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A simplified analytical form of the on-axis magnetic well and Mercier's criterion for interchange instabilities for arbitrary three-dimensional magnetic field geometries is derived. For this purpose, a near-axis expansion based on a direct coordinate approach is used by expressing the toroidal magnetic flux in terms of powers of the radial distance to the magnetic axis. For the first time, the magnetic well and Mercier's criterion are then written as a one-dimensional integral with respect to the axis arclength. When compared with the original work of Mercier, the derivation here is presented using modern notation and in a more streamlined manner that highlights essential steps. Finally, these expressions are verified numerically using several quasisymmetric and non-quasisymmetric stellarator configurations including Wendelstein 7-X.
This paper proposes a procedure to improve the accuracy of the light aircraft 6 DOF simulation model by implementing model tuning and aerodynamic database correction using flight test data. In this study, the full-scale flight testing of a 2-seater aircraft has been performed in specific longitudinal manoeuver for model enhancement and simulation validation purposes. The baseline simulation model database is constructed using multi-fidelity analysis methods such as wind tunnel (W/T) test, computational fluid dynamic (CFD) and empirical calculation. The enhancement process starts with identifying longitudinal equations of motion for sensitivity analysis, where the effect of crucial parameters is analysed and then adjusted using the model tuning technique. Next, the classical Maximum Likelihood (ML) estimation method is applied to calculate aerodynamic derivatives from flight test data, these parameters are utilised to correct the initial aerodynamic table. A simulation validation process is introduced to evaluate the accuracy of the enhanced 6 DOF simulation model. The presented results demonstrate that the applied enhancement procedure has improved the simulation accuracy in longitudinal motion. The discrepancy between the simulation and flight test response showed significant improvement, which satisfies the regulation tolerance.
Balloon valvuloplasty and surgical aortic valvotomy have been the treatment mainstays for congenital aortic stenosis in children. Choice of intervention often differs depending upon centre bias with limited relevant, comparative literature.
This study aims to provide an unbiased, contemporary matched comparison of these balloon and surgical approaches.
Retrospective analysis of patients with congenital aortic valve stenosis who underwent balloon valvuloplasty (Queensland Children’s Hospital, Brisbane) or surgical valvotomy (Royal Children’s Hospital, Melbourne) between 2005 and 2016. Patients were excluded if pre-intervention assessment indicated ineligibility to either group. Propensity score matching was performed based on age, weight, and valve morphology.
Sixty-five balloon patients and seventy-seven surgical patients were included. Overall, the groups were well matched with 18 neonates/25 infants in the balloon group and 17 neonates/28 infants in the surgical group. Median age at balloon was 92 days (range 2 days – 18.8 years) compared to 167 days (range 0 days – 18.1 years) for surgery (rank-sum p = 0.08). Mean follow-up was 5.3 years. There was one late balloon death and two early surgical deaths due to left ventricular failure. There was no significant difference in freedom from reintervention at latest follow-up (69% in the balloon group and 70% in the surgical group, p = 1.0).
Contemporary analysis of balloon aortic valvuloplasty and surgical aortic valvotomy shows no difference in overall reintervention rates in the medium term. Balloon valvuloplasty performs well across all age groups, achieving delay or avoidance of surgical intervention.
Invasive meningococcal disease has high morbidity and mortality, with infants and young children among those at greatest risk. This phase III, open-label, randomised study in toddlers aged 12–23 months evaluated the immunogenicity and safety of meningococcal tetanus toxoid-conjugate vaccine (MenACYW-TT), a tetanus toxoid conjugated vaccine against meningococcal serogroups A, C, W and Y, when coadministered with paediatric vaccines (measles, mumps and rubella [MMR]; varicella [V]; 6-in-1 combination vaccine against diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, polio, hepatitis B and Haemophilus influenzae type b [DTaP-IPV-HepB-Hib] and pneumococcal conjugate vaccine [PCV13])(NCT03205371). Immunogenicity to each meningococcal serogroup was assessed by serum bactericidal antibody assay using human complement (hSBA). Vaccine safety profiles were described up to 30 days post-vaccination. A total of 1183 participants were enrolled. The proportion with seroprotection (hSBA ≥1:8) to each meningococcal serogroup at Day 30 was comparable between the MenACYW-TT and MenACYW-TT + MMR + V groups (≥92 and ≥96%, respectively), between the MenACYW-TT and MenACYW-TT + DTaP-IPV-HepB-Hib groups (≥90% for both) and between the MenACYW-TT and MenACYW-TT + PCV13 groups (≥91 and ≥84%, respectively). The safety profiles of MenACYW-TT, and MMR + V, DTaP-IPV-HepB-Hib, and PCV13, with or without MenACYW-TT, were generally comparable. Coadministration of MenACYW-TT with paediatric vaccines in toddlers had no clinically relevant effect on the immunogenicity and safety of any of the vaccines.
