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Diet is a strong moderator of systemic inflammation, an established risk factor for colorectal cancer (CRC). The dietary inflammatory index (DII) measures the inflammatory potential of individuals' diets. The association between the DII and incident CRC was examined, using the National Institutes of Health–American Associations of Retired Persons Diet and Health Study individuals (n 489 422) aged 50–74 years at recruitment, starting between 1995–6, and followed for a mean of 9·1 (sd 2·9) years. Baseline data from a FFQ were used to calculate the DII; higher scores are more pro-inflammatory, and lower scores are more anti-inflammatory. First, primary CRC diagnoses were identified through linkage to state cancer registries. Anatomic location and disease severity also were examined. Cox proportional hazards models estimated CRC hazard ratios (HR) and 95 % CI using quartile 1 as the referent. DII quartile 4 compared to quartile 1 was associated with CRC risk among all subjects (HR 1·40, 95 % CI 1·28, 1·53; P for trend < 0·01). Statistically significant associations also were observed for each anatomic site examined, for moderate and poorly differentiated tumours, and at each cancer stage among all subjects. Effects were similar when stratified by sex; however, results were statistically significant only in males. The only result reaching statistical significance in females was risk of moderately differentiated CRC tumours (DII quartile 4 v. quartile 1 HR 1·26, 95 % CI 1·03, 1·56). Overall, the DII was associated with CRC risk among all subjects. The DII may serve as a novel way to evaluate dietary risk for chronic disorders associated with inflammation, such as CRC.
Central line-associated bloodstream infections (CLABSIs) frequently complicate the use of central venous catheters (CVCs) among pediatric patients with cancer. Our objectives were to describe the microbiology and identify risk factors for hospital-onset CLABSI in this patient population.
Retrospective case-control study.
Oncology and stem cell transplant units of a freestanding, 396-bed quaternary care pediatric hospital.
Case subjects (N = 54) were patients with a diagnosis of malignancy and/or stem cell transplant recipients with CLABSI occurring during admission. Controls (N = 108) were identified using risk set sampling of hospitalizations among patients with a CVC, matched on date of admission.
Multivariate conditional logistic regression was used to identify independent predictors of CLABSI.
The majority of CLABSI isolates were gram-positive bacteria (58%). The most frequently isolated organism was Enterococcus faecium, and 6 of 9 isolates were resistant to vancomycin. In multivariate analyses, independent risk factors for CLABSI included platelet transfusion within the prior week (odds ratio [OR], 10.90 [95% confidence interval (CI), 3.02-39.38]; P<.001) and CVC placement within the previous month (<1 week vs ≥1 month: OR, 11.71 [95% CI, 1.98-69.20]; P = .02; ≥1 week and <1 month vs ≥1 month: OR, 7.37 [95% CI, 1.85-29.36]; P = .004).
Adjunctive measures to prevent CLABSI among pediatric oncology patients may be most beneficial in the month following CVC insertion and in patients requiring frequent platelet transfusions. Vancomycin-resistant enterococci may be an emerging cause of CLABSI in hospitalized pediatric oncology patients and are unlikely to be treated by typical empiric antimicrobial regimens.
The study discusses the mineralogical, geochemical and thermometric properties of rock-forming blue quartz from eight worldwide occurrences. Compared to non-blue quartz, blue quartz contains significant amounts of submicron-sized (1 μm—100 nm) and nanometre-sized (<100 nm) inclusions. Mica, ilmenite and rutile constitute the most abundant submicron-sized inclusions, and are formed probably by syngenetic precipitation in the boundary layer between quartz and melt (entrapment model). Nanometre-sized rutile possibly originated by epigenetic exsolution of Ti from the quartz structure (exsolution model). Rayleigh scattering of light by nano-particulate inclusions best explains the origin of the blue colour. Blue quartz is generally Ti-rich (∼100—300 ppm) and formed at high temperatures (∼700°C—900°C). The large number, and high spatial density, of tiny xenocrystic inclusions of Ti-bearing minerals make calculations of crystallization temperatures using the Ti-in-quartz thermometer unreliable. The geological significance of blue quartz remains obscure.
In this chapter, we introduce CoMP schemes where no or little information is exchanged between cooperating base stations. In Section 5.1, we observe an interference-aware downlink transmission scheme where each base station performs individual intra-cell beamforming, while the terminals are able to mitigate inter-cell interference to a certain extent through a particular interference estimation and rejection concept. The level of base station cooperation is then increased in Sections 5.2 and 5.3, where joint multi-cell scheduling and link adaptation, and multi-cell coordinated beamforming are investigated, respectively.
Downlink Multi-User Beamforming with Interference Rejection Combining
Transmission with multiple antennas both at the transmitting and receiving ends of a wireless link has become increasingly mature in recent years. From theory, the fundamental capacity gain of the multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) radio link, being proportional to the minimum of the number of transmit and receive antennas, is well understood for an isolated point-to-point link.
The influence of Si-doping on the growth and material characteristics of InAs nanowires deposited by metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE) was investigated. It was observed that above a certain partial pressure ratio, doping has an influence on the morphology. The nanowires exhibit better uniformity but lower height vs. diameter aspect ratio as the supply of the dopant increases. It was consistantly found that the specific conductance of the nanowires also increases. Moreover the electrical measurements showed a transition from semiconducting to metallic behavior in the case of highly doped nanowires.
