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We report a systematic experimental study of the mean temperature profile $\theta (\delta z)$ and temperature variance profile $\eta (\delta z)$ across a stable and immiscible liquid–liquid (water–FC770) interface formed in two-layer turbulent Rayleigh–Bénard convection. The measured $\theta (\delta z)$ and $\eta (\delta z)$ as a function of distance $\delta z$ away from the interface for different Rayleigh numbers are found to have the scaling forms $\theta (\delta z/\lambda )$ and $\eta (\delta z/\lambda )$, respectively, with varying thermal boundary layer (BL) thickness $\lambda$. By a careful comparison with the simultaneously measured BL profiles near a solid conducting surface, we find that the measured $\theta (\delta z)$ and $\eta (\delta z)$ near the liquid interface can be well described by the BL equations for a solid wall, so long as a thermal slip length $\ell _T$ is introduced to account for the convective heat flux passing through the liquid interface. Direct numerical simulation results further confirm that the turbulent thermal diffusivity $\kappa _t$ near a stable liquid interface has a complete cubic form, $\kappa _t(\xi )/\kappa \sim (\xi +\xi _0)^3$, where $\kappa$ is the molecular thermal diffusivity of the convecting fluid, $\xi =\delta z/\lambda$ is the normalized distance away from the liquid interface and $\xi _0$ is the normalized slip length associated with $\ell _T$.
An experimental investigation of the stereocamera's systematic error is carried out to optimize three-dimensional (3-D) dust observation on the HL-2A tokamak. It is found that a larger 3-D region occupied by all calibration points is able to reduce the 3-D reconstruction systematic error of the stereocamera. In addition, the 3-D reconstruction is the most accurate around the region where the calibration points are located. Based on these experimental results, the design of the stereocamera on the HL-2A tokamak is presented, and a set of practical procedures to optimize the 3-D reconstruction accuracy of the stereocamera are proposed.
This article introduces the 2D multilayer Laue lens (MLL) nanofocusing optics recently developed for high-resolution hard X-ray microscopy. The new optics utilized a micro-electro-mechanical-system (MEMS)-based template to accommodate two linear MLL optics in a pre-aligned configuration. Angular misalignment between the two lenses was controlled in tens of millidegrees, and the lateral position error was on a micrometer scale. Using the developed 2D MLLs, an astigmatism-free point focus of approximately 14 nm by 13 nm in horizontal and vertical directions, respectively, at 13.6 keV photon energy was obtained. The success of 2D MLL optics with an approaching 10 nm resolution is a significant step forward for the development of high-resolution hard X-ray microscopy and applications of MLL optics in the hard X-ray community.
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) asymptomatic cases are hard to identify, impeding transmissibility estimation. The value of COVID-19 transmissibility is worth further elucidation for key assumptions in further modelling studies. Through a population-based surveillance network, we collected data on 1342 confirmed cases with a 90-days follow-up for all asymptomatic cases. An age-stratified compartmental model containing contact information was built to estimate the transmissibility of symptomatic and asymptomatic COVID-19 cases. The difference in transmissibility of a symptomatic and asymptomatic case depended on age and was most distinct for the middle-age groups. The asymptomatic cases had a 66.7% lower transmissibility rate than symptomatic cases, and 74.1% (95% CI 65.9–80.7) of all asymptomatic cases were missed in detection. The average proportion of asymptomatic cases was 28.2% (95% CI 23.0–34.6). Simulation demonstrated that the burden of asymptomatic transmission increased as the epidemic continued and could potentially dominate total transmission. The transmissibility of asymptomatic COVID-19 cases is high and asymptomatic COVID-19 cases play a significant role in outbreaks.
Problematic internet use, especially in people with substance use disorder, may negatively affect their quality of life (QoL). However, it is unclear whether sleep quality is a key mediator in the association between problematic internet use and QoL among people with substance use disorder.
