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This chapter examines the question of precisely why politeumata are not found in other Hellenistic kingdoms. Sänger argues that they were a specific response to the internal and external conflicts faced by the Ptolemies in the second century BCE. By offering the opportunity of founding a politeuma, the kings tightened the loyalty of ethnic groups settling or settled in Egypt and attracted new immigrants. The core members of a politeuma belonged to the army as mercenaries and would identify to a given ethnic group. After their settlement, they formed an “ethnic community” sharing a temple and a quarter of the urban space. Sänger suggests, furthermore, that since poleis in the Greek constitutional sense played a limited role in Egypt (see other chapters in the same volume), constitutional terms connected to the Greek polis were applied freely and allowed derivatives such as the politeuma to develop. The apparent specificity of Ptolemaic politeumata emerges as just a particular case of binding soldiers to urban spaces and attracting them as identity groups. These show altered ruling strategies when compared with the Ptolemaic cleruchies and army organization of the third century BCE.
Certain universal and more or less perennial aspects of human perceptions of the night influence the representation of nightlife in ancient texts. But beyond the stereotypes, we may recognize tensions between conservative perceptions and a continually changing reality. In the Roman empire, we may observe certain recurring elements of a ‘nocturnal koine’, the result of general trends. The factors that shaped nightlife in the Roman empire include the diffusion of voluntary associations and their convivial activities, the donations of benefactors for nighttime activities (baths, gymnasia, public banquets), the prominent place of nocturnal rites in cults with a soteriological or initiatory aspect, and efforts to increase the safety in cities during the night. These factors should be considered within a broader context—that of the gradual and continuous colonization of the night with the activities of the day.
Corpus callosum agenesis (CCA) is a rare congenital disorder in which there is a partial or complete absence of the corpus callosum. Within the framework of an anatomoclinical approach to schizophrenia, a few studies have focused on its association with neurological disorders, including CCA.
In this perspective, we report a rare case of an adolescent with intellectual disability, with whose complete CCA was revealed by a recent-onset schizophrenia.
A case report and literature review.
The teenager M.A. is from a first degree consanguineous marriage. He had no family history, no special habits and no history of seizures. Since early childhood, he had had a psychomotor acquisition delay and relationship difficulties that tended to worsen later. At school, he was teased by his peers and failed 4 times in different rows. At the age of 15, he dropped out of school. Verbal and physical aggressiveness, soliloquy, unmotivated laughter and vague ideas of persecution suddenly appeared, hence his psychiatric consultation one month later. Neuropsychological tests indicated current low Intelligence Quotient (60). Brain imaging revealed complete ACC (see Figure 1). He was diagnosed with schizophrenia and put on antipsychotic treatment at adequate doses and durations, with poor therapeutic response.
Our observation provides additional support for neurodevelopmental models of schizophrenia, and confirms literature data indicating that severe structural brain abnormalities would lead to early onset psychotic symptoms which are often refractory to pharmacological treatments
The current study reports the identification of previously undiscovered single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the bovine AGPAT3 gene and further investigates their associations with milk production traits. Our results demonstrate that the major allele C of the SNP g.12264 C > T is positively correlated with test-day milk yield, protein percentage and 305-day milk yield. Importantly, in silico analysis showed that the C/T transition at this locus gives rise to two new transcription factor binding sites (TFBS), E2F1 and Nkx3-2. Polymorphism g.18658 G > A was the only SNP associated with milk urea nitrogen (MUN) with the G allele related to an increase in milk urea nitrogen as well as fat percentage. The GG genotype of SNP g.28731 A > G was associated with the highest fat and protein percentage and lowest 305-day milk yield and somatic cell score (SCS). The association between AGPAT3 locus and milk production traits could be utilized in marker-assisted selection for the genetic improvement of milk production traits and, probably in conjunction with other traits, for selection to improve fitness of dairy cattle.