The current cross-sectional study examined cognition and performance-based functional abilities in a continuing care senior housing community (CCSHC) that is comparable to other CCSHCs in the US with respect to residents’ demographic characteristics.
Participants were 110 older adult residents of the independent living unit. We assessed sociodemographics, mental health, neurocognitive functioning, and functional capacity.
Compared to normative samples, participants performed at or above expectations in terms of premorbid functioning, attention span and working memory, processing speed, timed set-shifting, inhibitory control, and confrontation naming. They performed below expectation in verbal fluency and verbal and visual learning and memory, with impairment rates [31.4% (>1 SD below the mean) and 18.49% (>1.5 SD below the mean)] well above the general population (16% and 7%, respectively). Within the cognitive test battery, two tests of delayed memory were most predictive of a global deficit score. Most cognitive test scores correlated with performance-based functional capacity.
Overall, results suggest that a subset of older adults in the independent living sector of CCSHCs are cognitively and functionally impaired and are at risk for future dementia. Results also argue for the inclusion of memory tests in abbreviated screening batteries in this population. We suggest that CCSHCs implement regular cognitive screening procedures to identify and triage those older adults who could benefit from interventions and, potentially, a transition to a higher level of care.
In April 2019, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) released its recovery plan for the jaguar Panthera onca after several decades of discussion, litigation and controversy about the status of the species in the USA. The USFWS estimated that potential habitat, south of the Interstate-10 highway in Arizona and New Mexico, had a carrying capacity of c. six jaguars, and so focused its recovery programme on areas south of the USA–Mexico border. Here we present a systematic review of the modelling and assessment efforts over the last 25 years, with a focus on areas north of Interstate-10 in Arizona and New Mexico, outside the recovery unit considered by the USFWS. Despite differences in data inputs, methods, and analytical extent, the nine previous studies found support for potential suitable jaguar habitat in the central mountain ranges of Arizona and New Mexico. Applying slightly modified versions of the USFWS model and recalculating an Arizona-focused model over both states provided additional confirmation. Extending the area of consideration also substantially raised the carrying capacity of habitats in Arizona and New Mexico, from six to 90 or 151 adult jaguars, using the modified USFWS models. This review demonstrates the crucial ways in which choosing the extent of analysis influences the conclusions of a conservation plan. More importantly, it opens a new opportunity for jaguar conservation in North America that could help address threats from habitat losses, climate change and border infrastructure.
Understanding the development of specific components of the neonatal immune system is critical to the understanding of the susceptibility of the neonate to specific pathogens . With the increasing survival of extremely premature infants, neonatologists and other physicians caring for these newborns need to be aware of the vulnerability of this population. Furthermore, it is important for neonatologists to be able to differentiate between immune immaturity and the manifestations of a true primary immunodeficiency that present during the neonatal period. Failure to properly identify primary or acquired immunodeficiency diseases can result in delayed diagnosis and treatment, adversely affecting outcomes. This chapter will briefly define the immune immaturity of the neonate and a diagnostic approach for primary immune deficiency diseases that may present in the neonatal period.
Cognitive impairment is common in bipolar disorder and is emerging as a therapeutic target to enhance quality of life and function. A systematic search was conducted on PubMed, PsycInfo, Cochrane, clinicaltrials.gov, and Embase databases for blinded or open-label randomized controlled trials evaluating the pro-cognitive effects of pharmacological, neurostimulation, or psychological interventions for bipolar disorder. Twenty-two trials were identified, evaluating a total of 16 different pro-cognitive interventions. The methodological quality of the identified trials were assessed using the Cochrane Risk of Bias tool. Currently, no intervention (i.e., pharmacologic, neurostimulation, cognitive remediation) has demonstrated robust and independent pro-cognitive effects in adults with bipolar disorder. Findings are preliminary and methodological limitations limit the interpretation of results. Methodological considerations including, but not limited to, the enrichment with populations with pre-treatment cognitive impairment, as well as the inclusion of individuals who are in remission are encouraged. Future trials may also consider targeting interventions to specific cognitive subgroups and the use of biomarkers of cognitive function.
