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Due to reasons such as low education and limited job options, rural residents face significant life pressure. Some residents often feel anxious about their work and life, and have significant psychological anxiety. With the horn of the rural revitalization strategy being sounded, the rural economy has begun to develop, and the rural tourism industry has seen a new turn, providing new sources of economic income for residents. In this regard, the study focuses on residents and analyzes the impact of rural revitalization strategy and coordinated development of tourism on residents’ psychological anxiety.
Subjects and Methods
The study selected 100 residents with psychological anxiety and randomly divided them into two groups, with 50 in both the control group and the observation group. The former adopts a rural revitalization strategy, while the latter develops the tourism industry based on the former, lasting for 6 months. Using the Self Rating Anxiety Scale (SAS) to measure the level of psychological anxiety among residents, the data was processed using SPSS23.0 software.
After the experiment, the psychological anxiety symptoms of the two groups of residents were improved through testing. In the SAS score, the observation group’s score was significantly lower than that of the control group (P<0.05).
Through the coordinated development of rural revitalization strategy and tourism industry, while generating income for residents, it alleviates their economic pressure, improves their quality of life, and relieves their psychological anxiety.
There is still controversy about optimal dietary iodine intake as the Universal Salt Iodization policy enforcement in China. A modified iodine balance study was thus conducted to explore the suitable iodine intake in Chinese adult males using the iodine overflow hypothesis. In this study, thirty-eight apparently healthy males (19·1 (sd 0·6) years) were recruited and provided with designed diets. After the 14-d iodine depletion, daily iodine intake gradually increased in the 30-d iodine supplementation, consisting of six stages and each of 5 d. All foods and excreta (urine, faeces) were collected to examine daily iodine intake, iodine excretion and the changes of iodine increment in relation to those values at stage 1. The dose–response associations of iodine intake increment with excretion increment were fitted by the mixed effects models, as well as with retention increment. Daily iodine intake and excretion were 16·3 and 54·3 μg/d at stage 1, and iodine intake increment increased from 11·2 μg/d at stage 2 to 118·0 μg/d at stage 6, while excretion increment elevated from 21·5 to 95·0 μg/d. A zero iodine balance was dynamically achieved as 48·0 μg/d of iodine intake. The estimated average requirement and recommended nutrient intake were severally 48·0 and 67·2 μg/d, which could be corresponded to a daily iodine intake of 0·74 and 1·04 μg/kg per d. The results of our study indicate that roughly half of current iodine intakes recommendation could be enough in Chinese adult males, which would be beneficial for the revision of dietary reference intakes.
In order to decrease the influence of system parameters and load on the dynamic performance of permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) in cooperative robot joint modules, a practical model-based robust control method was proposed. It inherits the traditional proportional-integral-derivative (PID) control and robust control based on error and model-based control. We first set up the nominal controller using the dynamics model. In order to limit the influence of uncertainty on dynamic performance, a robust controller is established based on Lyapunov method. The control can be regarded as an improved PID control or a redesigned robust control. Compared with the traditional control method, it is simple to implement and has practical effects. It is proved by theoretical analysis that the controller can guarantee the uniform boundedness and uniform final boundedness of the system. In addition, the prototype of fast controller cSPACE is built on the experiment platform, which averts long-time programming and debugging. It offers immense convenience for practical operation. Finally, numerical simulation and real-time experiment results are presented. Based on cSPACE and a PMSM in the joint module of a practical cooperative robot, the availability of the control design and the achievable control performance are verified.
To investigate the spiritual care needs and their attributes among Chinese elders hospitalized for severe chronic heart failure (CHF) based on the Kano model, in order to provide a reference for improving the quality and satisfaction of spiritual care.
An observational design was implemented, and the STROBE Checklist was used to ensure quality reporting of the study. The demographic characteristics questionnaire, the Nurse Spiritual Therapeutics Scale, and the Kano model–based Nurse Spiritual Therapeutics Attributes Scale were used. A convenience sample of 451 patients were selected from 2 hospitals. Descriptive statistics, and Kano model were used to analyze the data.
The total score of spiritual care needs was 29.95 ± 7.51. Among the 12 items, 3 items were attractive attributes, all of which were located in Reserving Zone IV; 5 items were one-dimensional attributes, of which 3 were located in Predominance Zone I and 2 were located in Improving Zone II; 2 items were must-be attributes, all of which were located in Improving Zone II; and 2 items were indifference attributes, all of which were located in Secondary Improving Zone III.