Molecular clouds contain gas at T ∼ 15 K and at densities of n ∼ 100 cm^-−3 and upward. Although provides the overwhelming majority of molecules in a molecular cloud, the absence of an electric dipole in the symmetric molecule means it is difficult to observe. The 2.6 mm emission from the rotational transition in is among the most useful ways to observe molecular gas. Most molecular clouds, however, are optically thick to the 2.6 mm emission from ; seeing to their centers requires observing the scarcer isotopologue rather than the more abundant . Within dusty, optically thick molecular clouds, molecules are made by dust grain catalysis. In the surface layers of molecular clouds, molecules are destroyed through photodissociation by ultraviolet light. However, molecular clouds are self-shielded from UV outside the cloud.
Simmel’s focus on individuality in ambivalent interaction within the context of the metropolis constitutes a central feature of his contribution to sociology. He was not inclined to issue laments about the presumed end of the individual due to modern forms of domination; rather his work focuses on the possibilities for individual action in modern societies predicated on novel cultural values. This article illustrates that it is essential to view his work in terms of the dialectics between work and play, as well as that between the realms of necessity and leisure.
Vincenzo Mele is Associate Professor of General Sociology in the Department of Political Science at the University of Pisa. He is the author of Metropolis: Georg Simmel, Walter Benjamin, and Modernity (2011), Aesthetics and Social Theory: Simmel, Benjamin, Adorno, Bourdieu (2013), and Globalizing Cultures: Theories, Actions, Paradigms (with Marina Vujnovic, 2015). He is editor of the journal Simmel Studies.
National convention delegates are chosen through a bewildering array of procedures that vary from state to state. Because states, for the most part, determine not only whether parties hold a primary or caucus, but also which voters are eligible to participate, delegates arrive at the national convention having been selected by very different constituencies that have very different policy ideas and very different levels of commitment to their respective parties.
The result is that neither the Republican Party nor the Democratic Party is able to express a clear ideological message through its presidential nominations. Presidential candidates seeking to win delegates in different state elections must appeal to the electorate in each state—and the state electorates differ greatly because the state-imposed voter eligibility rules differ greatly from state to state. As a result, candidates who articulate a clear and consistent message will draw different levels of support from the primary electorate in the various states, even when their messages appeal to similar proportions of party members and non-party members in each state.
Informed by the ‘assembly’ jurisprudence of the United Nations Human Rights Committee, this article addresses fundamental questions about the meaning and scope of ‘assembly’ in Article 21 of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR). In seeking to determine when the right of peaceful assembly might properly be engaged, the article explores the interrelationship of assembly with expression and association and proposes a definition of ‘assembly’—for the purposes of its protection—as ‘an intentional gathering by two or more people (including in private and online/virtual spaces)’. Such definitional reflection is particularly timely in light of the Human Rights Committee's drafting of General Comment No 37 on Article 21.
Chapter 2 discusses the First Amendment right to peaceably assemble and the related right to form associations. In their original proposed constitutional amendments, George Mason and James Madison both included a right “peaceably to assemble to consult for the common good.” Historically the assembly right was a powerful one, entitling the people to gather in public places without prior permission from government officials. Furthermore, even disruptive assemblies were tolerated so long as they did not cross into violence because assembly was recognized as an essential element of popular sovereignty. After all, in an era before electronic communications, physical gatherings were the only way ordinary citizens could exchange and jointly formulate their political beliefs. For similar reasons, the First Amendment has also been long interpreted to protect the right to form permanent associations. This right emerged from efforts during the Washington Administration to suppress the Democratic-Republican Societies, founded to support the French Revolution. Today, the Supreme Court accepts that meaningful citizen participation in government requires stringent protection for associations because it is only through joining groups that individual citizens are able to influence policymaking. The hard question that remains is whether to tolerate discriminatory associations.
Two definitions of Birnbaum’s importance measure for coherent systems are studied in the case of exchangeable components. Representations of these measures in terms of distribution functions of the ordered component lifetimes are given. As an example, coherent systems with failure-dependent component lifetimes based on the notion of sequential order statistics are considered. Furthermore, it is shown that the two measures are ordered in the case of associated component lifetimes. Finally, the limiting behavior of the measures with respect to time is examined.
