In Brazil, there is no consensus on the concept of hospital-based health technology assessment (HB-HTA). There is great variability in the existing models and difficulty in evaluating their results—whether in respect of clinical decisions, quality of care, and hospital policy and management or in respect of optimizing the use of resources. This study aims to discuss the experiences of HB-HTA, its integration into the regulatory system for the adoption of new technologies into the Brazilian public (SUS) (Unified Health System), and its main challenges. During a workshop, a panel of specialists in HTA and/or HB-HTA was formed, representative of four different perspectives: (i) Health services and health technology assessment units, (ii) Academia, (iii) Secretary of State for Health, and (iv) the Federal SUS sector. This was followed by discussion, a preliminary consensus, contributions from the audience, a plenary session, and a final consensus. HB-HTA is not institutionalized, nor is it part of the regulation system for the adoption of new technologies in the SUS. The main challenges are the difficulties in creating qualified teams, financial support, and sustainability. The work of these bodies in respect of the evaluation of new technologies deserves further studies analyzing the relationship between the pressure for adoption from the hospital team and industry professionals and legal rulings. It is necessary to strengthen HB-HTA culture and implement this policy in hospital management, making assessment bodies a part of managerial and decision-making processes in hospitals, and develop regional collaborative networks and a national network of HTA.