberated from montmorillonite was ∼15% less than the amount of CCC adsorbed. This indicates that not all the pesticide was adsorbed through cation exchange.
The adsorption of CCC in aqueous media decreased in the presence of a heavy metal, compared with metal-free treatment. This behaviour indicates competition between the two cations for interlamellar positions. The adsorption of CCC in the presence of Cu also decreased in electrolyte media with the effect being highest in the presence of Ca electrolytes. The maximum CCC diminution was ∼30%. However, the isotherms derived in CaCl2 and Ca(NO3)2 media at different Cu concentrations were close to each other, indicating that Ca from background electrolyte exerts greater competition than Cu for montmorillonite planar positions.
In order to assess the role played by sheet silicates in controlling base metal distribution, the mineralogy of the <2 µm fraction of waste material, surface soils, and stream sediments was investigated in the surroundings of a pyrite-chalcopyrite mine area in northern Italy. The results indicate that smectite is very abundant in the <2 µm fraction of the tailings, and it exerts an effective control on the concentrations of Zn, Ni (and Cu). Normal soils and sediments are characterized by interstratified illite-smectite and by lower base metal concentrations. Away from the mine area, smectite decreases in the stream sediments, and chlorite becomes more important in controlling base metal distribution.
Ni, Cr, Cu and Co increase with chlorite and talc, but are depleted in the <2 µm fraction compared to coarser fractions in the stream sediments, because the sand–silt fraction of sediments concentrates ophiolitic fragments, variably enriched in ores. A mechanical dispersion of chlorite is probably the controlling factor. Zinc displays a systematic enrichment in the clay fraction of waste material and in the stream sediments but the main mineral carrier is not identified.
Due to extremely high conductivity of copper (Cu), copper–based nanocomposites offer remarkable opportunities for use in energy conversion and storage. Their applications demand low-cost syntheses routes relying on using inexpensive equipment with no formation of hazardous wastes. In this work, we report on a novel, cheap and environmentally friendly synthesis and application of nano-porous Cu as a support for lithium titanate. The infiltration of lithium titanate onto the inner surface of NPCu produced high-rate anodes for Li-ion batteries capable of providing nearly 50mAh/g during about 20s charging while retaining about 70% of the initial capacity after 1000 charge-discharge cycles. The demonstrated versatility and simplicity of this fascinating approach show great promises for scalable production and the use of NPCu in various cost-sensitive applications.
During decomposition of copper formate, a volatile intermediate is formed, that can be utilized to fabricate conductive copper lines for electrical interconnections. By the method called Reactive Transfer Printing (RTP), a pattern of copper (II) formate was printed, and placed adjacent to a second surface; decomposition of the printed pattern led to a transfer of copper to the second substrate. It was found that the yield of the transfer process improved due to presence of several carboxylic acids which are liquid with a high boiling point. Furthermore we found that the transport of copper starts at a lower temperature than previously reported, indicating that the first decomposition step of copper formate is related to the catalytic decomposition of formic acid on a copper surface. The findings enable printing of conductive copper patterns onto the interior surface of a glass vessel.