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Obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) is a classic disorder on the compulsivity spectrum, with diverse comorbidities. In the current study, we sought to understand OCD from a dimensional perspective by identifying multimodal neuroimaging patterns correlated with multiple phenotypic characteristics within the striatum-based circuits known to be affected by OCD.
Neuroimaging measurements of local functional and structural features and clinical information were collected from 110 subjects, including 51 patients with OCD and 59 healthy control subjects. Linked independent component analysis (LICA) and correlation analysis were applied to identify associations between local neuroimaging patterns across modalities (including gray matter volume, white matter integrity, and spontaneous functional activity) and clinical factors.
LICA identified eight multimodal neuroimaging patterns related to phenotypic variations, including three related to symptoms and diagnosis. One imaging pattern (IC9) that included both the amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation measure of spontaneous functional activity and white matter integrity measures correlated negatively with OCD diagnosis and diagnostic scales. Two imaging patterns (IC10 and IC27) correlated with compulsion symptoms: IC10 included primarily anatomical measures and IC27 included primarily functional measures. In addition, we identified imaging patterns associated with age, gender, and emotional expression across subjects.
We established that data fusion techniques can identify local multimodal neuroimaging patterns associated with OCD phenotypes. The results inform our understanding of the neurobiological underpinnings of compulsive behaviors and OCD diagnosis.
For one-dimensional nanomaterials, the performances are strongly related to the diameters, lengths, morphologies, and structures, implying that it is of great significance to understand the related growth mechanisms and thus to achieve the desired nanostructures. Thermal oxidation of copper has been widely used to fabricate CuO nanowires (NWs), whereas the growth mechanism still remains controversial in spite of the extensive investigations. Therefore, this review aims to offer a critical discussion about the growth mechanisms. First, the effects of different growth conditions on the growth of CuO NWs are introduced for basic understanding. Subsequently, the proposed mechanisms in different literature studies, i.e., the vapor–solid, self-catalyzed growth, stress-induced growth, stress grain boundary (GB) diffusion, and oxygen concentration gradient, are discussed and summarized. It seems that the combination of “stress GB diffusion” and “oxygen concentration gradient” mechanisms could be relevant for the growth of CuO NWs via thermal oxidation of copper.
A new aphid species, Dracaphis angustata, has been found in China from the Middle Triassic. It is especially informative because its whole body is preserved except for the distal part of the antennae and part of the legs. Only wings of three other aphid species of Triassic age have previously been found: Triassoaphis cubitus, described by Evans (1956) from Australia and placed in its own family, Triassoaphididae Heie, 1999; Creaphis theodora, described by Shcherbakov and Wegierek (1991) from Central Asia and placed in its own family, Creaphididae; and Coccavus supercubitus, described by Shcherbakov (2007) from Kyrgyzstan and placed in Naibiidae together with Naibia from the Lower Tertiary. The new species described below must be placed in its own family Dracaphididae because it possesses a combination of characters unknown in any other aphid clade.
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