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Buffalo has many excellent economic traits and it is one of the greatest potential livestock. Compared with cattle, buffalo has poorer reproductivity, it is of great significance to improve the development potential of oocytes. Buffalo oocyte in vitro maturation (IVM) has been widely used in production, but the poor development ability of bovine oocytes IVM limits the development of buffalo reproductivity. Milrinone as a phosphodiesterase inhibitor could affect the maturation of oocytes in goat and mice, but there have been few reported studies in water buffalo. To optimize buffalo oocyte in vitro maturation systems, the effects of phosphodiesterase inhibitor (milrinone) on pre-maturation culture of buffalo oocytes were investigated in this study. Buffalo cumulus–oocyte complexes (COCs) were cultured in medium with different concentrations (0, 12, 25, 50 and 100 mol/l) of milrinone for different times (0, 4, 8, 12, 16, 22 and 24 h). The results showed that the buffalo COCs nuclear maturation process could be inhibited by milrinone (25–100 mol/l) in a dose-dependent manner. The inhibitory effect of milrinone on in vitro maturation of buffalo oocytes did not decrease with the extension of time. This indicated that milrinone can be used as a nuclear maturation inhibitor during the maturation process in buffalo oocytes. In addition, milrinone can inhibit the effect of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH)-induced IVM of buffalo oocytes, but with time FSH partially eliminated the inhibition. Therefore, inhibition of milrinone on the nuclear maturation of buffalo oocytes was reversible, and buffalo oocytes can mature normally after the inhibition is lessened.
Athetis lepigone Möschler (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae) is a common maize pest in Europe and Asia. However, there is no long-term effective management strategy is available yet to suppress its population. Adults rely heavily on olfactory cues to locate their optimal host plants and oviposition sites. Pheromone-binding proteins (PBPs) are believed to be responsible for recognizing and transporting different odorant molecules to interact with receptor membrane proteins. In this study, the ligand-binding specificities of two AlepPBPs (AlepPBP2 and AlepPBP3) for sex pheromone components and host plant (maize) volatiles were measured by fluorescence ligand-binding assay. The results demonstrated that AlepPBP2 had a high affinity with two pheromones [(Z)-7-dodecenyl acetate, Ki = 1.11 ± 0.1 μM, (Z)-9-tetradecenyl acetate, Ki = 1.32 ± 0.15 μM] and ten plant volatiles, including (-)-limonene, α-pinene, myrcene, linalool, benzaldehyde, nonanal, 2-hexanone, 3-hexanone, 2-heptanone and 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one. In contrast, we found that none of these chemicals could bind to AlepPBP3. Our results clearly show no significant differences in the functional characterization of the binding properties between AlepPBP2 and AlepPBP3 to sex pheromones and host plant volatiles. Furthermore, molecular docking was employed for further detail on some crucial amino acid residues involved in the ligand-binding of AlepPBP2. These findings will provide valuable information about the potential protein binding sites necessary for protein-ligand interactions which appear as attractive targets for the development of novel technologies and management strategies for insect pests.
In order to merge the advantages of the traditional compressed sensing (CS) methodology and the data-driven deep network scheme, this paper proposes a physical model-driven deep network, termed CS-Net, for solving target image reconstruction problems in through-the-wall radar imaging. The proposed method consists of two consequent steps. First, a learned convolutional neural network prior is introduced to replace the regularization term in the traditional iterative CS-based method to capture the redundancy of the radar echo signal. Moreover, the physical model of the radar signal is used in the data consistency layer to encourage consistency with the measurements. Second, the iterative CS optimization is unrolled to yield a deep learning network, where the weight, regularization parameter, and the other parameters are learnable. A quantity of training data enables the network to extract high-dimensional characteristics of the radar echo signal to reconstruct the spatial target image. Simulation results demonstrated that the proposed method can achieve accurate target image reconstruction and was superior to the traditional CS method, in terms of mean squared error and the target texture details.
