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Coastal eutrophication and hypoxia remain a persistent environmental crisis despite the great efforts to reduce nutrient loading and mitigate associated environmental damages. Symptoms of this crisis have appeared to spread rapidly, reaching developing countries in Asia with emergences in Southern America and Africa. The pace of changes and the underlying drivers remain not so clear. To address the gap, we review the up-to-date status and mechanisms of eutrophication and hypoxia in global coastal oceans, upon which we examine the trajectories of changes over the 40 years or longer in six model coastal systems with varying socio-economic development statuses and different levels and histories of eutrophication. Although these coastal systems share common features of eutrophication, site-specific characteristics are also substantial, depending on the regional environmental setting and level of social-economic development along with policy implementation and management. Nevertheless, ecosystem recovery generally needs greater reduction in pressures compared to that initiated degradation and becomes less feasible to achieve past norms with a longer time anthropogenic pressures on the ecosystems. While the qualitative causality between drivers and consequences is well established, quantitative attribution of these drivers to eutrophication and hypoxia remains difficult especially when we consider the social economic drivers because the changes in coastal ecosystems are subject to multiple influences and the cause–effect relationship is often non-linear. Such relationships are further complicated by climate changes that have been accelerating over the past few decades. The knowledge gaps that limit our quantitative and mechanistic understanding of the human-coastal ocean nexus are identified, which is essential for science-based policy making. Recognizing lessons from past management practices, we advocate for a better, more efficient indexing system of coastal eutrophication and an advanced regional earth system modeling framework with optimal modules of human dimensions to facilitate the development and evaluation of effective policy and restoration actions.
Genetic mutations of fused in sarcoma (FUS) causing amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) may disrupt mRNA splicing events. For example, the FUS c.1394-2delA variant was reported in two western ALS patients, but its molecular mechanism is unclear. In this study, we aim to investigate FUS splice site mutations in Chinese ALS patients.
Sanger sequencing was used to identify FUS splicing mutations in Chinese ALS patients. We combined a deep learning tool (SpliceAI), RNA sequencing, and RT-PCR/RT-qPCR to analyze the effect of FUS c.1394-2delA mutation on RNA splicing and expression. AlphaFold was used to predict the protein structure of mutant FUS. In transfected cell lines, we used immunofluorescence to assess cytoplasmic mislocalization of mutant FUS protein.
We identified a de novo FUS splice acceptor site mutation (c.1394-2delA, p. Gly466Valfs*14) in one Chinese sporadic ALS patient, which is linked to exon 14 skipping, and upregulated total FUS mRNA expression. The FUS splice site mutation was predicted to be translated into a truncated protein product at C-terminal. In vitro studies revealed that the FUS mutation increased cytoplasmic mislocalization in both HEK293T and SH-SY5Y cells.
We identified a de novo FUS splicing mutation (c.1394-2delA, p. Gly466Valfs*14) in 1 out of 233 Chinese ALS patients. It caused abnormal RNA splicing, upregulated gene expression, truncated FUS translation, and cytosolic mislocalization. Our findings suggested that FUS splice site mutation is rare in Chinese ALS patients and extended our knowledge of molecular mechanisms of the FUS c.1394-2delA mutation.
The aim of this study was to investigate the long-term outcome of quality of life (QOL) in the lower-limb amputees 10 years after the 2008 Sichuan earthquake.
In the cross-sectional study, 66 lower-limb amputees were recruited. The prosthetics-related QOL was assessed using the Prosthetic Evaluation Questionnaire (PEQ) in terms of the scales of utility, appearance, sounds, residual limb health, perceived response, frustration, social burden, ambulation, and well-being. The score of each PEQ subscale was calculated and compared among the cohorts with different demographic characteristics.
The PEQ scores showed that the scales of sounds, residual limb health, and frustration were still low in the lower-limb amputees 10 years after the 2008 Sichuan earthquake. The comparison of PEQ scales among cohorts with different demographic characteristics indicated that the potential demographic risk factors, namely, age, marital status, educational level, living independence, and comorbidity, were associated with prosthesis-related QOL.
The prosthesis-related QOL of the lower-limb amputees 10 years after the 2008 Sichuan earthquake has been partly documented in this study. The potential demographic risk factors associated with QOL of amputees were also identified. These findings could enhance the understanding of prosthesis-related QOL of lower-limb amputees sustained in an earthquake and facilitate the optimization of post-disaster rehabilitation strategies.
We sought to examine the potential modifiers in the association between long-term low-dose folic acid supplementation and the reduction of serum total homocysteine (tHcy) among hypertensive patients, using data from the China Stroke Primary Prevention Trial (CSPPT). This analysis included 16 867 participants who had complete data on tHcy measurements at both the baseline and exit visit. After a median treatment period of 4·5 years, folic acid treatment significantly reduced the tHcy levels by 1·6 μmol/l (95 % CI 1·4, 1·8). More importantly, after adjustment for baseline tHcy and other important covariates, a greater degree of tHcy reduction was observed in certain subgroups: males, the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) 677TT genotype, higher baseline tHcy levels (≥12·5 (median) v. <12·5 μmol/l), lower folate levels (<8·0 (median) v. ≥8·0 ng/ml), estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) <60 ml/min per 1·73 m2 (v. 60–<90 and ≥90 ml/min per 1·73 m2), ever smokers and concomitant use of diuretics (P for all interactions <0·05). The degree of tHcy reduction associated with long-term folic acid supplementation can be significantly affected by sex, MTHFR C677T genotypes, baseline folate, tHcy, eGFR levels and smoking status.