This study aimed to investigate the relationship between problematic internet use and QoL and how sleep quality may mediate the association between these two variables.
Overall, 319 people (85% male) with substance use disorder (mean age 42.2 years, s.d. 8.9) participated in a cross-sectional study in Taiwan. The Smartphone Application-Based Addiction Scale, Bergan Social Media Addiction Scale, Internet Gaming Disorder-Short Form, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and World Health Organization Quality of Life Questionnaire Brief Version were used.
The prevalence of sleep problems was 56%. There were significant and direct associations between sleep quality and two types of problematic internet use, and between sleep quality and different dimensions of QoL. All types of problematic internet use were significantly and negatively correlated with QoL. Mediated effects of sleep quality in relationships between the different types of problematic internet use and all dimensions of QoL were significant, except for problematic use of social media.
Different types of problematic internet use in people with substance use disorder may be directly associated with reduced QoL. Sleep quality as a significant mediator in this association may be an underlying mechanism to explain pathways between problematic internet use and QoL in this population.
Hepatitis B virus-related acute-on-chronic liver failure (HBV-ACLF) is a severe and life-threatening complication, characterised by multi-organ failure and high short-term mortality. However, there is limited information on the impact of various comorbidities on HBV-ACLF in a large population. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between comorbidities, complications and mortality. In this retrospective observational study, we identified 2166 cases of HBV-ACLF hospitalised from January 2010 to March 2018. Demographic data from the patients, medical history, treatment, laboratory indices, comorbidities and complications were collected. The mortality rate in our study group was 47.37%. Type 2 diabetes mellitus was the most common comorbidity, followed by alcoholic liver disease. Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, pneumonia and hepatic encephalopathy (HE) were common in these patients. Diabetes mellitus and hyperthyroidism are risk factors for death within 90 days, together with gastrointestinal bleeding and HE at admission, HE and hepatorenal syndrome during hospitalisation. Knowledge of risk factors can help identify HBV-ACLF patients with a poor prognosis for HBV-ACLF with comorbidities and complications.
Emotional dysregulation (ED) is a common characteristic of both attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and major depressive disorder (MDD), especially in adolescents. However, whether ADHD and MDD may share the specific ED-related neural networks remains unknown.
In total, 43 adolescents with clinical ED (22 adolescents with ADHD and 21 with MDD) were recruited; in addition, 29 sex- and age-matched healthy controls (HCs) were included. Resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) analysis, voxel-based morphometry, and diffusion tensor imaging analysis were performed for each patient. In addition, we determined the significant regions of interest in patients with ED due to ADHD and MDD as compared with HCs and tested their correlations with clinical rating scale scores.
Compared with HCs, patients with ED had greater RSFC in the cerebellum and supramarginal gyrus (SMG), especially between vermis VI and the SMG in the attention networks, and lower RSFC between the right supplementary motor area and right lateral parietal area. Lower gray matter (GM) volume in the SMG was also found. RSFC was significantly correlated with clinical rating scale scores for all patients with ED due to ADHD or MDD. GM change was correlated with ED and MDD rating scale scores.
The cerebellum and attention networks might play major roles in ED pathophysiology in adolescents with ADHD and MDD. Increased connectivity of the vermis to the SMG serves as a possible underlying neural network.
The selection of high-quality sperms is critical to intracytoplasmic sperm injection, which accounts for 70–80% of in vitro fertilization (IVF) treatments. So far, sperm screening is usually performed manually by clinicians. However, the performance of manual screening is limited in its objectivity, consistency, and efficiency. To overcome these limitations, we have developed a fast and noninvasive three-stage method to characterize morphology of freely swimming human sperms in bright-field microscopy images using deep learning models. Specifically, we use an object detection model to identify sperm heads, a classification model to select in-focus images, and a segmentation model to extract geometry of sperm heads and vacuoles. The models achieve an F1-score of 0.951 in sperm head detection, a z-position estimation error within ±1.5 μm in in-focus image selection, and a Dice score of 0.948 in sperm head segmentation, respectively. Customized lightweight architectures are used for the models to achieve real-time analysis of 200 frames per second. Comprehensive morphological parameters are calculated from sperm head geometry extracted by image segmentation. Overall, our method provides a reliable and efficient tool to assist clinicians in selecting high-quality sperms for successful IVF. It also demonstrates the effectiveness of deep learning in real-time analysis of live bright-field microscopy images.
