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Hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) is one of the rate-determining enzymes in the hydrolysis of TAG, playing a crucial role in lipid metabolism. However, the role of HSL-mediated lipolysis in systemic nutrient homoeostasis has not been intensively understood. Therefore, we used CRISPR/Cas9 technique and Hsl inhibitor (HSL-IN-1) to establish hsla-deficient (hsla-/-) and Hsl-inhibited zebrafish models, respectively. As a result, the hsla-/- zebrafish showed retarded growth and reduced oxygen consumption rate, accompanied with higher mRNA expression of the genes related to inflammation and apoptosis in liver and muscle. Furthermore, hsla-/- and HSL-IN-1-treated zebrafish both exhibited severe fat deposition, whereas their expressions of the genes related to lipolysis and fatty acid oxidation were markedly reduced. The TLC results also showed that the dysfunction of Hsl changed the whole-body lipid profile, including increasing the content of TG and decreasing the proportion of phospholipids. In addition, the systemic metabolic pattern was remodelled in hsla-/- and HSL-IN-1-treated zebrafish. The dysfunction of Hsl lowered the glycogen content in liver and muscle and enhanced the utilisation of glucose plus the expressions of glucose transporter and glycolysis genes. Besides, the whole-body protein content had significantly decreased in the hsla-/- and HSL-IN-1-treated zebrafish, accompanied with the lower activation of the mTOR pathway and enhanced protein and amino acid catabolism. Taken together, Hsl plays an essential role in energy homoeostasis, and its dysfunction would cause the disturbance of lipid catabolism but enhanced breakdown of glycogen and protein for energy compensation.
The impact of the dietary potential inflammatory effect on diabetic kidney disease (DKD) has not been adequately investigated. The present study aimed to explore the association between dietary inflammatory index (DII) and DKD in US adults.
This is a cross-sectional study.
Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2007–2016) were used. DII was calculated from 24-h dietary recall interviews. DKD was defined as diabetes with albuminuria, impaired glomerular filtration rate or both. Logistic regression and restricted cubic spline models were adopted to evaluate the associations.
Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2007–2016) were used, which can provide the information of participants.
Four thousand two-hundred and sixty-four participants were included in this study. The adjusted OR of DKD was 1·04 (95 % CI 0·81, 1·36) for quartile 2, 1·24 (95 % CI 0·97, 1·59) for quartile 3 and 1·64 (95 % CI 1·24, 2·17) for quartile 4, respectively, compared with the quartile 1 of DII. A linear dose–response pattern was observed between DII and DKD (Pnonlinearity = 0·73). In the stratified analyses, the OR for quartile 4 of DII were significant among adults with higher educational level (OR 1·83, 95 % CI 1·26, 2·66) and overweight or obese participants (OR 1·67, 95 % CI 1·23, 2·28), but not among the corresponding another subgroup. The interaction effects between DII and stratified factors on DKD were not statistically significant (all P values for interactions were >0·05).
Our findings suggest that a pro-inflammatory diet, shown by a higher DII score, is associated with increased odd of DKD.
Direct numerical simulation is conducted to uncover the response of a supersonic turbulent boundary layer to streamwise concave curvature and the related physical mechanisms at a Mach number of 2.95. Streamwise variations of mean flow properties, turbulence statistics and turbulent structures are analysed. A method to define the boundary layer thickness based on the principal strain rate is proposed, which is applicable for boundary layers subjected to wall-normal pressure and velocity gradients. While the wall friction grows with the wall turning, the friction velocity decreases. A logarithmic region with constant slope exists in the concave boundary layer. However, with smaller slope, it is located lower than that of the flat boundary layer. Streamwise varying trends of the velocity and the principal strain rate within different wall-normal regions are different. The turbulence level is promoted by the concave curvature. Due to the increased turbulence generation in the outer layer, secondary bumps are noted in the profiles of streamwise and spanwise turbulence intensity. Peak positions in profiles of wall-normal turbulence intensity and Reynolds shear stress are pushed outward because of the same reason. Attributed to the Görtler instability, the streamwise extended vortices within the hairpin packets are intensified and more vortices are generated. Through accumulations of these vortices with a similar sense of rotation, large-scale streamwise roll cells are formed. Originated from the very large-scale motions and by promoting the ejection, sweep and spanwise events, the formation of large-scale streamwise roll cells is the physical cause of the alterations of the mean properties and turbulence statistics. The roll cells further give rise to the vortex generation. The large number of hairpin vortices formed in the near-wall region lead to the improved wall-normal correlation of turbulence in the concave boundary layer.
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