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Background: After the Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus outbreak in Korea in 2015, the government newly established the additional reimbursement for infection prevention to encourage infection control activities in the hospitals. The new policy was announced in December 2015 and was implemented in September 2016. We evaluated how infection control activities improved in hospitals after the change of government policy in Korea. Methods: Three cross-sectional surveys using the WHO Hand Hygiene Self-Assessment Framework (HHSAF) were conducted in 2013, 2015, and 2017. Using multivariable linear regression model including hospital characteristics, we analyzed the changes in total HHSAF scores according to the survey time. Results: In total, 32 hospitals participated in the survey in 2013, 52 in 2015, and 101 in 2017. The number of inpatient beds per infection control professionals decreased from 324 in 2013 to 303 in 2015 and 179 in 2017. Most hospitals were at intermediate or advanced levels of progress (90.6% in 2013, 86.6% in 2015, and 94.1% in 2017). In a multivariable linear regression model, the total HHSAF scores were significantly associated with hospital teaching status (β coefficient of major teaching hospital, 52.6; 95% CI, 8.9–96.4; P = .018), bed size (β coefficient of 100-bed increase, 5.1; 95% CI, 0.3–9.8; P = .038), and survey time (β coefficient of 2017 survey, 45.1; 95% CI, 19.3–70.9; P = .001). Conclusions: After the national policy implementation, the number of infection control professionals increased, and the promotion of hand hygiene activities was strengthened in Korean hospitals.
There is limited evidence on the interaction by alcohol dehydrogenase 2 (ADH1B) (rs1229984) and aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) (rs671) regarding the associations of alcohol and a methyl diet (low folate and high alcohol intake) with cancer risk, partly because of rare polymorphisms in Western populations.
In a case–control study, we estimated the ORs and 95 % CIs to evaluate the associations of ADH1B and ALDH2 genotypes with colorectal cancer (CRC) and the joint association between methyl diets and ADH1B and ALDH2 polymorphisms with CRC risk using logistic regression models.
A hospital-based case–control study.
In total, 1001 CRC cases and 899 cancer-free controls admitted to two university hospitals.
We found that alcohol intake increased the risk of CRC; OR (95 % CI) was 2·02 (1·41, 2·87) for ≥60 g/d drinkers compared with non-drinkers (Ptrend < 0·001). The associations for two polymorphisms with CRC were not statistically significant. However, we found a potential interaction of ALDH2 with methyl diets and CRC. We observed a 9·08-fold (95 % CI 1·93, 42·60) higher risk of CRC for low-methyl diets compared with high-methyl diets among individuals with an A allele of ALDH2, but the association was not apparent among those with ALDH2 GG (Pinteraction = 0·02).
Our data support the evidence that gene–methyl diet interactions may be involved in CRC risk in East Asian populations, showing that a low-methyl diet increased the risk of CRC among individuals with an A allele of ALDH2.
To propose a new anthropometric index that can be employed to better predict percent body fat (PBF) among young adults and to compare with current anthropometric indices.
All measurements were taken in a controlled laboratory setting in Seoul (South Korea), between 1 December 2015 and 30 June 2016.
Eighty-seven young adults (18–35 years) who underwent dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) were used for analysis. Multiple regression analyses were conducted to develop a body fat index (BFI) using simple demographic and anthropometric information. Correlations of DXA measured PBF (DXA_PBF) with previously developed anthropometric indices and the BFI were analysed. Receiver operating characteristic curve analyses were conducted to compare the ability of anthropometric indices to identify obese individuals.
BFI showed a strong correlation with DXA_PBF (r = 0·84), which was higher than the correlations of DXA_PBF with the traditional (waist circumference, r = 0·49; waist to height ratio, r = 0·68; BMI, r = 0·36) and alternate anthropometric indices (a body shape index, r = 0·47; body roundness index, r = 0·68; body adiposity index, r = 0·70). Moreover, the BFI showed higher accuracy at identifying obese individuals (area under the curve (AUC) = 0·91), compared with the other anthropometric indices (AUC = 0·71–0·86).
The BFI can accurately predict DXA_PBF in young adults, using simple demographic and anthropometric information that are commonly available in research and clinical settings. However, larger representative studies are required to build on our findings.