This study was aimed to investigate whether EPA and arachidonic acid (ARA), the representative n-3 or n-6 PUFA, could alleviate enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) K88-induced inflammation and injury of intestinal porcine epithelial cells 1 (IPEC-1) by modulating pyroptosis and necroptosis signalling pathways. IPEC-1 cells were cultured with or without EPA or ARA in the presence or absence of ETEC K88. EPA and ARA reduced ETEC K88 adhesion and endotoxin content in the supernatant. EPA and ARA increased transepithelial electrical resistance, decreased permeability of fluorescein isothiocyanate-labelled dextran, increased membrane protein expression of occludin, ZO-1 and claudin-1 and relieved disturbed distribution of these proteins. EPA and ARA also reduced cell necrosis ratio. EPA or ARA reduced mRNA and concentration of TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-8 and decreased mRNA abundances of intestinal toll-like receptors 4 and its downstream signals. Moreover, EPA and ARA downregulated mRNA expression of nod-like receptor protein 3 (NLRP3), caspase 1 and IL-18 and inhibited protein expression of NLRP3, apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a CARD (ASC), gasdermin D and caspase-1. Finally, EPA and ARA reduced mRNA expression of fas-associated death domain protein, caspase 8, receptor-interacting protein kinase (RIP) 1, mixed lineage kinase-like protein (MLKL), phosphoglycerate mutase 5 (PGAM5), motility-related protein 1 (Drp1) and high mobility protein 1 (HMGB1) and inhibited protein expression of phosphorylated-RIP1, p-RIP3, p-MLKL and HMGB1. These data demonstrate that EPA and ARA prevent ETEC K88-induced cell inflammation and injury, which is partly through inhibiting pyroptosis and necroptosis signalling pathways.
Noncompressible torso hemorrhage (NCTH) is a major challenge in prehospital bleeding control and is associated with high mortality. This study was performed to estimate medical knowledge and the perceived barriers to information acquisition among health-care workers (HCWs) regarding NCTH in China.
A self-administered and validated questionnaire was distributed among 11 WeChat groups consisting of HCWs engaged in trauma, emergency, and disaster rescue.
A total of 575 HCWs participated in this study. In the knowledge section, the majority (87.1%) denied that successful hemostasis could be obtained by external compression. Regarding attitudes, the vast majority of HCWs exhibited positive attitudes toward the important role of NCTH in reducing prehospital preventable death (90.4%) and enthusiasm for continuous learning (99.7%). For practice, fewer than half of HCWs (45.7%) had heard of NCTH beforehand, only a minority (14.3%) confirmed they had attended relevant continuing education, and 16.3% HCWs had no access to updated medical information. The most predominant barrier to information acquisition was the lack of continuing training (79.8%).
Knowledge and practice deficiencies do exist among HCWs. Obstacles to update medical information warrant further attention. Furthermore, education program redesign is also needed.
This paper first uses a low-speed stereoscopic particle image velocimetry (SPIV) system to measure the convergent statistical quantities of the flow field and then simultaneously measure the time-resolved flow field and the wall mass transfer rate by a high-speed SPIV system and an electrochemical system, respectively. We measure the flow field and wall mass transfer rate under upstream pipe Reynolds numbers between 25 000 and 55 000 at three specific locations behind the orifice plate. Moreover, we apply proper orthogonal decomposition (POD), stochastic estimation and spectral analysis to study the properties of the flow field and the wall mass transfer rate. More importantly, we investigate the large-scale coherent structures’ effects on the wall mass transfer rate. The collapse of the wall mass transfer rates’ spectra by the corresponding time scales at the three specific positions of orifice flow suggest that the physics of low-frequency wall mass transfer rates are probably the same, although the flow fields away from the wall are quite different. Furthermore, the spectra of the velocity reconstructed by the most energetic eigenmodes agree well with the wall mass transfer rate in the low-frequency region, suggesting that the first several energetic eigenmodes capture the flow dynamics relevant to the low-frequency variation of the wall mass transfer. Stochastic estimation results of the velocity field associated with large wall mass transfer rate at all three specific locations further reveal that the most energetic coherent structures are correlated with the wall mass transfer rate.
Chronic inflammation exerts pleiotropic effects in the aetiology and progression of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Glucosamine is widely used in many countries and may have anti-inflammatory properties. We aimed to prospectively evaluate the association of regular glucosamine use with incident COPD risk and explore whether such association could be modified by smoking in the UK Biobank cohort, which recruited more than half a million participants aged 40–69 years from across the UK between 2006 and 2010. Cox proportional hazards models with adjustment for potential confounding factors were used to calculate hazard ratios (HR) as well as 95 % CI for the risk of incident COPD. During a median follow-up of 8·96 years (interquartile range 8·29–9·53 years), 9016 new-onset events of COPD were documented. We found that the regular use of glucosamine was associated with a significantly lower risk of incident COPD with multivariable adjusted HR of 0·80 (95 % CI, 0·75, 0·85; P < 0·001). When subgroup analyses were performed by smoking status, the adjusted HR for the association of regular glucosamine use with incident COPD were 0·84 (0·73, 0·96), 0·84 (0·77, 0·92) and 0·71 (0·62, 0·80) among never smokers, former smokers and current smokers, respectively. No significant interaction was observed between glucosamine use and smoking status (Pfor interaction = 0·078). Incident COPD could be reduced by 14 % to 84 % through a combination of regular glucosamine use and smoking cessation.