Associations of folic acid supplementation with risk of preterm birth (PTB) and small-for-gestational-age (SGA) birth were unclear for the Chinese populations. The aim of the present study was to investigate the associations in a large Chinese prospective cohort study: the Jiaxing Birth Cohort. In the Jiaxing Birth Cohort, 240 954 pregnant women visited local clinics or hospitals within their first trimester in Southeast China during 1999–2012. Information on anthropometric parameters, folic acid supplementation and other maternal characteristics were collected by in-person interviews during their first visit. Pregnancy outcomes were recorded during the follow-up of these participants. Multinomial logistic regression was used to examine the association of folic acid supplementation with pregnancy outcomes. The prevalence of folic acid supplementation was 24·9 % in the cohort. The prevalence of PTB and SGA birth was 3·48 and 9·2 %, respectively. Pre-conceptional folic acid supplementation was associated with 8 % lower risk of PTB (relative risk (RR) 0·92; 95 % CI 0·85, 1·00; P=0·04) and 19 % lower risk of SGA birth (RR 0·81; 95 % CI 0·70, 0·95; P=0·008), compared with non-users. Higher frequency of pre-conceptional folic acid use was associated with lower risk of PTB (Ptrend=0·032) and SGA birth (Ptrend=0·046). No significant association between post-conceptional initiation of folic acid supplementation and either outcome was observed. In conclusion, the present study suggests an association between pre-conceptional, but not post-conceptional, folic acid supplementation and lower risk of PTB and SGA birth in the Jiaxing Birth Cohort. Further research in other cohorts of large sample size is needed to replicate these findings.
A roast experiment was carried out by using vanadium stone coal from Hubei Province as object, in the condition of compound additive dosage is 6%, the effects of roasting temperature, roasting time and material size on vanadium lixiviate efficiency were investigated. Experimental results indicate that, for the vanadium stone coal from Hubei Province, at the condition of additive dosage is 6%, the ideal target of vanadium lixiviate efficiency 82.3% can be acquired in the optimum condition of roasting temperature at 850 oC, roasting time is 120 minutes, material size is minus 0.5mm.
We report recent progress in 2G-HTS wire technology at Superpower Inc. The throughputs of 4mm-wide tape have reached 750m/h for sputtering AlO3+Y2O3 base layer, 360m/h for IBAD MgO template, 345m/h for sputtering Homo-epi MgO+LMO buffer, 180m/h for MOCVD REBCO. Critical current (Ic) of 813A/cm-width at 77K and self-field has been achieved on 1 meter length of 12mm-wide tape in which the thickness of GdYBCO film is 3.3 microns. Ic in a magnetic field has been significantly improved through composition modification, doping and MOCVD condition optimization. Ic of 185.6A/cm-width at 77K and 1Tesla has been obtained. For Ic on long lengths, 314A/cm-width on 202m, 221A/cm-width on 610m and 170A/cm-width on 935m have been achieved. A coil of 19.1mm diameter we made with our 2G wires generated 26.8T magnetic field in the magnet. A 30m-long cable made with nearly 10,000 meters of Superpower 2G wires showed excellent overall performance and has been installed and energized in the power grid.
SuperPower's IBAD (ion beam assisted deposition) MgO process has been changed to reactive ion beam sputtering of Mg metal target instead of MgO ceramic target, which gives ∼ 60 % increase in deposition rate. The process speed was increased from 195 m/h to 360 m/h. Texture of IBAD MgO tapes by this reactive process was found to degrade faster during long length run. This uniform issue was resolved with feedback control during long run and from run to run. The bottleneck of alumina layer process due to slow ion beam sputtering deposition was removed by new high rate reactive magnetron sputtering at transition mode. The new alumina process speed can be as high as 3,000 m/h in our Pilot Buffer system. The yttria layer process was also changed to high rate reactive magnetron sputtering at transition mode with achievable speed as high as 10,000 m/h in our Pilot Buffer system. The routine production speed of alumina and yttria is 750 m/h due to limitation of tape driving system. The high rate magnetron-sputtered alumina/yttria yields the same texture of IBAD MgO as ion beam sputtered alumina/yttria. Now we are routinely producing IBAD MgO template tapes of ∼ 1.4 km with a uniform in-plane texture ∼ 6-7 degrees. Record high critical current of 813 A/cm over a one meter length and a world record critical current times length value of > 233,8100A-m was obtained with our routinely-produced high throughput IBAD MgO buffers. The requirements for a better IBAD texturing layer than IBAD MgO are also suggested.
For any bounded linear operator A in a Banach space, two generalized condition numbers, k(A) and k(A) are defined in this paper. These condition numbers may be applied to the perturbation analysis for the solution of ill-posed differential equations and bounded linear operator equations in infinite dimensional Banach spaces. Different expressions for the two generalized condition numbers are discussed in this paper and applied to the perturbation analysis of the operator equation.
YBa2Cu3O7 (YBCO) films have been deposited by photo-assisted MOCVD at rates of greater than 0.3μm/min on both single crystal oxide substrates and atomically textured metallic substrates. The YBCO films of thickness from 0.5μm to 3μm deposited on LaAlO3 substrates are shown to be highly atomically ordered with Jc> 1 × 106 A/cm2. CeO2 buffer layers have also been developed by photo-assisted MOCVD for the integration of YBCO with metallic substrates. The CeO2 layers were found to be crack-free when grown on nickel even above 1 micron thickness, and exhibited crystal orientation and in-plane alignment similar to that of the atomically textured Ni substrates. YBCO films grown on the thick CeO2 buffer layers on nickel substrates have shown promising results with Jc∼6 × 105 A/cm2.
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