L’évaluation des pratiques professionnelles est un indicateur. Une étude un jour donné montre un taux de 62 % de polythérapie antipsychotique. Une revue de pertinence est réalisée.
Un audit rétrospectif inclu les patients schizophrènes ayant au moins 2 antipsychotiques, hospitalisés au minimum 20 jours et sortis entre le 01/06/2012 et le 01/06/2013. Une grille d’audit évalue la tolérance. L’échelle de PANSS modifiée évalue l’efficacité. Une revue de pertinence est réalisée avec 4 psychiatres : tolérance et efficacité sont cotées sur une échelle de 0 à 3 en entrée et en sortie. 41 dossiers patients de 4 unités de courts séjours sont analysés. L’âge médian est de 34 ans. La durée médiane de séjour est de 42 jours ; 9,8 % des patients ont 1 antipsychotique, 70,7 % en ont 2, 18,3 % en ont 3 et 1,2 % en ont 4. Au cours du séjour, les symptômes positifs régressent (−1,4), les négatifs et généraux s’atténuent (−0,6 et −0,7). La prise de poids moyenne est de 3,6 kg. La prescription de correcteurs anticholinergiques diminue (−0,1 %), celle des substituts salivaires et des laxatifs augmente (0,5 et 0,6 %). La pertinence évolue peu : +0,1 point pour l’efficacité et +0,2 pour la tolérance. L’association à un antipsychotique anxiolytique/sédatif se retrouve 9 fois sur 10, généralement associé aux benzodiazépines. Des associations sont réalisées avec des spécialités ayant un profil d’action complémentaire au niveau des récepteurs.
Certaines associations n’ont jamais fait l’objet d’études, mais d’autres sont validées par la littérature. La pertinence entrée-sortie évolue peu : les patients sont souvent stabilisés par la reprise du traitement, l’arrêt des toxiques et/ou la réassurance du cadre hospitalier avec le même traitement. Certaines situations cliniques nécessitent une association d’antipsychotiques. Elles doivent être justifiées par des données issues de la littérature. La réévaluation de la tolérance et de l’efficacité doit être régulière. La monothérapie doit rester un objectif.
Dans le cadre de la sécurisation du circuit du médicament, l’établissement s’est doté d’un automate de dispensation. Il permet de faire une dispensation journalière individuelle des formes sèches prescrites en systématique. Chaque jour, une bande de sachet par patient est produite (1 sachet = 1 spécialité et 1 horaire). Nous avons évalué la part des traitements non administrés et leur impact économique. Les 16 unités de soins conservent les sachets non administrés. La pharmacie les collecte. Une base de données Excel est incrémentée pendant un mois : nombre de sachets et contenus. Une cause probable de non administration est recherchée via le Pharma. L’outil statistique de l’automate indique le nombre de sachets fabriqués sur la période. Le coût unitaire des médicaments est extrait du logiciel Pharma. Les coûts humain et en consommables ne sont pas traités.
4,12 % des sachets sont rendus, ce qui représente 3,94 % du coût global journalier (16,03 €/j). Les principaux motifs sont les sorties/permissions (47 %), une utilisation de la dotation (19 %), une modification de prescription (15 %) ou la prescription non conditionnelle des hypnotiques et anxiolytique au coucher (14 %). Les classes médicamenteuses retrouvées sont les antipsychotiques (21 %), les anxiolytiques (21 %), les hypnotiques (11 %), les normothymiques (7 %) et les antidépresseurs (5 %). Parmi les autres, on retrouve majoritairement des correcteurs, des médicaments à visée cardiovasculaires et des vitamines. Extrapolés sur un an, le coût des retours représente 0,79 % du budget annuel de la pharmacie. Cette part a pu être partiellement diminuée par :
– une communication efficace et constante avec les services afin d’anticiper les sorties et permissions des patients ;
– la sensibilisation des médecins à prescrire en si besoin les prises du soir ;
– un rappel des horaires de production Bien que l’impact économique soit faible, la sensibilisation de l’ensemble des acteurs doit donc être poursuivie.
