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The adolescent brain may be susceptible to the influences of illicit drug use. While compensatory network reorganization is a unique developmental characteristic that may restore several brain disorders, its association with methamphetamine (MA) use-induced damage during adolescence is unclear.
Using independent component (IC) analysis on structural magnetic resonance imaging data, spatially ICs described as morphometric networks were extracted to examine the effects of MA use on gray matter (GM) volumes and network module connectivity in adolescents (51 MA users v. 60 controls) and adults (54 MA users v. 60 controls).
MA use was related to significant GM volume reductions in the default mode, cognitive control, salience, limbic, sensory and visual network modules in adolescents. GM volumes were also reduced in the limbic and visual network modules of the adult MA group as compared to the adult control group. Differential patterns of structural connectivity between the basal ganglia (BG) and network modules were found between the adolescent and adult MA groups. Specifically, adult MA users exhibited significantly reduced connectivity of the BG with the default network modules compared to control adults, while adolescent MA users, despite the greater extent of network GM volume reductions, did not show alterations in network connectivity relative to control adolescents.
Our findings suggest the potential of compensatory network reorganization in adolescent brains in response to MA use. The developmental characteristic to compensate for MA-induced brain damage can be considered as an age-specific therapeutic target for adolescent MA users.
The tensile yield strength of high-density polyethylene using instrumented indentation tests with a flat-ended cylindrical indenter was evaluated. The variation in the field expressed by stress and strain beneath the flat-ended cylindrical indenter is investigated using a new expanding cavity model to study the relation between tension and indentation. This model starts from the separation of forces into the compressive force on the material and the frictional one, which is generated during indentation on the sides of indenter. The authors propose a method to correct the frictional force based on the saturation of indentation hardening and obtain load–depth curve with compressive component only. For conversion of indentation force and displacement, our new representation model is applied. By modifying Johnson's model, the new assumption of conservation of indentation plastic volume is suggested. This model proves and supports conventional relations of the strain rates between indentation and tension theoretically. These are verified through the experiments: instrumented indentation and uniaxial tensile test. The authors find a good agreement between the tensile yield strengths at various strain rates.
Residual stress is generally evaluated using indentation by comparing the indentation curves of stressed and stress-free states. Here, we suggest a new method that can evaluate surface residual stress without indentation testing on stress-free specimen using stress-independent indentation parameters and an analysis of indentation contact morphology for the stress-free state. We found that several indentation parameters are independent of the stress by Vickers indentation testing on various stress states. The indentation contact morphology can be represented by indentation parameters including stress-independent ones, and by applying the stress-independent parameters obtained from the stressed state to the indentation contact depth function, we can estimate an indentation curve for stress-free state. The estimated curve matches well with the experimental stress-free indentation curve, and it was also confirmed that the applied stress values evaluated by comparing the estimated curve with the stressed indentation curve agree well with the reference values obtained from strain gauge.
We suggest a new method to evaluate stress directionality, the ratio of principal stresses, using nanoindentation by introducing a modified Berkovich indenter that is extended in one direction from the Berkovich indenter. In a nonequibiaxial stress state, the indentation load-depth curves are shifted differently as the extended axis of the indenter is placed in accordance with each principal direction. The indentation load-difference is proportional to each principal stress and the slopes are defined by the normal and parallel conversion factors whose ratio is constant at 0.58. The suggested method was verified by indentation tests using five nonequibiaxial stressed specimens. The evaluated stress directionality results show agreement with the applied reference values within ±20%. Furthermore, we calculated the conversion factor ratios for other modified Berkovich indenters extended to different degrees through finite element analysis and confirmed that the conversion factor ratio was inversely proportional to the extension of the modified Berkovich indenter.
The sulfur-iodine thermo-chemical cycle (S-I cycle) is one of the promising nuclear hydrogen production methods combined with a high temperature gas-cooled reactor. However, extremely corrosive environments limit the selection of structural materials. Therefore, in this study, corrosion behaviors of several metallic materials were investigated to screen the candidate metallic materials. Coupon type specimens were exposed for 100 h in simulated SO3 and HI decomposer conditions at 850 °C. After 100 h exposure, the surface treated Alloy 617 showed the superior weight change in both environments. However, scanning electron microscope observation showed oxide spallation for EB-treated and NiAl coated Alloy 617. On the other hand, the Ni3Al coated Alloy 617 showed better corrosion resistance in SO3 decomposer condition, such that only formed external Al-rich oxide layer. Especially, in a HI decomposer condition, the damage on the Ni3Al coated Alloy 617 was considerably less significant probably due to the protection by very thin aluminum-rich oxide on the surface.
We report the realization of the p-type conductivity and the enhancement of the photoluminescence (PL) intensity in undoped ZnO films treated with high-energy (1 MeV) electron-beam irradiation (HEEBI), suggesting that the HEEBI process is compatible with a low-temperature requirement for the fabrication of transparent thin film transistors with good efficiency on a plastic substrate. The p-type conductivity of the films was revealed by the Hall, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and PL measurements after being electron-irradiated in air at room temperature. The major acceptor-like defects were determined to be oxygen interstitial and zinc vacancy. A model was proposed in terms of O as well as Zn diffusion to explain the observed results. It was also observed that HEEBI treatment has little influence on the optical transmittance of ZnO films, whereas HEEBI treatment shifts the optical band gap toward the lower energy region from 3.29 to 3.28 eV.
A novel route to organic-inorganic composites was described based on biomineralization of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)-based hydrogels. The 3-dimensional hydrogels were synthesized by radical crosslinking polymerization of poly(ethylene glycol fumarate) (PEGF) in the presence of ethylene glycol methacrylate phosphate (EGMP) as an apatite-nuclating monomer, acrylamide (AAm) as a composition-modulating comonomer, and potassium persulfate (PPS) as a radical initiator. We used the urea-mediated solution precipitation technique for biomineralization of hydrogels. The apatite grown on the surface and interior of the hydrogel was similar to biological apatites in the composition and crystalline structure. Powder x-ray diffraction (XRD) showed that the calcium phosphate crystalline platelets on hydrogels are preferentially aligned along the crystallographic c-axis direction. Inductively-coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS) analysis showed that the Ca/P molar ratio of apatites grown on the hydrogel template was found to be 1.60, which is identical to that of natural bones. In vitro cell experiments showed that the cell adhesion/proliferation on the mineralized hydrogel was more pronounced than on the pure polymer hydrogel.
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