This study assessed the molecular mechanism of EPA or DHA protection against intestinal porcine epithelial cell line 1 (IPEC-1) cell damage induced by deoxynivalenol (DON). The cells were divided into six groups, including the CON group, the EPA group, the DHA group, the DON group, the EPA + DON group and the DHA + DON group. RNA sequencing was used to investigate the potential mechanism, and qRT-PCR was employed to verify the expression of selected genes. Changes in ultrastructure were used to estimate pathological changes and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) injury in IPEC-1 cells. Transferrin receptor 1 (TFR1) was tested by ELISA. Fe2+ and malondialdehyde (MDA) contents were estimated by spectrophotometry, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) was assayed by fluorospectrophotometry. RNA sequencing analysis showed that EPA and DHA had a significant effect on the expression of genes involved in ER stress and iron balance during DON-induced cell injury. The results showed that DON increased ER damage, the content of MDA and ROS, the ratio of X-box binding protein 1s (XBP-1s)/X-box binding protein 1u (XBP-1u), the concentration of Fe2+ and the activity of TFR1. However, the results also showed that EPA and DHA decreased the ratio of XBP-1s/XBP-1u to relieve DON-induced ER damage of IPEC-1 cells. Moreover, EPA and DHA (especially DHA) reversed the factors related to iron balance. It can be concluded that EPA and DHA reversed IPEC-1 cell damage induced by DON. DHA has the potential to protect IPEC-1 cells from DON-induced iron imbalance by inhibiting ER stress.
This study investigated the characteristics and prognosis of the feeling of ear fullness in patients with unilateral all-frequency sudden sensorineural hearing loss.
Our study included 56 patients with a diagnosis of unilateral all-frequency sudden sensorineural hearing loss accompanied by a feeling of ear fullness and 48 patients without a feeling of ear fullness. The condition of these patients was prospectively observed.
Positive correlations were observed between grading of feeling of ear fullness and hearing loss in patients with a feeling of ear fullness (r = 0.599, p < 0.001). No significant differences were observed in the total effective rate of hearing recovery between patients with and without a feeling of ear fullness after one month of treatment (Z = −0.641, p = 0.521). Eighty-six per cent of patients (48 out of 56) showed complete recovery from the feeling of ear fullness. There was no correlation between feeling of ear fullness recovery and hearing recovery (r = 0.040, p = 0.769).
The prognosis of feeling of ear fullness is good. There was no correlation between feeling of ear fullness recovery and hearing recovery for all-frequency sudden sensorineural hearing loss patients.
Eating architecture is a term that describes meal frequency, meal timing and meal size and the daily variation in each of these. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between components of eating architecture on body fat and markers of glycaemic control in healthy adults at increased risk of type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Participants (n 73, 39 males, age 58·8 (8·1) years, BMI 33·4 (4·4) kg/m2) recorded food intake and wore accelerometers and continuous glucose monitors (CGM) for 7–14 d under free-living conditions. Body fat and glycated Hb (HbA1c) were also measured. The mean and day-to-day variation (calculated as the standard deviation during the monitoring period) of each component of eating architecture were calculated. Multivariable linear regression models were constructed for three separate outcome variables (body fat mass, mean CGM glucose and HbA1c) for each component of eating architecture before and after adjustment for confounders. Higher variability in the time of first meal consumption was associated with increased body fat mass after adjusting for confounders (β = 0·227, 95 % CI: 0·019, 0·434, P = 0·033). Increased variability in the time lag from waking to first meal consumption was also positively associated with increased HbA1c after adjustment (β = 0·285, 95 % CI: 0·040, 0·530, P = 0·023). Low day-to-day variability in first meal consumption was associated with lower body fat and improved glucose control in adults at increased risk of T2DM. Routine consumption of meals may optimise temporal regulation to anticipate and respond appropriately to a glucose challenge.
