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The Viséan–Serpukhovian boundary is poorly defined in South China, hampering regional and global stratigraphical correlations. The foraminiferal and conodont distribution of the Baping Formation in the carbonate-slope Danlu section permits the recognition of an interval from the middle Viséan to the uppermost Serpukhovian in a continuous succession. The base of the Serpukhovian in Danlu is recognized by the first occurrences of Janischewskina delicata, Howchinia subplana and questionable ‘Millerella’ tortula. At a slightly younger level, the conodont Lochriea ziegleri is first recorded. A calibration on the first occurrence of L. ziegleri in different basins at a global scale has been revised compared to auxiliary markers within the ammonoids and foraminifers. The late occurrence of L. ziegleri in the Danlu section also supports a lack of synchronicity in the global first occurrence of this taxon. This study calls for the recognition of a new base for the Serpukhovian under a far better correlation between different zonal schemes and fossil groups.
After patent foramen ovale interventional closure, puncture of the interatrial septum through the occluder is difficult but sometimes needed for further interventional treatment. This paper presents findings from an in vivo experimental study of a reserved atrial septal puncture area patent foramen ovale occluder.
Materials and methods:
A patent foramen ovale model was established in canines using trans-septal puncture of the fossa ovale and high-pressure balloon dilation. Then, patent foramen ovale closure was performed with a reserved atrial septal puncture area and all canines were raised for 3 months. Then, the occluder was crossed and left atrial angiography was performed on the septal area with the occluder. Finally, DSA angiography, echocardiography, and histology were used to evaluate the performance and feasibility of the reserved atrial septal puncture area.
A patent foramen ovale model was successfully established in 10 canines using the atrial septal puncture method. The average diameter of the patent foramen ovale was 3.77 ±0.19 mm, and the patent foramen ovale was successfully closed in all canines using a reserved atrial septal puncture area. As assessed using transoesophageal echocardiography, the new occluder exhibited an ideal position and was occluded entirely without a residual shunt intraoperatively and postoperatively. A 100% success rate of atrial septum puncture was achieved across the new occluder. The occluders were completely endothelialised 3 months post-implantation.
The reserved atrial septal puncture area was effective in patent foramen ovale closure and exhibited positive sealing performance and biological compatibility. Trans-septal puncture was feasible and effective after reserved atrial septal puncture area patent foramen ovale closure.
Creativity is very important for designers, and methods to stimulate designers' creativity are the long-term focus of art design education. The senses are an important channel for designers to receive information and define core issues. Stimulating the designer's senses can help enhance their perception and creativity, and is of great benefit for the quality and efficiency of the design outcome. Today's interactive media technology provides more possibilities and advantages for designers' perception and sensation. The purpose of this research is to explore a way to stimulate the designer's senses through the use of interactive media, thereby improving the designer's design thinking and creativity, and providing designers with innovative design support. By means of interactive ground projection and experiments, and discussion of the advantages of interactive media to stimulate designers' senses, this research proposes innovations in art design educational media, which is valuable for the training and learning of designers and the development of virtual education environment in the future.
Early life stress has been associated with emotional dysregulations and altered architecture of limbic-prefrontal brain systems engaged in emotional processing. Serotonin regulates both, developmental and experience-dependent neuroplasticity in these circuits. Central serotonergic biosynthesis rates are regulated by Tryptophan hydroxylase 2 (TPH2) and transgenic animal models suggest that TPH2-gene associated differences in serotonergic signaling mediate the impact of aversive early life experiences on a phenotype characterized by anxious avoidance.
The present study employed an imaging genetics approach that capitalized on individual differences in a TPH2 polymorphism (703G/T; rs4570625) to determine whether differences in serotonergic signaling modulate the effects of early life stress on brain structure and function and punishment sensitivity in humans (n = 252).
Higher maltreatment exposure before the age of 16 was associated with increased gray matter volumes in a circuitry spanning thalamic-limbic-prefrontal regions and decreased intrinsic communication in limbic-prefrontal circuits selectively in TT carriers. In an independent replication sample, associations between higher early life stress and increased frontal volumes in TT carriers were confirmed. On the phenotype level, the genotype moderated the association between higher early life stress exposure and higher punishment sensitivity. In TT carriers, the association between higher early life stress exposure and punishment sensitivity was critically mediated by increased thalamic-limbic-prefrontal volumes.
