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To assess urban–rural disparities in the association between long-term exposure to high altitude and malnutrition among children under 5 years old.
A three-stage, stratified, cluster sampling was used to randomly select eligible individuals from July to October 2020. The data of participants, including demographic characteristics, altitude of residence, and nutritional status, were collected via questionnaire and physical examination.
Children under 5 years old in Tibet.
Totally, 1975 children under 5 years old were included in this study. We found that an additional 1000 m increase in altitude was associated with decreased Z-scores of height-for-age (β = –0·23, 95 % CI: –0·38, –0·08), Z-scores of weight-for-age (β = –0·24, 95 % CI: –0·39, –0·10). The OR for stunting and underweight were 2·03 (95 % CI: 1·51 to 2·73) and 2·04 (95 % CI: 1·38 to 3·02) per 1000 m increase in altitude, respectively; and OR increased rapidly at an altitude above 3500 m. The effects of long-term exposure to high altitudes on the prevalence of underweight in rural children were higher than that in urban children (P < 0·05).
High-altitude exposure is tightly associated with malnutrition among children under 5 years old. Improving children’s nutrition is urgently needed in areas above 3500 m, especially in rural ones.
While research on women's substantive representation in legislatures has proliferated, our knowledge of gender lobbying mechanisms in authoritarian regimes remains limited. Adopting a state-society interaction approach, this article addresses how women's interests are substantively represented in China despite the absence of an electoral mandate and the omnipresence of state power. Drawing on extensive fieldwork, this article maps out the intertwining of key political agents and institutions within and outside the state that mobilize for women's grievances and demands. We find that representation of women's interests in China requires the emergence of a unified societal demand followed by a coalition of state agency allies navigating within legislative, executive, and Party-affiliated institutional bodies. The pursuit of women's interests is also politically bounded and faces strong repression if the lobbying lacks state alliances or the targeted issue is considered “politically sensitive” by the government.
Evidence has suggested that honey intake has a beneficial impact on glycaemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes. Whether these findings apply to adults with prediabetes is yet unclear. The aim of the present study was to examine whether honey intake is associated with a lower prevalence of prediabetes. A cross-sectional study was performed in 18 281 participants (mean age 39·6 (sd 11·1) years; men, 51·5 %). Dietary intake was assessed through a validated 100-item FFQ. Prediabetes was defined according to the American Diabetes Association criteria: impaired fasting glucose, impaired glucose tolerance or raised glycosylated Hb. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to estimate the association between honey consumption and prediabetes. As compared with those who almost never consumed honey, the multivariable OR of prediabetes were 0·94 (95 % CI 0·86, 1·02) for ≤3 times/week, 0·77 (95 % CI 0·63, 0·94) for 4–6 times/week and 0·85 (95 % CI 0·73, 0·99) for ≥1 time/d (Pfor trend < 0·01). These associations did not differ substantially in sensitivity analysis. Higher honey consumption was associated with a decreased prevalence of prediabetes. More large prospective cohort studies are needed to investigate this association.
To investigate university students’ knowledge, attitudes and practice (KAP) regarding vitamin D.
The students were requested to answer a questionnaire related to vitamin D and sun exposure. The consumption frequency of foods rich in vitamin D was assessed. Additionally, the intake of vitamin D-containing supplements was recorded.
A medical university in Nanjing, China.
Five hundred and fifteen medical students were included.
The highest rate of correct responses for the quiz was 68·0 %, while the lowest was 9·6 %. Most students lacked sun exposure because they did not want to get tanned; 82·7 % of students used some sun protection and sunscreen use was more popular in the female group. The consumption frequency of foods rich in vitamin D was low and 5·6 % of the students used vitamin D supplements. The students’ knowledge on vitamin D was derived mainly from the media and health professionals. Most of the students were interested to know more about vitamin D.
The present study suggested that medical students had little knowledge and unfavourable behaviours. They should get more health education through the media and health professionals. It is advisable to increase their consumption of foods rich in vitamin D.
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