The present study evaluated effects of dietary supplementation with tryptophan (Trp) on muscle growth, protein synthesis and antioxidant capacity in hybrid catfish Pelteobagrus vachelli♀ × Leiocassis longirostris♂. Fish were fed six different diets containing 2·6 (control), 3·1, 3·7, 4·2, 4·7 and 5·6 g Trp/kg diet for 56 d, respectively. Results showed that dietary Trp significantly (1) improved muscle protein content, fibre density and frequency of fibre diameter; (2) up-regulated the mRNA levels of PCNA, myf5, MyoD1, MyoG, MRF4, IGF-I, IGF-II, IGF-IR, PIK3Ca, TOR, 4EBP1 and S6K1; (3) increased phosphorylation levels of AKT, TOR and S6K1; (4) decreased contents of MDA and PC, and increased activities of CAT, GST, GR, ASA and AHR; (5) up-regulated mRNA levels of CuZnSOD, CAT, GST, GPx, GCLC and Nrf2, and decreased Keap1 mRNA level; (6) increased nuclear Nrf2 protein level and the intranuclear antioxidant response element-binding ability, and reduced Keap1 protein level. These results indicated that dietary Trp improved muscle growth, protein synthesis as well as antioxidant capacity, which might be partly related to myogenic regulatory factors, IGF/PIK3Ca/AKT/TOR and Keap1/Nrf2 signalling pathways. Finally, based on the quadratic regression analysis of muscle protein and MDA contents, the optimal Trp requirements of hybrid catfish (21·82–39·64 g) were estimated to be 3·94 and 3·93 g Trp/kg diet (9·57 and 9·54 g/kg of dietary protein), respectively.
The safe closure of atrial septal defect with deficient posterior-inferior or inferior vena cava rim is a controversial issue. Few studies have been conducted on the closure of atrial septal defect with deficient posterior-inferior or inferior vena cava rim without fluoroscopy. This study evaluated the feasibility and safety of echocardiography-guided transcatheter closure of atrial septal defect with deficient posterior-inferior or inferior vena cava rim.
The data of 136 patients who underwent transcatheter atrial septal defect closure without fluoroscopy from March 2017 to March 2020 were retrospectively analysed. The patients were classified into the deficient (n = 45) and sufficient (n = 91) posterior-inferior or inferior vena cava rim groups. Procedure and the follow-up results were compared between the two groups.
Atrial septal defect indexed diameter and the device indexed diameter in the deficient rim group were both larger than that in the sufficient rim group (22.12 versus 17.38 mm/m2, p < 0.001; 24.77 versus 21.21 mm/m2, p = 0.003, respectively). There was no significant difference in the success rate of occlusion between two groups (97.78% in the deficient rim group versus 98.90% in the sufficient rim group, p = 1.000). During follow-up, the incidence of severe adverse cardiac events was not statistically significant (p = 0.551).
Atrial septal defect with deficient posterior-inferior or inferior vena cava rim can safely undergo transcatheter closure under echocardiography alone if precisely evaluated with transesophageal or transthoracic echocardiography and the size of the occluder is appropriate. The mid-term results after closure are similar to that for an atrial septal defect with sufficient rim.
The present study evaluated whether fat mass assessment using the triceps skinfold (TSF) thickness provides additional prognostic value to the Global Leadership Initiative on Malnutrition (GLIM) framework in patients with lung cancer (LC). We performed an observational cohort study including 2672 LC patients in China. Comprehensive demographic, disease and nutritional characteristics were collected. Malnutrition was retrospectively defined using the GLIM criteria, and optimal stratification was used to determine the best thresholds for the TSF. The associations of malnutrition and TSF categories with survival were estimated independently and jointly by calculating multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (HR). Malnutrition was identified in 808 (30·2 %) patients, and the best TSF thresholds were 9·5 mm in men and 12 mm in women. Accordingly, 496 (18·6 %) patients were identified as having a low TSF. Patients with concurrent malnutrition and a low TSF had a 54 % (HR = 1·54, 95 % CI = 1·25, 1·88) greater death hazard compared with well-nourished individuals, which was also greater compared with malnourished patients with a normal TSF (HR = 1·23, 95 % CI = 1·06, 1·43) or malnourished patients without TSF assessment (HR = 1·31, 95 % CI = 1·14, 1·50). These associations were concentrated among those patients with adequate muscle mass (as indicated by the calf circumference). Additional fat mass assessment using the TSF enhances the prognostic value of the GLIM criteria. Using the population-derived thresholds for the TSF may provide significant prognostic value when used in combination with the GLIM criteria to guide strategies to optimise the long-term outcomes in patients with LC.