The present findings suggest that early life stress shapes the neural organization of the limbic-prefrontal circuits in interaction with individual variations in the TPH2 gene to promote a phenotype characterized by facilitated threat avoidance, thus promoting early adaptation to an adverse environment.
Electrospun membranes have potential applications in the field of waterproof and breathable textile products. However, challenges still exist to improve the breathability, and waterproof and mechanical properties of these microporous membranes. In this paper, a novel hydrophobic microporous nanofiber membrane was prepared via side-by-side electrospinning of fluorosilane-modified silica nanoparticles (F–SiO2) blended with synthesized polyurethane (PU) solution and composited with the polyacrylonitrile (PAN) solution. To prepare F–SiO2, SiO2 nanoparticles were hydrophobically modified by fluorosilane. Composite nanofiber membranes with different blending ratios of PU(F–SiO2)/PAN were fabricated via side-by-side electrospinning by controlling the extruding speed of two spinnerets. Experimental results indicated that regarding F–SiO2 as hydrophobic inorganic particle can improve the hydrophobic properties of PU nanofiber membrane. The prepared PAN/(F–SiO2/PU) nanofiber microporous membranes exhibit relatively excellent waterproof and mechanical properties as that robust tensile strength (19.5 MPa), preferable water vapor permeability [10.3 kg/(m2 d)], favorable water contact angle (137.2°), and superior mechanical properties. It was believed that the reinforced PAN/(F–SiO2/PU) nanofibrous composite membranes have potential applications in chemical protective clothing, army combat uniforms, self-cleaning materials, and other medical products.
This study aims to ascertain the long-term epidemic trends of malaria and evaluates the probability of achieving the eradication goal by 2020 in China. Data on malaria incidence and deaths were extracted from the China Information System for Disease Control and Prevention. The epidemic trends by sex, age and spatial distribution and predictions of malaria were estimated by using Joinpoint and Poisson regressions. From 1950 to 2016, 227 668 374 malaria cases were reported in China, with an annualised average incidence of 337.02 (336.98–337.07, 95% confidence interval (CI)) per 100 000 population. The incidence decreased with an average annual per cent change (AAPC) of −11.4% (−16.6 to −6.0). There were 36 085 malaria deaths, with an annualised average mortality of 0.534 (0.529–0.540) per 1 000 000 population. The mortality decreased with an AAPC of −8.7% (−13.7 to −3.4). The predicted number of malaria cases and deaths for 2020 is 2 562 and 10, respectively, and zero for indigenous cases. The disease burden of malaria dramatically decreased in China. Though, the goal of malaria elimination is realistic by 2020 in China, routine clinical and entomological surveillance should be continually conducted, especially for the cross-border areas and imported malaria cases.
In this work, we studied an atomic layer deposition (ALD) process of ZrO2 with the precursors of tetrakis(dimethylamido)zirconium(IV) and water. We investigated the growth characteristics and mechanism of the ALD ZrO2 in the temperature range of 50–275 °C. Furthermore, the evolutions of film thickness and morphology were studied and discussed. It was found that the growth rate of ZrO2 decreased almost linearly with the increasing temperature from ∼1.81 Å/cycle at 50 °C to ∼0.8 Å/cycle at 225 °C. Interestingly, it was revealed that the growth of ZrO2 films ceased after a certain number of ALD cycles at a temperature higher than 250 °C. We also verified that the crystallinity of ZrO2 evolved with deposition temperature from amorphous to crystalline phase. In addition, the wettability of ZrO2 films was studied, showing a hydrophobic nature.
Drawing upon the moral cleanness metaphor and the power height metaphor, we proposed the clear sky effect: polluted air increases perceived corruption. To test the effect, we established a correlation (Studies 1 and 2) and causal link (Studies 3, 4, and 5) between haze pollution and corruption perception. This correlation is unique, in that, of various air pollutants, only the major haze indicator was positively correlated with corruption perception at city (Study 1) and country (Study 2) levels. In addition, recalling feelings concerning haze (Studies 3 and 5) or experiencing hazy days (Study 4) increased corruption perception. Furthermore, in support of embodiment, this effect was moderated by body awareness (Study 4) and mediated by bodily stress responses (Study 5). Taken together, these findings suggest that environmental pollution could be one of the factors that influence our trust in government.
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