Significance of results
The spiritual care needs among Chinese elders hospitalized for severe CHF were moderate. The must-be and one-dimensional attributes mainly focus on “creating a good atmosphere” and “sharing self-perception” dimensions, while attractive attributes mainly focus on “sharing self-perception” and “helping thinking” dimensions. It is suggested that hospital authority should develop and innovate attractive attributes on the basis of maintaining and perfecting must-be and one-dimensional attributes, and objectively analyze and optimize indifference attributes.
To investigate spiritual care perceptions, spiritual well-being, and empathy, examine the correlations among spiritual care perceptions, spiritual well-being, and empathy, and explore the mediating role of spiritual well-being between other two variables of Chinese nursing students.
A cross-sectional design was implemented, and the Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) Checklist was used to ensure quality reporting of the study. A cluster sample of 2,718 nursing students was selected from 7 universities and colleges in China. The demographic characteristics questionnaire, the Chinese Version of the Spiritual Care-Giving Scale (C-SCGS), the Spiritual Health Scale Short Form (SHS-SF), and the Jefferson Scale of Physician Empathy-Nursing Student (JSPE-NS) were used. Descriptive statistics, correlation, and process plug-in mediation effect analyses were used to analyze the data.
The total score of spiritual care perceptions, spiritual well-being, and empathy were 173.83 ± 25.62, 98.74 ± 12.87, and 105.04 ± 21.34, respectively. Spiritual care perceptions were positively correlated with spiritual well-being (r = 0.617, p < 0.01) and empathy (r = 0.528, p < 0.01). And spiritual well-being played a partial mediating role between the other two variables (accounting for 28.1%).
Significance of results
Spiritual care perceptions, spiritual well-being, and empathy were quite moderate, which need in improving. It is suggested that nursing educators pay attention to the spiritual care education of nursing students, perfect the spiritual care education system, and take targeted measures according to nursing students’ individual personality traits and differences, improve their spiritual well-being and empathy in multiple ways, so as to improve their spiritual care perceptions and competence.
Widely distributed Mid-Neoproterozoic mafic rocks of the Qilian – Qaidam – East Kunlun region record the tectonic evolution of the northeastern Tibetan Plateau. This study presents whole-rock geochemistry, zircon U–Pb geochronology and Hf isotopes for the Xialanuoer gabbros of the central South Qilian Belt (SQB). Zircon laser ablation – inductively coupled plasma – mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) U–Pb dating indicates that the gabbros were emplaced at ca. 738 Ma, indicating they are contemporaneous with mafic magmatism elsewhere in the northeastern Tibetan Plateau. The gabbros have low SiO2, Cr and Ni contents and Mg# values, are relatively enriched in light rare-earth elements (LREEs) and depleted in high-field-strength elements (HFSEs; e.g. Nb and Ta), have no positive Zr or Hf anomalies and have relatively high Nb/Ta but low Nb/La ratios. These data indicate that the Xialanuoer gabbros formed from calc-alkaline basaltic magmas that were originally generated by the partial melting of an enriched mantle of type-I (EMI-type) enriched region of the lithospheric mantle, underwent little to no crustal contamination prior to their emplacement, and have within-plate basalt geochemical affinities. Combining these data with the presence of widespread contemporaneous continental rift-related magmatism and sedimentation in the North Qilian, Central Qilian, South Qilian, Quanji, North Qaidam and East Kunlun regions suggests that the northeastern Tibetan Plateau underwent Mid-Neoproterozoic continental rifting, which also affected other Rodinian blocks (e.g. Tarim, South China, Australia, North America and Southern Africa).
Increasing women’s knowledge about maternal health is an important step towards empowering them and making them aware of their rights and health status, allowing them to seek appropriate health care. In Yemen, the ongoing conflict has hampered the delivery of health information to women in public health facilities. This study examined rural women’s knowledge of, and attitude towards, maternal and child health in Yemen and identified the factors associated with good maternal health knowledge. The study was conducted between August and November 2018. A sample of 400 women aged 15–49 years who had delivered in the 6 months prior to the survey were systematically selected from selected public health facilities in Abyan and Lahj. Women were interviewed using a structured questionnaire to gather data on their demographic and economic characteristics, obstetric history and responses to health knowledge and attitude questions. Women’s knowledge level was assessed as poor or good using the mean score as a cut-off. Chi-squared test and multiple logistic regression analysis were used to identify statistically significant factors associated with good maternal health knowledge. The percentage of women who had good knowledge was 44.8% (95% CI: 39.8–49.8). Women’s attitude towards maternal health was negative in the areas of early ANC attendance, managing dietary regime and weight during pregnancy, facility delivery, PNC visits, cord care and mother and child health management. Women with primary education, whose husbands had received no formal education, who had their first ANC visit from the second trimester of pregnancy and who had fewer than four ANC visits were more likely to have poor health knowledge. Conversely, those with higher household income and only one child were more likely to have good maternal health knowledge. Overall, women’s knowledge on maternal and child health care in rural areas of Yemen was low. Strategies are needed to increase rural women’s knowledge on maternal and child health in this conflict-affected setting.