This study examined the effect of a cryoprotectant with and without pentoxifylline supplementation on the motility and viability of human testicular sperm, both before and after freezing. Testicular samples were obtained from 68 patients with azoospermia who came to the Andrology Service of West China Second University Hospital, Sichuan University, for testicular biopsies from December 2019 to April 2020. All patients were assigned randomly to two groups: experimental, whose testicular sperm were added to the cryoprotectant with pentoxifylline, and the control, whose testicular sperm were added to the cryoprotectant without pentoxifylline. Both groups used the same freezing and thawing methods. Testicular sperm motility in the experimental group was significantly higher than that of the control group, both before and after cryopreservation. The recovery rate of sperm motility in the experimental group was significantly higher than that of the control group. The percentage of samples with motile testicular sperm in the experimental group was significantly higher than that of the control group after thawing. Sperm viability was unchanged between the experimental and control groups, both before and after freezing. Overall, a pentoxifylline-supplemented cryoprotectant can significantly improve the motility of testicular sperm before and after cryopreservation.
Intestinal stem cells, which are capable of both self-renewal and differentiation to mature cell types, are responsible for maintaining intestinal epithelial homeostasis. Recent evidence indicates that these processes are mediated, in part, through nutritional status in response to diet. Diverse dietary patterns including caloric restriction, fasting, high-fat diets, ketogenic diets and high-carbohydrate diets as well as other nutrients control intestinal stem cell self-renewal and differentiation through nutrient-sensing pathways such as mammalian target of rapamycin and AMP-activated kinase. Herein, we summarise the current understanding of how intestinal stem cells contribute to intestinal epithelial homeostasis and diseases. We also discuss the effects of diet and nutrient-sensing pathways on intestinal stem cell self-renewal and differentiation, as well as their potential application in the prevention and treatment of intestinal diseases.
Operation of tools has long been studied in robotics. Although appropriate hold of the tool by robots is the base of successful tool operation, it is not with ease especially for tools with complicated shape. In this paper, an assist system for a four-limbed robot is proposed for remote operation of reaching and grasping electric drills using deep reinforcement learning. Through comparative evaluation experiments, the increase of success rate for reaching and grasping is verified and the decrease in both physical and mental workload of the operator is also validated by the index of NASA-TLX.
Chest tube drainage placement, a standard procedure in video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery, was reported to cause perioperative complications like pain and increased risk of infection. The present study was designed to evaluate the necessity of chest tube drainage inpaediatric thoracoscopic surgery.
Thirty children admitted to our hospital from April 2018 to April 2020 were included in the current study and were grouped as the tube group (children receiving video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery with chest tube drainage) and the non-tube group (children receiving video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery without chest tube drainage). Laboratory hemogram index, length of hospitalisation, post-operative performance of involved children, and psychological acceptance of indicated therapy by guardians of the involved children were investigated.
Laboratory examination revealed that the mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration in the non-tube group was significantly higher than that in the tube group on post-operative day 1 (p < 0.05). Children in the non-tube group had a shorter length of hospitalisation (7–9 days) than that of patients from the tube group. Additionally, the frequency of crying of children was decreased and psychological acceptance by patients’ guardians was improved in the non-tube group when compared with the tube group.
This study showed that chest tube drainage placement may not be necessary in several cases of paediatric video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery. Rapid recovery with decreased perioperative complications in children operated by video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery without tube placement could also reduce the burden of the family and society both economically and psychologically.
To examine the association between sleep duration in different stages of life and amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI).
Design, setting, and participants:
A total of 2472 healthy elderly and 505 patients with aMCI in China were included in this study. The study analyzed the association between aMCI and sleep duration in different stages of life.
We compared sleep duration in different stages of life and analyzed the association between Montreal Cognitive Assessment scores and sleep duration by curve estimation. Logistic regression was used to evaluate the association between aMCI and sleep duration.
In the analysis, there were no results proving that sleep duration in youth (P = 0.719, sleep duration < 10 hours; P = 0.999, sleep duration ≥ 10 hours) or midlife (P = 0.898, sleep duration < 9 hours; P = 0.504, sleep duration ≥ 9 hours) had a significant association with aMCI. In the group sleeping less than 7 hours in late life, each hour more of sleep duration was associated with approximately 0.80 of the original risk of aMCI (P = 0.011, odds ratio = 0.80, 95% confidence interval = 0.68–0.95).
Among the elderly sleeping less than 7 hours, there is a decreased risk of aMCI for every additional hour of sleep.
X-ray powder diffraction data, unit-cell parameters, and space group for N,N-dimethyl-1H-benzo[d]imidazol-2-amine, C9H11N3, are reported [a = 11.379(3) Å, b = 10.227(5) Å, c = 7.151(1) Å, α = 90°, β = 90°, γ = 90°, unit-cell volume V = 832.318 Å3, Z = 4, ρcal = 1.286 g cm−3, and space group P21212]. All measured lines were indexed and were consistent with the P21212 space group. No detectable impurities were observed.