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We study non-abelian versions of the Mellin transformations, originally introduced by Gabber-Loeser on complex affine tori. Our main result is a generalisation to the non-abelian context and with arbitrary coefficients of the t-exactness of Gabber-Loeser’s Mellin transformation. As an intermediate step, we obtain vanishing results for the Sabbah specialisation functors. Our main application is to construct new examples of duality spaces in the sense of Bieri-Eckmann, generalising results of Denham-Suciu.
In this work, we studied an atomic layer deposition (ALD) process of ZrO2 with the precursors of tetrakis(dimethylamido)zirconium(IV) and water. We investigated the growth characteristics and mechanism of the ALD ZrO2 in the temperature range of 50–275 °C. Furthermore, the evolutions of film thickness and morphology were studied and discussed. It was found that the growth rate of ZrO2 decreased almost linearly with the increasing temperature from ∼1.81 Å/cycle at 50 °C to ∼0.8 Å/cycle at 225 °C. Interestingly, it was revealed that the growth of ZrO2 films ceased after a certain number of ALD cycles at a temperature higher than 250 °C. We also verified that the crystallinity of ZrO2 evolved with deposition temperature from amorphous to crystalline phase. In addition, the wettability of ZrO2 films was studied, showing a hydrophobic nature.
Graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4) microspheres (CNMS) were fabricated via a solvothermal method by using dicyandiamide and cyanuric chloride as precursors. The morphology, band structure, and defects can be simultaneously regulated by merely adjusting the concentration of precursors. Structural characterization results indicate that all the prepared samples possess spherical morphology, while the band gap decreased as the precursor concentration increased from 8 mmol (CNMS-1) to 24 mmol (CNMS-3). Besides, ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy results suggested that the valence band of CNMS-2 (16 mmol) was much higher than that of CNMS-1 and CNMS-3. Additionally, organic elemental analysis, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and electron paramagnetic resonance results unveil the formation of nitrogen defects on the surface of prepared samples. Besides, CNMS-2 exhibits an enhanced apparent reaction rate constant of RhB degradation than that of CNMS-1 and CNMS-3. The improved apparent reaction rate constant may be due to the lowered valence band as well as the formation of nitrogen defects. This work might guide the regulation of the morphology and band structure of g-C3N4-based materials prepared via the one-pot hydrothermal method.
Recent studies have shown that chemical immiscibility is important to achieve enhanced radiation tolerance in metallic multilayers as immiscible layer interfaces are more stable against radiation induced mixing than miscible interfaces. However, as most of these immiscible systems have incoherent interfaces, the influence of coherency on radiation resistance of immiscible systems remains poorly understood. Here, we report on radiation response of immiscible Cu/Fe multilayers, with individual layer thickness h varying from 0.75 to 100 nm, subjected to He ion irradiation. When interface is incoherent, the peak bubble density decreases with decreasing h and reaches a minimum when h is 5 nm. At even smaller h when interface is increasingly coherent, the peak bubble density increases again. However, void swelling in coherent multilayers with smaller h remains less than those in incoherent multilayers. Our study suggests that the coherent immiscible interface is also effective to alleviate radiation induced damage.
A systematic x-ray diffraction (XRD) study was performed on room-temperature Xe-irradiated and postirradiation annealed CeO2. Large scale XRD did not show any additional irradiation-induced phases upon irradiation. Depth profiling the CeO2 (111) diffraction peak over the 150 nm deep Xe-irradiated layer (400 keV, 1 × 1020 Xe/m2) by grazing incidence XRD indicated a lattice expansion at the irradiated layer. Postirradiation annealing (1 h at 1000 °C) in an oxygen-containing environment removed the observed XRD features. Electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) was performed for cross-sectional samples before and after postirradiation annealing. EELS showed that the Ce charge state changed from +4 to +3 at the CeO2 surface indicating the presence of O vacancies in both as-irradiated and annealed samples. EELS also indicated that the amount of O vacancies was reduced at the irradiated region by annealing. The experimental results are discussed based on electronic properties of CeO2, annihilation of oxygen vacancies, and evolution of irradiation damage.
Oxide composites are a class of materials with potential uses for nuclear, space, and coating applications. Exploiting their promise, however, requires a detailed understanding of their interfacial structure and chemistry. Using analytical microscopy, we have examined the radiation damage behavior at the interface of a model oxide bilayer, SrTiO3/MgO. The as-synthesized SrTiO3 thin film contained both (100) and (110) oriented domains. We found that after ion beam implantation the (110) domains amorphized at a lower radiation fluence than the (100) domains. Further, a persistent crystalline layer of SrTiO3 forms at the interface even as the rest of the SrTiO3 film amorphizes. We hypothesize that the enhanced amorphization susceptibility of the (110) domains is a consequence of how charged irradiation-induced defects at the interfaces interact with the charged planes of the (110) domains. These results demonstrate the complex relationship between interfacial structure and radiation damage evolution at oxide interfaces.
Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) and multiple sclerosis (MS) are chronic neuro-inflammatory diseases believed to arise from complex interactions between environmental and genetic factors. Recently, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in interleukin (IL)-2 and -7 receptor alpha genes have been identified as novel susceptibility alleles for MS in genome-wide association studies. However, similar research on NMO is limited. We aimed to investigate the association of IL2RA SNPs rs2104286 and rs12722489 and IL7RA SNP rs6897932 with Southern Han Chinese NMO and MS patients.
Frequencies of the three SNPs were examined in Southern Han Chinese mS cases (n=78), NMS cases (n=67) and controls (n=133) using sequencing-based typing.
The rs2104286G frequency in the IL2RA gene was significantly higher in NMO patients than in controls (puncorr=0.013, pcorr=0.026, OR:1.942, 95%CI:1.146-3.291).
The rs2104286 G allele in IL2RA is present at higher frequencies in NMO patients than in healthy controls within a Southern Han Chinese population.
The irradiation damage behaviors of single crystal (SC), coarse-grained (CG), and nanograined (NG) copper (Cu) films were investigated under Helium (He) ion implantation at 450 °C with different ion fluences. In irradiated SC films, plenty of cavities are nucleated, and some of them preferentially formed on growth defects or dislocation lines. In the irradiated CG Cu, cavities formed both in grain interior and along grain boundaries; obvious void-denuded zones can be identified near grain boundaries. In contrast, irradiation-induced cavities in NG Cu were observed mainly gathering along grain boundaries with much less cavities in the grain interiors. The grains in irradiated NG Cu are significantly coarsened. The number density and average radius of cavities in NG Cu was smaller than that in irradiated SC Cu and CG Cu. These experiments indicate that grain boundaries are efficient sinks for irradiation-induced vacancies and highlight the important role of reducing grain size in suppressing radiation-induced void swelling.
Quality control of the inertial confinement fusion (ICF) target in the laser fusion program is vital to ensure that energy deposition from the lasers results in uniform compression and minimization of Rayleigh–Taylor instabilities. The technique of nuclear microscopy with ion beam analysis is a powerful method to provide characterization of ICF targets. Distribution of elements, depth profile, and density image of ICF targets can be identified by particle-induced X-ray emission, Rutherford backscattering spectrometry, and scanning transmission ion microscopy. We present examples of ICF target characterization by nuclear microscopy at Fudan University in order to demonstrate their potential impact in assessing target fabrication processes.
Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) and multiple sclerosis (MS) are inflammatory demyelinating diseases of human central nervous system (CNS) with complex pathogenesis. IL-21/IL-21R regulates activation, proliferation and survival of both T cells and B cells, which are involved in the pathogenesis of NMO and MS. High levels of serum IL-21 were observed in NMO patients. However, concentration of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) IL-21 in MS and NMO patients still remain unknown.
To detect the CSF concentration of IL-21 in NMO and MS patients and to evaluate its relationship with disease activity, particularly concerned about its impact on humoral immunity.
CSF IL-21 was detected by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in NMO patients (n=21), MS patients (n=20) and controls (n=16).
CSF concentration of the IL-21 was noticeably elevated in NMO (p=0.012) and borderline significantly increased in MS (p=0.115). In addition, this occurrence was associated with humoral immune activity as shown by a correlation between IL-21 and complement in NMO cohort (p=0.023) and high IL-21 levels in autoantibody-positive subgroup (p=0.027).
The concentration of CSF IL-21 was noticeably elevated and might have a positive correlation with humoral immune activity in NMO.
Small-scale testing techniques such as nanoindentation and micro-/nanocompression are promising methods for addressing mechanical properties of ion-beam-irradiated materials. We performed different proton irradiations and critically evaluated the results obtained from nanoindentation and pillar compression, both performed parallel and perpendicular to the irradiation direction. Experiments parallel to beam direction suffer from variation of material properties with penetration depth. This is improved by cross-sectional experiments, thereby probing the effect of different doses along the beam penetration depth on mechanical properties. Finally, we demonstrate that, compared with nanoindentation, miniaturized uniaxial compression experiments offer a more reliable and straightforward interpretation of the mechanical data, as they impose a nominally uniaxial stress on a well-defined volume at a specific position. Moreover, the exposed pillar geometry is not influenced by surface contamination and enables in situ observation of the governing mechanical processes, which is typically not possible during indentation experiments in a half-space geometry.