This study examined the perceived competence of Clinical Research Coordinators (CRCs) using several conceptual frameworks. Accurate self-assessment of one’s professional competence is a critical component in the career navigation process and contributes to (a) identifying and securing professional development (training), (b) leveraging professional strengths, and (c) integrating self-knowledge into a comprehensive career plan.
A survey design gathered responses from a sample of 119 CRCs in a southeastern region of the USA Two conceptual frameworks were used to represent aspects of CRC professional competence: the eight Joint Task Force (JTF) competence domains, and perceptions of strengths and training needs from a list of 12 task categories.
The JTF domain with the lowest competence level was Development and Regulations, while the highest was Communication. Perceived competence increased incrementally with years of experience. Top strengths involved direct patient interaction and data management. Tasks in need of training included project management and reporting issues. Variations in responses were based on years of experience as a CRC.
Our results demonstrate an association between the self-reported strengths and training needs of CRCs and experience. This information can contribute to the self-directed career navigation of CRCs.
A cross-sectional survey study of inpatient prescribers in a university health system was performed to assess the importance they place on different clinical risk factors when making empiric antibiotic decisions. Our findings show that these clinical risk factors were weighted differently based on the clinical scenario and the type of prescriber.
Flood and drought events cause significant freshwater inflow fluctuations in estuaries, potentially leading to physiological stress and altered abundances of pathogens such as Vibrio vulnificus and Perkinsus marinus in oysters. To assess the effects of freshwater pulses to oyster reefs in subtropical estuaries in Texas, this study accomplished two goals: 1) reconstructed a reef-specific history of freshwater pulses through shell stable isotope analysis, 2) quantified the abundance of V. vulnificus and P. marinus through culture-dependent and culture-independent microbiology analyses. Oysters from a low-relief and high-relief reef experienced similar fluctuations in shell isotopes, indicating similar ranges of past environmental conditions. V. vulnificus and P. marinus were detected throughout the study but the abundance of these microorganisms was not correlated with environmental parameters or one another. Importantly, the P. marinus infection intensity was always lower at the high-relief reef, which suggests that high-relief reefs may experience lower infection frequencies.
The 14C peak in AD 775 (M12) has been measured and confirmed globally in several studies since it was first measured in annual tree rings by Miyake et al. (2012). However, M12 data measurements in early- and latewood are limited. This paper presents the Δ14C values in early- and latewood from AD 762–776 Zelkova serrata tree rings from Bangu-dong, Ulsan, South Korea (35°33′N, 129°20′E). The results indicate no early rise in Δ14C values in the latewood of AD 774 in this sample located at mid-latitude. A comparison of the results of this and previous studies suggests latitude dependence (Büntgen et al. 2018); that is, the early rise of Δ14C in AD 774 was not observed at mid-latitudes in South Korea but was observed at high latitudes in Finland. The half-oxidation time of 14C was estimated from a detailed analysis of a small bomb peak in AD 1962. Based on the half-oxidation time, the Δ14C rise in the latewood, but not in the earlywood, of AD 774 in Finland, and the absence of a Δ14C rise in both the early- and latewood of AD 774 in South Korea, the 14C spike was estimated to have been produced from late April to mid-June in AD 774.
Forensic pathologists and clinicians are increasingly faced with challenges when it comes to geriatric cases, due to an aging population and increased comorbidities in the elderly. This text provides an up-to-date guide to all facets of geriatric forensic pathology, with contributions from experts from a variety of disciplines. Packed with color illustrations and case examples, chapters cover inflicted, self-inflicted, and accidental trauma, as well as natural conditions leading to unexpected death. In addition, specific chapters cover a wide range of difficult and topical areas, from elder abuse, dementias, and nutrition to pharmacology and toxicology issues, long-term care facilities, and scene investigation. Topics such as euthanasia are also explored to provide the reader with a rich, contemporary understanding of medicolegal issues. This is an invaluable resource not only for pathologists, but also for medical practitioners and lawyers dealing with geriatric cases. The book comes packaged with online access to the text and high-resolution images.