A compact four-element ultra-wideband (UWB) multiple-input–multiple-output (MIMO) antenna with dual polarization and dual-notched capabilities was developed and fabricated. The MIMO antenna is composed of four orthogonally placed half-cutting UWB antenna elements. This orthogonal placement improves the isolation. Furthermore, an L-shaped slot and a continuous bending slot are etched to realize the band-rejection function in the WiMAX and WLAN bands. The result shows that the antenna achieved operating bands of 2.9–16.5 GHz (140.2%, S11 < −10 dB), fully covering the UWB (3.1–10.6 GHz). The port isolation is greater than 23 dB in the frequency band of interest, excluding two rejected bands. Moreover, the MIMO antenna has excellent diversity performance, such as a low envelope correlation coefficient (<0.004), high diversity gain (approximately 10 dB), and good omnidirectional radiation characteristics.
To compare the risk of hospitalization for adult Medicaid beneficiaries with bipolar I disorder (BPD-I) when treated with lurasidone compared to other atypical antipsychotics (AAPs) as monotherapy.
Using IBM MarketScan Multi-State Medicaid Claims database, a retrospective cohort study was conducted on adult BPD-I patients who initiated an AAP (index date) between January 1, 2014 and June 30, 2019. Patients were required to be continuously enrolled during the 12-month pre- and 24-month post-index date. Marginal structural models were performed to estimate the risk of hospitalization (all-cause, BPD-I-related, and psychiatric-related) associated with each AAP and the average length of stay.
The analysis included 8262 adult BPD-I patients, of whom AAP use was divided between lurasidone (14%), aripiprazole (17%), olanzapine (8%), quetiapine (29%), risperidone (10%), no/minimal (1%) or other (21%) during each month of post-index period. The adjusted odds ratios (aORs) for all-cause hospitalization were significantly higher for olanzapine (aOR=1.60, 95% CI=1.09–2.10) and quetiapine (aOR=1.54, 95% CI=1.18–1.89), compared to lurasidone. The aORs for BPD-I-related hospitalization were significantly higher for quetiapine (aOR=1.57, 95% CI=1.10–2.04) and risperidone (aOR=1.80, 95% CI=1.04–2.56) compared to lurasidone. The average length of hospital stay was more than twice as high for quetiapine compared to lurasidone (aRR=2.12, 95% CI=1.32–2.92). The risk of psychiatric-related hospitalization was numerically lower for lurasidone compared to all other AAPs.
Over a 24-month follow-up period, lurasidone-treated adult BPD-1 patients had significantly lower risk of all-cause hospitalization than those treated with olanzapine and quetiapine, lower risk of BPD-I-related hospitalization than quetiapine and risperidone, and fewer hospital days than quetiapine in a Medicaid population.
It was reported that about 10% of people suffer from painful knee arthritis, and a quarter of them were severely disabled. The core activities of daily living were severely limited by knee osteoarthritis (KOA). In order to reduce knee pain and prolong the life of the knee joint, there has been an increasing demand on the development of exoskeletons, for prevention and treatment. The course of KOA was closely related to the biomechanics of knee joint, and the pathogenesis was summarized based on the biomechanics of knee joint. For the prevention and clinical treatment, exoskeletons are classified into three categories: prevention, treatment, and rehabilitation after the operation. Furthermore, the design concepts, actuators, sensors, control strategies, and evaluation criteria were presented. Finally, the shortcomings and limitations were summarized. It is useful for researchers to develop suitable exoskeletons in the future.