Pregnancy is a complex biological process. The establishment and maintenance of foetal–maternal interface are pivotal events. Decidual immune cells and inflammatory cytokines play indispensable roles in the foetal–maternal interface. The disfunction of decidual immune cells leads to adverse pregnancy outcome. Tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α, a common inflammatory cytokine, has critical roles in different stages of normal pregnancy process. However, the relationship between the disorder of TNF-α and adverse pregnancy outcomes, including preeclampsia (PE), intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), spontaneous abortion (SA), preterm birth and so on, is still indefinite. In this review, we thoroughly reviewed the effect of TNF-α disorder on pathological conditions. Moreover, we summarized the reports about the adverse pregnancy outcomes (PE, IUGR, SA and preterm birth) of using anti-TNF-α drugs (infliximab, etanercept and adalimumab, certolizumab and golimumab) currently in the clinical studies. Overall, IUGR, SA and preterm birth are the most common adverse pregnancy outcomes of anti-TNF-α drugs. Our review may provide insight for the immunological treatment of pregnancy-related complication, and help practitioners make informed decisions based on the current evidences.
New insight into the contribution of the microscale vortex evolution to convection heat transfer in porous media is presented in this paper. The objective is to determine how the microscale vortices influence convection heat transfer in turbulent flow inside porous media. The microscale temperature distribution is analysed using flow visualization in two dimensions using streamlines and in three dimensions using the Q-criterion. The pertinent observations are supplemented with a comparison of surface skin friction and heat transfer using: (i) surface skin-friction lines and (ii) the joint probability density function of the pressure and skin-friction coefficients, along with the Nusselt number. The microscale flow phenomena observed are corroborated with the features of the frequency spectra of the drag coefficient and macroscale Nusselt number. The large eddy simulation technique is used in this study to investigate the flow field inside a periodic porous medium. The Reynolds numbers of the flow are 300 and 500. The porous medium consists of solid obstacles in the shape of square and circular cylinders. Two distinct flow regimes are represented by using the porosities of 0.50 and 0.87. The results show that the surface Nusselt number distribution is dependent on whether the micro-vortices are attached to or detached from the surface of the obstacle. The spectra of the macroscale Nusselt number and the pressure drag are similar, signifying a correlation between the dynamics of heat transfer and the microscale turbulent structures. Both vortex shedding and secondary flow instabilities are observed that significantly influence the Nusselt number. The fundamental insight gained in this paper can inform the development of more robust macroscale models of convection heat transfer in turbulent flow in porous media.
Evidence has demonstrated associations of bipolar disorder (BD) with cognitive impairment, dysregulated proinflammatory cytokines, and appetite hormones.
To compare executive dysfunction, proinflammatory cytokines, and appetite hormones between patients with first-episode and multiple-episode BDs.
This cross-sectional study included young adults aged 18 to 39 years who were diagnosed as having type 1 BD in the first or recurrent episode and a group of age-/sex-matched healthy controls. Data regarding patient characteristics, clinical symptoms, cytokines (C-reactive protein [CRP], interleukin-6, and tumor necrosis factor [TNF]-α), appetite hormones (leptin, adiponectin, ghrelin, and insulin), and executive function evaluated using the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) were collected.
