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The wheat aphid Sitobion miscanthi (CWA) is an important harmful pest in wheat fields. Insecticide application is the main method to effectively control wheat aphids. However, CWA has developed resistance to some insecticides due to its extensive application, and understanding resistance mechanisms is crucial for the management of CWA. In our study, a new P450 gene, CYP4CJ6, was identified from CWA and showed a positive response to imidacloprid and thiamethoxam. Transcription of CYP4CJ6 was significantly induced by both imidacloprid and thiamethoxam, and overexpression of CYP4CJ6 in the imidacloprid-resistant strain was also observed. The sensitivity of CWA to these two insecticides was increased after the knockdown of CYP4CJ6. These results indicated that CYP4CJ6 could be associated with CWA resistance to imidacloprid and thiamethoxam. Subsequently, the posttranscriptional regulatory mechanism was assessed, and miR-316 was confirmed to participate in the posttranscriptional regulation of CYP4CJ6. These results are crucial for clarifying the roles of P450 in the resistance of CWA to insecticides.
Cytochrome P450 monooxygenases play a key role in pest resistance to insecticides by detoxification. Four new P450 genes, CYP6AS160, CYP6AS161, CYP4AB73 and CYP4G232 were identified from Solenopsis invicta. CYP6AS160 was highly expressed in the abdomen and its expression could be induced significantly with exposure to fipronil, whereas CYP4AB73 was not highly expressed in the abdomen and its expression could not be significantly induced following exposure to fipronil. Expression levels of CYP6AS160 and CYP4AB73 in workers were significantly higher than that in queens. RNA interference-mediated gene silencing by feeding on double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) found that the levels of this transcript decreased (by maximum to 64.6%) when they fed on CYP6AS160-specific dsRNA. Workers fed dsCYP6AS160 had significantly higher mortality after 24 h of exposure to fipronil compared to controls. Workers fed dsCYP6AS160 had reduced total P450 activity of microsomal preparations toward model substrates p-nitroanisole. However, the knockdown of a non-overexpressed P450 gene, CYP4AB73 did not lead to an increase of mortality or a decrease of total P450 activity. The knockdown effects of CYP6AS160 on worker susceptibility to fipronil, combined with our other findings, indicate that CYP6AS160 is responsible for detoxification of fipronil. Feeding insects dsRNA may be a general strategy to trigger RNA interference and may find applications in entomological research and in the control of insect pests in the field.
Nitrogen is an essential element for biological activity, and nitrogen isotopic compositions of geological samples record information about both marine biological processes and environmental evolution. However, only a few studies of N isotopes in the early Cambrian have been published. In this study, we analysed nitrogen isotopic compositions, as well as trace elements and sulphur isotopic compositions of cherts, black shales, carbonaceous shales and argillaceous carbonates from the Daotuo drill core in Songtao County, NE Guizhou Province, China, to reconstruct the marine redox environment of both deep and surface seawater in the study area of the Yangtze shelf margin in the early Cambrian. The Mo–U covariation pattern of the studied samples indicates that the Yangtze shelf margin area was weakly restricted and connected to the open ocean through shallow water flows. Mo and U concentrations, δ15Nbulk and δ34Spy values of the studied samples from the Yangtze shelf margin area suggest ferruginous but not sulphidic seawater and low marine sulphate concentration (relatively deep chemocline) in the Cambrian Fortunian and early Stage 2; sulphidic conditions (shallow chemocline and anoxic photic zone) in the upper Cambrian Stage 2 and lower Stage 3; and the depression of sulphidic seawater in the middle and upper Cambrian Stage 3. Furthermore, the decreasing δ15N values indicate shrinking of the marine nitrate reservoir during the middle and upper Stage 3, which reflects a falling oxygenation level in this period. The environmental evolution was probably controlled by the changing biological activity through its feedback on the local marine environment.