Refugees commonly experience difficulties with emotional processing, such as alexithymia, due to stressful or traumatic experiences. However, the functional connectivity of the amygdala, which is central to emotional processing, has yet to be assessed in refugees. Thus, the present study investigated the resting-state functional connectivity of the amygdala and its association with emotional processing in North Korean (NK) refugees.
This study included 45 NK refugees and 40 native South Koreans (SK). All participants were administered the Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), and Clinician-administered PTSD Scale (CAPS), and differences between NK refugees and native SK in terms of resting-state functional connectivity of the amygdala were assessed. Additionally, the association between the strength of amygdala connectivity and the TAS score was examined.
Resting-state connectivity values from the left amygdala to the bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) and dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) were higher in NK refugees than in native SK. Additionally, the strength of connectivity between the left amygdala and right dlPFC was positively associated with TAS score after controlling for the number of traumatic experiences and BDI and CAPS scores.
The present study found that NK refugees exhibited heightened frontal–amygdala connectivity, and that this connectivity was correlated with alexithymia. The present results suggest that increased frontal–amygdala connectivity in refugees may represent frontal down-regulation of the amygdala, which in turn may produce alexithymia.
Using immunostaining methodology, we traced the axonal projection of FMRFamide (Phe-Met-Arg-Phe-NH2)-like immunoreactive (LI) medial neurosecretory cells (MNCs) and lateral neurosecretory cells (LNCs) from the brain into the ventral nerve cord (VNC) and retrocerebral complex in Bombyx mori (L.) (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae). Of the seven pairs of FMRFamide-LI MNCs, one pair extended its axons from the brain pars intercerebralis into the VNC ipsilateral connective where they appeared to terminate. The axons of the remaining MNCs ran through decussation in the brain median region and contralateral nervi corporis cardiaci (NCC) I out of the brain, and eventually innervated the contralateral corpus cardiacum (CC). Axons from the single pair of FMRFamide-LI LNCs projected into the ipsilateral NCC II fused with NCC I without decussation in the brain, and finally terminated in the CC. These results suggest that transport of the FMRFamide-like neuropeptide from may be related to the modulation of functions such as gut contraction in MNCs terminating in the VNC, and regulation of production and/or secretion of specific hormones such as juvenile hormone in MNCs and LNCs terminating in the CC.
Intra-uterine growth retardation has been linked to the development of type 2 diabetes in later life. Mitochondrial changes have been suggested as a link between fetal malnutrition and adult insulin resistance. Taurine has been implicated in this process. We investigated whether protein malnutrition in early life alters mitochondria of the pancreatic islets in adulthood, and whether taurine supplementation restores these changes. Male offspring of rats fed a control diet, a low-protein diet or a low-protein diet supplemented with taurine during pregnancy and lactation were weaned onto the control diet. In each group, at 20 weeks of age, intravenous glucose tolerance tests, euglycaemic–hyperinsulinaemic clamp studies, morphometric analysis of the pancreatic islets and ultra-structural analysis of the mitochondria of the β-cells were performed. The expressions of cytochrome c oxidase (COX) I and mitochondrial respiratory chain complex II were also measured. Fetal protein-malnourished rats showed decreased pancreatic islet mass and reduced insulin-secretory responses to a glucose load. These rats also showed reduced mitochondrial DNA-encoded COX I gene expression in the islets. Electron microscopic examination showed abnormal mitochondrial shapes in the β-cells of fetal protein-malnourished rats. Taurine supplementation to the low-protein diet restored all these changes. Our findings indicate that a maternal protein-restriction diet causes long-lasting mitochondrial changes that may contribute to the development of type 2 diabetes later in life. The lack of taurine may be a key causative factor for these dysfunctional mitochondrial changes.
Lee H-Y, Kim Y-K. Effect of TGF-β1 polymorphism on the susceptibility to schizophrenia and treatment response to atypical antipsychotic agent.
Several studies have suggested that cytokine alterations could be related to the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-β1) is believed to be an important factor in regulation of inflammatory responses and to have anti-inflammatory effects. TGF-β1 also has trophic effects on dopaminergic neurons. We tested the hypothesis TGF-β1 is associated with the pathophysiology of schizophrenia.