Data on average iodine requirements for the Chinese population are limited following implementation of long-term universal salt iodisation. We explored the minimum iodine requirements of young adults in China using a balance experiment and the ‘iodine overflow’ hypothesis proposed by our team. Sixty healthy young adults were enrolled to consume a sequential experimental diet containing low, medium and high levels of iodine (about 20, 40 and 60 μg/d, respectively). Each dose was consumed for 4 d, and daily iodine intake, excretion and retention were assessed. All participants were in negative iodine balance throughout the study. Iodine intake, excretion and retention differed among the three iodine levels (P < 0·01 for all groups). The zero-iodine balance derived from a random effect model indicated a mean iodine intake of 102 μg/d, but poor correlation coefficients between observed and predicted iodine excretion (r 0·538 for μg/d data) and retention (r 0·304 for μg/d data). As iodine intake increased from medium to high, all of the increased iodine was excreted (‘overflow’) through urine and faeces by males, and 89·5 % was excreted by females. Although the high iodine level (63·4 μg/d) might be adequate in males, the corresponding level of 61·6 μg/d in females did not meet optimal requirements. Our findings indicate that a daily iodine intake of approximately half the current recommended nutrient intake (120 μg/d) may satisfy the minimum iodine requirements of young male adults in China, while a similar level is insufficient for females based on the ‘iodine overflow’ hypothesis.
Let φ : ℝn × [0, ∞) → [0, ∞) satisfy that φ(x, · ), for any given x ∈ ℝn, is an Orlicz function and φ( · , t) is a Muckenhoupt A∞ weight uniformly in t ∈ (0, ∞). The (weak) Musielak–Orlicz Hardy space Hφ(ℝn) (WHφ(ℝn)) generalizes both the weighted (weak) Hardy space and the (weak) Orlicz Hardy space and hence has wide generality. In this paper, two boundedness criteria for both linear operators and positive sublinear operators from Hφ(ℝn) to Hφ(ℝn) or from Hφ(ℝn) to WHφ(ℝn) are obtained. As applications, we establish the boundedness of Bochner–Riesz means from Hφ(ℝn) to Hφ(ℝn), or from Hφ(ℝn) to WHφ(ℝn) in the critical case. These results are new even when φ(x, t): = Φ(t) for all (x, t) ∈ ℝn × [0, ∞), where Φ is an Orlicz function.
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a psychological disorder, which could be caused by traumatic events. The prevalence of PTSD among survivors after a typhoon or hurricane varied widely. Therefore, this study aimed to determine a combined prevalence of PTSD among survivors after a typhoon or hurricane. A systematic search of literature was performed in the 3 English databases: PubMed (National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD), ISI Web of Science (Thomson Reuters, New York, NY), and Embase (Elsevier, Amsterdam, Netherlands). Also, a similar search was performed in the 2 Chinese databases such as Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure and WanFang. Loney et al.’s criteria were used to evaluate the quality of the selected articles for this study. The combined prevalence of PTSD among the study population was estimated using the Freeman–Tukey double arcsine transformation method. Subgroup analyses and a meta-regression analysis were carried out to explore the origin of heterogeneity. Thirty-nine eligible articles were included in this study. They comprised 43 123 typhoon and hurricane survivors of which 9373 were diagnosed with PTSD. The combined prevalence of PTSD among this population was 17.81%. Subgroup analyses revealed that the combined prevalence of PTSD related to typhoon and hurricane Categories 5, 4, and 2 showing a corresponding decreasing tendency. About 18% of people who experienced a severe typhoon or hurricane develop PTSD with the prevalence decreasing with reduced severity of the typhoon or hurricane.
In this work, the nitrogen-doped carbon materials (NCM) and nitrogen/sulfur codoped carbon materials (NSCM) were prepared using conventional benzoxazine (BOZ) and sulfur-containing benzoxazine as precursor and SBA-15 as template. The morphology, structure, and electrochemical performance of carbon materials were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, the X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, nitrogen adsorption–desorption, cyclic voltammetry, and galvanostatic charge–discharge. The results show that the as-prepared carbon materials have ordered mesoporous structure, large specific surface area, and excellent electrochemical properties. The NSCM treated at 800 °C exhibit an extremely high specific capacitance of 550 F/g at the current density of 0.5 A/g in 0.5 mol H2SO4 electrolyte, which shows great improvement compared with NCM. The nitrogen/sulfur codoping is suggested to be a very effective method to improve the performance of carbon materials, and the NSCM should be a promising candidate as electrode materials for supercapacitors.
Assertive Community Treatment (ACT) is an evidence-based treatment program for people with severe mental illness developed in high-income countries. We report the first randomized controlled trial of ACT in mainland China.
Sixty outpatients with schizophrenia with severe functional impairments or frequent hospitalizations were randomly assigned to ACT (n = 30) or standard community treatment (n = 30). The severity of symptoms and level of social functioning were assessed at baseline and every 3 months during the 1-year study. The primary outcome was the duration of hospital readmission. Secondary outcomes included a pre-post change in symptom severity, the rates of symptom relapse and gainful employment, social and occupational functioning, and quality of life of family caregivers.