During diabetes, structural and functional changes in the alimentary tract are known to take place resulting in an increased absorption of intestinal glucose and alterations in the activities of brush-border disaccharidases. To elucidate the effect of administrating polysaccharide from Gynura divaricata (PGD) on disaccharidase activities, the specific activities of intestinal disaccharidases, namely sucrase, maltase and lactase, were measured in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Normal control and diabetic rats were treated by oral administration with PGD. Specific activities of intestinal disaccharidases were increased significantly during diabetes, and amelioration of the activities of sucrase and maltase during diabetes was clearly visible by the treatment with PGD. However, the increased activity of lactase during diabetes mellitus was remarkably alleviated by the administration of PGD only in the duodenum. Meanwhile, oral sucrose tolerance tests demonstrated that PGD alleviated the hyperglycaemia during diabetes mellitus, resulting from the amelioration in the activities of intestinal disaccharidases. The present investigation suggests that PGD exerted an anti-diabetic effect partly via inhibiting the increased intestinal disaccharidase activities of diabetic rats. This beneficial influence of administration of PGD on intestinal disaccharidases clearly indicates their helpful role in the management of diabetes.
Indentation is widely used to extract material elastoplastic properties from measured force-displacement curves. Many previous studies argued or implied that such a measurement is unique and the whole material stress-strain curve can be measured. Here we show that first, for a given indenter geometry, the indentation test cannot effectively probe material plastic behavior beyond a critical strain, and thus the solution of the reverse analysis of the indentation force-displacement curve is nonunique beyond such a critical strain. Secondly, even within the critical strain, pairs of mystical materials can exist that have essentially identical indentation responses (with differences below the resolution of published indentation techniques) even when the indenter angle is varied over a large range. Thus, fundamental elastoplastic behaviors, such as the yield stress and work hardening properties (functions), cannot be uniquely determined from the force-displacement curves of indentation analyses (including both plural sharp indentation and deep spherical indentation). Explicit algorithms of deriving the mystical materials are established, and we qualitatively correlate the sharp and spherical indentation analyses through the use of critical strain. The theoretical study in this paper addresses important questions of the application range, limitations, and uniqueness of the indentation test, as well as providing useful guidelines to properly use the indentation technique to measure material constitutive properties.
This study assessed the effects of oocyte age, cumulus cells and injection methods on in vitro development of intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) rabbit embryos. Oocytes were recovered from female rabbits superovulated with PMSG and hCG, and epididymal sperm were collected from a fertile male rabbit. The oocyte was positioned with the first polar body at 12 o'clock position, and a microinjection needle containing a sperm was inserted into the oocyte at 3 o'clock. Oolemma breakage was achieved by aspirating ooplasm, and the aspirated ooplasm and sperm were re-injected into the oocyte. The injected oocytes were cultured in M199 medium containing 10% fetal calf serum at 38 °C with 5% CO2 in air. The results showed that oocytes injected at 1 h post-collection produced a higher (p<0.05) fertilization rate than those injected at 4 or 7 h post-collection. Blastocyst rate in the 1 h group was higher (p<0.05) than in the 7 h group. Denuded oocytes (group A) and oocytes with cumulus cells (group B) were injected, respectively. Rates of fertilization and development of ICSI embryos were not significantly different (p<0.05) between the two groups. Four ICSI methods were applied in this experiment. In methods 1 and 2, the needle tip was pushed across half the diameter of the oocyte, and oolemma breakage was achieved by either a single aspiration (method 1) or repeated aspiration and expulsion (method 2) of ooplasm. In methods 3 and 4, the needle tip was pushed to the oocyte periphery opposite the puncture site, and oolemma breakage was achieved by either a single aspiration (method 3) or repeated aspiration and expulsion (method 4) of ooplasm. Fertilization rate in method 2 was significantly higher (p<0.05) than in methods 1 and 3. Blastocyst rates were not significantly different (p<0.05) among methods 1, 3 and 4, but method 2 produced a higher (p<0.05) blastocyst rate than method 3.
ZnTe/Zn1-xMnxTe superlattices were grown on GaAs (001) substrates by molecular beam epitaxy. The multi-phonon processes including overtones and combinations of optical phonons have been studied by near resonant Raman scattering in the temperature range 13 K to 300 K. The strain arising from lattice mismatch gives rise to a shift in the optical-phonon frequencies. A two-phonon interface mode of superlattice has been observed and identified for the first time. Strain-induced red shifts of exciton energies related to transitions from the conduction subband to the light-hole and heavy-hole subband have been found by photoreflectance measurements. Experimental results agree well with the calculated strain-induced shift in superlattices.
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