A total of 112 participants (38 patients in the multiple-episode BD group, 31 patients in the first-episode BD group, and 43 in the control group) were included. Multivariate analysis revealed that patients in the multiple-episode BD group performed significantly worse in the WCST (P < .05) and had higher levels of ghrelin (P = .002), and lower levels of CRP (P = .040) than those in the first-episode BD group. Patients with BD had significantly higher TNF-α and ghrelin levels compared with the healthy controls. No significant associations of CRP, TNF-α, and ghrelin levels with executive function were observed.
Profiles in proinflammatory cytokines and appetite hormones as well as executive function significantly differed between patients with first-episode and multiple-episode BDs and controls, which may suggest their potential roles in the clinical stages and pathophysiology of type 1 BD.
Nosema bombycis is a destructive and specific intracellular parasite of silkworm, which is extremely harmful to the silkworm industry. N. bombycis is considered as a quarantine pathogen of sericulture because of its long incubation period and horizontal and vertical transmission. Herein, two single-chain antibodies targeting N. bombycis hexokinase (NbHK) were cloned and expressed in fusion with the N-terminal of Slmb (a Drosophila melanogaster FBP), which contains the F-box domain. Western blotting demonstrated that Sf9-III cells expressed NSlmb–scFv-7A and NSlmb–scFv-6H, which recognized native NbHK. Subsequently, the NbHK was degraded by host ubiquitination system. When challenged with N. bombycis, the transfected Sf9-III cells exhibited better resistance relative to the controls, demonstrating that NbHK is a prospective target for parasite controls and this approach represents a potential solution for constructing N. bombycis-resistant Bombyx mori.
A proportion of patients with bipolar disorder (BD) manifests with only unipolar mania (UM). This study examined relevant clinical features and psychosocial characteristics in UM compared with depressive-manic (D-M) subgroups. Moreover, comorbidity patterns of physical conditions and psychiatric disorders were evaluated between the UM and D-M groups.
This clinical retrospective study (N = 1015) analyzed cases with an average of 10 years of illness duration and a nationwide population-based cohort (N = 8343) followed up for 10 years in the Taiwanese population. UM was defined as patients who did not experience depressive episodes and were not prescribed adequate antidepressant treatment during the disease course of BD. Logistic regression models adjusted for relevant covariates were used to evaluate the characteristics and lifetime comorbidities in the two groups.
The proportion of UM ranged from 12.91% to 14.87% in the two datasets. Compared with the D-M group, the UM group had more psychotic symptoms, fewer suicidal behaviors, a higher proportion of morningness chronotype, better sleep quality, higher extraversion, lower neuroticism, and less harm avoidance personality traits. Substantially different lifetime comorbidity patterns were observed between the two groups.
Patients with UM exhibited distinct clinical and psychosocial features compared with patients with the D-M subtype. In particular, a higher risk of comorbid cardiovascular diseases and anxiety disorders is apparent in patients with D-M. Further studies are warranted to investigate the underlying mechanisms for diverse presentations in subgroups of BDs.
A multidecadal-resolved stalagmite δ18O record from two nearby caves, Lianhua and Dragon, in Shanxi Province, northern China, characterizes the detailed East Asian summer monsoon (EASM) intensity changes at 114.6–108.3 ka during Marine Oxygen Isotope Stage 5d. Our record shows an intensification of the EASM at 114.6–109.5 ka, followed by a rapid weakening at 109.5–108.4 ka. The millennial-scale strong monsoonal event appears to be correlated with the warm Greenland interstadial 25 (GI 25), whereas the weak monsoonal event is related to the cold Greenland stadial 25 within dating errors. The GI 25 monsoonal event registered in our record is also documented in various published time series from different regions of China. The lines of evidence indicate that this event occurred over the entirety of monsoonal China and was also broadly antiphase, similar to the corresponding event on a millennial time scale in the South American monsoon territory. In our record, one 700 yr weak monsoon event at 110.7+0.6−0.5 to 110.0+0.8−0.4 ka divides the GI 25 into three substages. These multicentennial to millennial–scale monsoon events correspond to two warm periods and an intervening cold interval for the intra-interstadial climate oscillations within GI 25, thus supporting a persistent coupling of the high- and low-latitude climate systems over the last glacial period.