Based on a modified intention-to-treat analysis, the outcomes for ACT were significantly better than those of standard community treatment. ACT patients were less likely to be readmitted [3.3% (1/30) v. 25.0% (7/28), Fisher's exact test p = 0.023], had a shorter mean readmission time [2.4 (13.3) v. 30.7 (66.9) days], were less likely to relapse [6.7% (2/30) v. 28.6% (8/28), Fisher's exact test p = 0.038], and had shorter mean time in relapse [3.5 (14.6) v. 34.4 (70.6) days]. The ACT group also had significantly longer times re-employed and greater symptomatic improvement and their caregivers experienced a greater improvement in their quality of life.
Our results show that culturally adapted ACT is both feasible and effective for individuals with severe schizophrenia in urban China. Replication studies with larger samples and longer duration of follow up are warranted.
Magnetic hyperthermia is a non-invasive cancer treatment method which is used
synergistically with the current cancer treatments. Improved biocompatibility
and enhanced heating characteristics are the pressing challenges to be addressed
in magnetic hyperthermia. Through a novel combinatorial approach, we have
attempted to address both the challenges. Ferrimagneticmagnetite nanoparticles
(FMNPs)of size 50 nm were synthesized by thermal decomposition method and were
converted to hydrophilic phase by 3-Aminopropyltrimethoxysilane (APTMS). Serum
Albumin (SA) from rat was conjugated over the APTMS-FMNPs to convert to
biocompatible phase. The preliminary haemolysis experiments show that SA-FMNPs
are non-haemolytic (1.2 % haemolysis). It is observed from the magnetic heating
experiments that due to better colloidal stability, the Specific Absorption Rate
value of the SA-FMNPs are higher (2100 W/g) than the FMNPs without SA (1400
W/g). Thus we report here that SA conjugation over FMNPs (with a high saturation
magnetization of 75 emu/g) provides a novel combinatorial approach to enhance
both the biocompatibility and the SAR value for magnetic hyperthermia.
Routine early integration of palliative care with advanced cancer management is not yet a part of standard practice in many countries, including mainland China. Whether patients in China suffering from advanced cancer are referred to palliative care services in a timely manner remains unclear. We sought to investigate the timing of palliative care referral of Chinese cancer patients at our center and its predictors.
Retrospective medical data including demographic characteristics and referral information were collected for analysis. A total of 759 patients referred to our palliative care unit (PCU) from January of 2007 to December of 2013 were included in the final analysis.
The mean age of the 759 patients included in the study was 62.89 years (range 61.95–63.82). Some 369 patients (48.6%) were male and 559 (73.6%) Shanghainese (indigenous). Lung cancer (17.9%) was the most common diagnosis. The time interval since enrollment into the PCU until a patient's death (length of stay, LOS) was calculated. A longer LOS indicated earlier referral to inpatient PC services. The median LOS was 21 days (CI95% = 19.79–22.21). Multivariate analysis showed that whether or not the patient was indigenous (p = 0.002) and younger than 65 (p = 0.031) were independent factors for a longer LOS. Such other characteristics as gender and primary cancer type bore no relationship to LOS.
Significance of results:
Our findings demonstrate that Chinese cancer patients are referred relatively late in the course of their disease to inpatient palliative care services. To overcome the barriers to early integration of palliative care into a patient's treatment plan, accurate information about palliative care must be provided to both oncologists and patients via comprehensive and systematic educational programs.
In this paper, the Ni-decorated ZnO photocatalysts with magnetic separable characteristics were prepared by a simple replacing-hydrothermal process for the first time. The as-synthesized composites were characterized by powder x-ray diffraction, UV–visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscopy, and so on. It is found that the introduction of Ni (as Ni0 and Ni2+ forms) turned the morphologies of ZnO photocatalysts, enhanced photoabsorption in a visible light region, and increased amount of surface adsorbed oxygen. The photodegradation test of anthraquinone dye (reactive brilliant blue KN-R) indicated that the Ni-decorated ZnO photocatalysts have better activities as compared to the ZnO reference. The enhancement of photocatalytic activity of Ni-decorated ZnO photocatalysts can be attributed to the existence of Ni2+ doping, Ni0/ZnO heterostructure, and abundant-adsorbed oxygen (as the electronic scavenges), which caused efficient separation of electron–hole pairs in Ni-decorated ZnO photocatalysts. Furthermore, the introduction of metallic Ni also endued ZnO with good magnetic recoverability. The re-collected experiments by external magnetic field indicated that Ni-decorated ZnO as a magnetically recoverable photocatalyst is acceptable.