Nyerereite and nahcolite have been identified as micro- and nano-inclusions in diamond from the Juina area, Brazil. Alongside them are Sr- and Ba-bearing calcite minerals from the periclase-wiistite series, wollastonite II (high), Ca-rich garnet, spinels, olivine, phlogopite and apatite. Minerals of the periclase- wustite series belong to two separate groups: wustite and Mg-wustite with Mg# = 1.9—15.3, and Fe- periclase and periclase with Mg# = 84.9—92.1. Wollastonite-II (high, with Ca:Si = 0.992) has a triclinic structure. Two types of spinel were distinguished among mineral inclusions in diamond: zoned magnesioferrite (with Mg# varying from 13.5—90.8, core to rim) and Fe spinel (magnetite). Olivine (Mg# = 93.6), intergrown with nyerereite, forms an elongate, lath-shaped crystal and most likely represents a retrograde transformation of ringwoodite or wadsleyite. All inclusions are composed of poly-mineralic solid mineral phases. Together with previously found halides, sulphates and other mineral inclusions in diamond from Juina, they form a carbonatitic-type mineral paragenesis in diamond which may have originated in the lower mantle and/or transition zone. Wustite inclusions with Mg# = 1.9—3.4, according to experimental data, may have formed in the lowermost mantle. The source for the observed carbonatitic-type mineral association in diamond is lower-mantle natrocarbonatitic magma. This magma may represent a juvenile mantle melt, or be the result of low-degree partial melting of deeply-subducted carbonated oceanic crust. This magma was rich in volatiles, such as Cl, F and H, which played an important role in the formation of diamond.
The role of the language network in the pathophysiology of formal thought disorder has yet to be elucidated.
To investigate whether specific grey-matter deficits in schizophrenic formal thought disorder correlate with resting perfusion in the left-sided language network.
We investigated 13 right-handed patients with schizophrenia and formal thought disorder of varying severity and 13 matched healthy controls, using voxel-based morphometry and magnetic resonance imaging perfusion measurement (arterial spin labelling).
We found positive correlations between perfusion and the severity of formal thought disorder in the left frontal and left temporoparietal language areas. We also observed bilateral deficits in grey-matter volume, positively correlated with the severity of thought disorder in temporoparietal areas and other brain regions. The results of the voxel-based morphometry and the arterial spin labelling measurements overlapped in the left posterior superior temporal gyrus and left angular gyrus.
Specific grey-matter deficits may be a risk factor for state-related dysfunctions of the left-sided language system, leading to local hyperperfusion and formal thought disorder.
Mutations in pfcrt K76T are associated with chloroquine resistance in Plasmodium falciparum. Previous studies of K76T mutations in Senegal reported the association of T76 with in vitro-resistant isolates, but this mutation was also prevalent in chloroquine-sensitive isolates. This suggests involvement of additional genetic loci in modulating chloroquine resistance. Additional pfcrt polymorphisms at codons A220S, Q271E, N326S and R371I have been found in chloroquine-resistant isolates. We wanted to test if sequential acquisition of mutations at these codons leads to in vitro chloroquine resistance. Stepwise accumulation of mutations was not detected, rather there was almost complete linkage between the pfcrt K76T mutation and polymorphisms in these codons. Therefore these additional polymorphisms do not enhance the correlation between pfcrt T76 and chloroquine resistance in Senegal. These data suggest that in vitro chloroquine resistance requires the genetic background of the pfcrt K76T mutation and additional mutations in genetic loci outside the pfcrt gene.
We earlier reported the measured decrease of electrical resistivity during isochronal-annealing of ion irradiation damage that was accumulated at low-temperature (10 or 20K), and the temperature dependence of the resistance of defect-populations produced by low-temperature damage-accumulation and annealing in a stabilized δ-phase plutonium alloy, Pu(3.3 at%Ga). We noted that the temperature dependence of the resistance of defects resulting from low-temperature damage accumulation and subsequent annealing exhibits a -ln(T) temperature dependence suggestive of a Kondo impurity. A discussion of a possible “structure-property” effect, as it might relate to the nature of the δ-phase of Pu, is presented.
Objective: To determine the actual costs of extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) in patients with tendinitis of the supraspinatus muscle.
Methods: A comparison of the costs of surgical treatment versus the costs for ESWT was made. The total accrued costs were determined 12 weeks after intervention, using a sample group of 60 patients with calcifying or noncalcifying tendinitis of the supraspinatus muscle.
Results: The costs per case ranged from EUR 2,700 to EUR 4,300 per patient for ESWT and from EUR 13,400 to EUR 23,450 for surgical treatment, dependent on the method of calculation. Approximately 65% of the per-patient cost is attributable to productivity losses in the workplace.
Conclusions: In comparable short-term results, costs for operative treatment are 5–7 times higher than for ESWT. The greater trauma caused by an operative procedure leads to patients being off work for a longer period and thus a correspondingly higher social economic burden.
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