Routine coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) screening found 1 asymptomatic COVID-19 patient. An emergency sampling team was organized consisting of 1200 health-care workers, and a total of 3.2228 million COVID-19 samples had been collected and detected. This study summarizes the on-site management experience in large-scale COVID-19 nucleic acid testing from various aspects: staff preparation, materials preparation, site layout, logistics support, and information system support. Suggestions are put forward for the deficiencies and parts needing improvement. Such deficiencies included some sampling sites were not properly chosen, different areas were unclearly marked off from each other, and some site moving lines were confounding; how to communicate with the street service workers who had little professional knowledge on the epidemic spread or the working principles of the workflow and site layout; and the way to resolve conflicts on site.
Athetis lepigone Möschler (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae) is a common maize pest in Europe and Asia. However, there is no long-term effective management strategy is available yet to suppress its population. Adults rely heavily on olfactory cues to locate their optimal host plants and oviposition sites. Pheromone-binding proteins (PBPs) are believed to be responsible for recognizing and transporting different odorant molecules to interact with receptor membrane proteins. In this study, the ligand-binding specificities of two AlepPBPs (AlepPBP2 and AlepPBP3) for sex pheromone components and host plant (maize) volatiles were measured by fluorescence ligand-binding assay. The results demonstrated that AlepPBP2 had a high affinity with two pheromones [(Z)-7-dodecenyl acetate, Ki = 1.11 ± 0.1 μM, (Z)-9-tetradecenyl acetate, Ki = 1.32 ± 0.15 μM] and ten plant volatiles, including (-)-limonene, α-pinene, myrcene, linalool, benzaldehyde, nonanal, 2-hexanone, 3-hexanone, 2-heptanone and 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one. In contrast, we found that none of these chemicals could bind to AlepPBP3. Our results clearly show no significant differences in the functional characterization of the binding properties between AlepPBP2 and AlepPBP3 to sex pheromones and host plant volatiles. Furthermore, molecular docking was employed for further detail on some crucial amino acid residues involved in the ligand-binding of AlepPBP2. These findings will provide valuable information about the potential protein binding sites necessary for protein-ligand interactions which appear as attractive targets for the development of novel technologies and management strategies for insect pests.
The effects of non-invasive, non-convulsive electrical neuromodulation (NINCEN) on depression, anxiety and sleep disturbance are inconsistent in different studies. Previous meta-analyses on transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) and cerebral electrotherapy stimulation (CES) suggested that these methods are effective on depression. However, not all types of NINECN were included; results on anxiety and sleep disturbance were lacking and the influence of different populations and treatment parameters was not completely analyzed. We searched PubMed, Embase, PsycInfo, PsycArticles and CINAHL before March 2021 and included published randomized clinical trials of all types of NINCEN for symptoms of depression, anxiety and sleep in clinical and non-clinical populations. Data were pooled using a random-effects model. The main outcome was change in the severity of depressive symptoms after NINCEN treatment. A total of 58 studies on NINCEN were included in the meta-analysis. Active tDCS showed a significant effect on depressive symptoms (Hedges' g = 0.544), anxiety (Hedges' g = 0.667) and response rate (odds ratio = 1.9594) compared to sham control. CES also had a significant effect on depression (Hedges' g = 0.654) and anxiety (Hedges' g = 0.711). For all types of NINCEN, active stimulation was significantly effective on depression, anxiety, sleep efficiency, sleep latency, total sleep time, etc. Our results showed that tDCS has significant effects on both depression and anxiety and that these effects are robust for different populations and treatment parameters. The rational expectation of the tDCS effect is ‘response’ rather than ‘remission’. CES also is effective for depression and anxiety, especially in patients with disorders of low severity.