L’utilisation prolongée et les associations de benzodiazépines (BZD) anxiolytiques et hypnotiques exposent à des risques à court et long terme (dépendance, démence, troubles psychomoteurs…). Selon la Haute Autorité de santé (HAS), il n’y a pas lieu d’associer une BZD et un apparenté (zopiclone ou zolpidem) le soir.
– Évaluer les habitudes de prescription des BZD et de leurs apparentés hypnotiques dans une population de patients suivis en psychiatrie hospitalière.
– Suivre sur 6 années l’évolution de ces pratiques de prescription et l’émergence d’alternatives thérapeutiques aux BZD.
– Établir un parallèle avec les recommandations et les actualités de la littérature au sujet de ces risques pendant cette même période.
L’étude rétrospective a été réalisée au centre hospitalier Henri-Laborit (Poitiers) en sélectionnant les ordonnances informatisées comportant des BZD et/ou apparentés sur une période allant du 1er janvier 2008 au 31 décembre 2013, par tranche d’une année. Les associations de ces molécules et leurs posologies ont été répertoriées.
L’analyse de 6511 ordonnances a notamment mis en évidence que la prescription de zolpidem ou zopiclone seuls, sans association à une benzodiazépine, est majoritaire (77,5 % des ordonnances en moyenne) jusqu’en 2010. Puis elle diminue fortement (plus que 38 % en 2013) et elle est inférieure à celle de benzodiazépine seule pendant les 3 années suivantes. Parallèlement, le nombre total d’ordonnances dans cet hôpital est en constante augmentation. L’association de benzodiazépine et d’apparentés sur une même ordonnance reste peu courante, dans 2 % des prescriptions en moyenne, mais la prise des deux se situe le soir dans 91 % des cas (69–100 %).
L’étude montre une diminution de prescription d’hypnotiques apparentés aux BZD, allant de pair avec les mises en garde sur leurs effets indésirables et aux actions de l’HAS. Leur association en soirée à des BZD reste présente et une étude prospective auprès des prescripteurs pour connaître leur choix d’alternative thérapeutique est nécessaire.
Addiction to various substances, including drugs and alcohol, probably arises from a combination of environmental and genetic factors. The genetic vulnerability to drug addiction is supported by several familial, adoption and twin studies. However, as in other mental disorders, the genetic vulnerability to drug addiction appears complex: these disorders do not follow the rules of Mendelian inheritance. Instead, they are probably influenced by multiple susceptibility genes, each of which contributes to the disorder. The more genes necessary for a disorder, the harder it is to detect any of them. This difficulty is magnified by the role of environmental factors. Association studies using the candidate gene approach can identify susceptibility genes for drug abuse supported by the pathophysiological hypothesis of the illness. This review will focus on the clinical and molecular genetic studies in drug abuse.
We recently reported an association between TAAR6 (trace amine associated receptor 6 gene) variations and schizophrenia (SZ). We now report an association of a set of TAAR6 variations and clinical presentation and outcome in a sample of 240 SZ Korean patients. Patients were selected by a Structured Clinical Interview, DSM-IV Axis I disorders – Clinical Version (SCID-CV). Other psychiatric or neurologic disorders, as well as medical diseases, were exclusion criteria. To assess symptom severity, patients were administered the CGI scale and the PANSS at baseline and at the moment of discharge, 1 month later on average. TAAR6 variations rs6903874, rs7452939, rs8192625 and rs4305745 were investigated; rs6903874, rs7452939 and rs8192625 entered the statistical investigation after LD analysis. Rs8192625 G/G homozygosis was found to be significantly associated both with a worse clinical presentation at PANSS total and positive scores and with a shorter period of illness before hospitalization. No haplotype significant findings were found. The present study stands for a role of the TAAR6 in the clinical presentation of SZ. Moreover, our results show that this genetic effect may be counteracted by a correct treatment. Haplotype analysis was not informative in our sample, probably also because of the incomplete SNPs' coverage of the gene we performed. Further studies in this direction are warranted.