The polymorphisms at codon 10 (T869C) and codon 25 (G915C) of TGF-β1 were analysed in 99 schizophrenia patients and 130 normal controls. At baseline and after 8 weeks of treatment, clinical symptoms were evaluated on Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS).
None of the subjects were polymorphic at codon 25. However, the C allele at codon 10 was more frequent in schizophrenia (p = 0.05). Although schizophrenia group showed a higher tendency of allele frequency in the subjects with C allele (p = 0.05), the allelic difference did not reach statistical significance after correction for multiple comparisons (p = 0.1).
PANSS scores showed no significant correlation with genotypes. The genotype distribution was not significantly different between responders and non-responders. However, the C allele was more frequent among responders (p = 0.03).
These results suggest that the TGF-β1 polymorphism is associated with therapeutic response to antipsychotics. However, further studies with larger numbers of subjects are needed to confirm the effect of TGF-β1 in schizophrenia.
The present study examines whether illusory movement (IM) of a
horizontal line, induced by a moving background (MB), influences
line-bisection performance in normal subjects. The first experiment
attempted to identify the speeds of MB that induce IM. We found that when
speed is increased from 1.53° to 13.3°/sec, IM increases, but
that with further speed increases, IM decreases. Leftward MB induces
rightward IM, and vice versa. In the second experiment, we had subjects
bisect lines at MB speeds that had been shown to induce IM in the first
experiment. We found that leftward MB induced a rightward bias, and vice
versa. We also found that there was a relationship between the magnitude
of IM and the degree of bias. In the third experiment, by making the
target line larger than the MB, we made the conditions where IM was
presumably absent. Unlike the results of bisection performed with IM,
subjects showed a bias in the direction of the MB. Overall, these
experiments demonstrated that the perception of motion induces subjects to
attend in the direction of movement. (JINS, 2005, 11,
In the scribe lane, which is located at the frame neighboring two chips, most of the test patterns for monitoring electrical characteristics of memory device as well as various key patterns for photo process are formed. The pattern density of these regions is lower than that of the main chip area, and cause nitride erosion by dishing phenomena during HSS STI CMP process. Nitride erosion occurred in the scribe lane region, could the affect erosion properties of cell region in main chip area, results in within die remain nitride variation and marginal fail in device operation. In this work, in order to prevent these problems, pattern design in the scribe lane was modified so as not to occurs within die remain nitride variation. The effects of improvement in within die remain nitride variation were investigated by FIB-TEM analysis and its correlation with electrical properties were explained.
It is necessary for the optimum design of arc quenching
chamber in the molded case circuit breakers to analyze magnetic
force acting on the arc in the chamber. The magnetic blowout
forces and the distribution of magnetic field induced by arc
current depend on the shape, arrangement, and kinds of material of
grids in the chamber. The effective method to design V-slotted
iron grid in the arc quenching chamber is discussed in this paper.
The magnetic blowout force and flux density were obtained by using
the 3-D finite element method considering non-linearity of iron
grids. The grid model designed optimally was also verified by
means of the interruption performances test. It is shown that our
design method is a useful tool for design of arc quenching chamber
in the circuit breakers.
A system of (1 − x)Pb(Yb1/2Nb1/2)O3 (PYN)–xPb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3 (PMN) (0 ≤ x ≤ 1) has been investigated with regard to its phase transition, densification, and dielectric and electrostrictive properties. According to the XRD study, a crystal structure transformed from orthorhombic to pseudocubic at approximately x = 0.22. The superlattice peaks were gradually weakened with increasing x, and disappeared above x = 0.22. Increasing x led to an increase in the maximum dielectric constant and a decrease in transition temperature over the entire composition range. As a result of P-E hysteresis loops, successive phase transitions of ferroelectric-antiferroelectric-paraelectric were observed to occur in the range of 0.18 ≤ x ≤ 0.25 with increasing temperature, while the direct transition into the paraelectric region was found to take place for x ≥ 0.3. From the field-induced strain measurement, high electrostrictive coefficients, 7.3–8.2 × 10−2 (m4/C2), were determined in the PYN-rich range (x ≤ 0.1). Based on the results, a phase diagram of the system was constructed with variations in x and temperature.
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