Serotonin type 2A receptors (5-HTR2A) have long been implicated in schizophrenia pathology. A decreased number of these receptors were found in postmortem brain studies of schizophrenic patients as well as in experiments using neuroimaging techniques. Molecular genetic studies revealed that the T102C polymorphism of the 5-HTR2A gene is associated with schizophrenia, with the CC genotype frequency being higher in patients compared to healthy controls. However the association was not confirmed in all studies. We carried out a replication study, which aimed at searching for association between this polymorphism and schizophrenia in a large samples of patients (n = 919), their psychiatrically well first-degree relatives (n = 330) and screened controls (n = 500). The C allele and the CT + CC genotype frequencies were significantly higher in patients than in controls (χ2 = 5.1; df = 1; p = 0.02; OR 1.2, 95% CI 1.0–1.4) and χ2 = 5.4; df = 1; p = 0.02; OR 1.4, 95% CI 1.1–1.8 respectively). In a family-based study, the transmission disequilibrium test (TDT) and the family-based association test (FBAT) did not show a preferential transmission of any allele. In conclusion, our replication study provides further evidence for association between the 5-HTR2A receptor T102C polymorphism and schizophrenia.
Pathological gambling is a behavioural addiction with negative economic, social, and psychological consequences. Identification of contributing genes and pathways may improve understanding of aetiology and facilitate therapy and prevention. Here, we report the first genome-wide association study of pathological gambling. Our aims were to identify pathways involved in pathological gambling, and examine whether there is a genetic overlap between pathological gambling and alcohol dependence.
Four hundred and forty-five individuals with a diagnosis of pathological gambling according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders were recruited in Germany, and 986 controls were drawn from a German general population sample. A genome-wide association study of pathological gambling comprising single marker, gene-based, and pathway analyses, was performed. Polygenic risk scores were generated using data from a German genome-wide association study of alcohol dependence.
No genome-wide significant association with pathological gambling was found for single markers or genes. Pathways for Huntington's disease (P-value = 6.63 × 10−3); 5′-adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase signalling (P-value = 9.57 × 10−3); and apoptosis (P-value = 1.75 × 10−2) were significant. Polygenic risk score analysis of the alcohol dependence dataset yielded a one-sided nominal significant P-value in subjects with pathological gambling, irrespective of comorbid alcohol dependence status.
The present results accord with previous quantitative formal genetic studies which showed genetic overlap between non-substance- and substance-related addictions. Furthermore, pathway analysis suggests shared pathology between Huntington's disease and pathological gambling. This finding is consistent with previous imaging studies.
What does Dickinson’s writing on used, printed, or already written-upon scraps of paper indicate about her poetics? I argue that Dickinson’s late writing on bits of envelopes and advertisements resembles the inscriptive writing of her peers and was part of a mass culture of elegy, souvenir, and memory place. If associationism and skepticism transform rhetoric and science, they also affect the way ordinary people think about their lives. Dickinson participates in a popular culture that understands memory to be associative, unbidden, and dependent upon particulars. I examine emblem culture, the popularity of friendship albums, and scrap-keeping to argue that Dickinson’s participation in a culture which ascribes memorial meaning to the artifacts of everyday life is the key to her inscribing on scraps. Dickinson works self-consciously with ideas of inscription, elegy, and epitaph, dwelling in the tension between an abstract general statement and the specificity of the site and its associations.
Social network analysis is a widely applied tool to study the social organization of different species. Only few studies have investigated social network changes over time. A previous study of the North Group chimpanzees in Taï National Park indicated network structure changes with decreasing community size. We investigated how two natural ‘knockouts’, i.e. sudden large-scale declines in community size, affected association networks. Network dynamics following the 1992 knockout, during which eight individuals died, showed a delayed response: in the first months, association rates were lower than expected, and only after seven months did they converge to expected community-size–specific level. In contrast, network dynamics following the 1994 knockout, during which 12 individuals died, showed no deviation from expected community-size–specific levels. Thus, chimpanzee association networks can react differently to large-scale declines in community size. Differences might be related to the identity of deceased individuals and knockout amplitude. The patterns of observed changes did not support the idea that large-scale knockouts lead to strong disturbances of chimpanzee communities.