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Developmental signals and environmental stresses regulate carbon distribution in the vegetative and reproductive organs of plants and affect seed yield. Cleistogenes songorica is a xerophytic grass with great potential application value in ecological restoration. However, how carbohydrate transport and distribution during grain filling affect the seed yield of C. songorica under water stress is not clear. The present study showed that the soluble sugar and starch contents of cleistogamous (CL) spikes and chasmogamous (CH) spikes were significantly higher at the milk stage, which was attributed to a significantly higher seed number and seed yield per spike under water stress conditions than under well-watered conditions (P < 0.01). RNA-seq data revealed a total of 54,525 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) under water stress conditions, but only 3744 DEGs were shared among all comparison groups. Weighted gene co-expression network analysis showed that the transport and distribution of carbohydrates were regulated by ABA-responsive genes (CsABA8OX1_1, CsABA8OX1_2, CsABA8OX2_1, CsABA8OX2_2, CsNCED3, CsNCED1_1, CsNCED1_2 and CsNCED4_1) and sugar transport and starch synthesis genes (CsSUS1, CsSUS2, CsSUS3, CsAGP1, CsAGP4, CsAGP5, CsSSS1 and CsSBE5) under water stress conditions. These genes jointly regulated carbohydrate remobilization in sources (stems, leaves and sheaths) to promote grain filling and improve seed yield. The present study helped to clarify the phenotypic, metabolic and transcriptional response mechanisms of vegetative organs, such as stems and leaves, and reproductive organs, such as CL spikes and CH spikes, to promote carbohydrate redistribution under water stress, and it provides theoretical guidance for improving seed yields.
When conducting accident analysis, the assessment of risk is one of the important links. Moreover, with regards to crew training, risk cognition is also an important training subject. However, most of the existing researches only rely on a single or a few data sources. It is necessary to fuse the collected multi-source data to obtain a more comprehensive risk evaluation model. There are few studies on the three-dimensional (3D) multi-modal data-fusion-based trajectory risk cognition. In this paper, a fuzzy logic-based trajectory risk cognition method is proposed based on multi-model spatial data fusion and accident data mining. First, the necessity of multi-model spatial data fusion is analysed and a data-fusion-based scene map is constructed. Second, a risk cognition model fused by multiple factors, multi-dimensional spatial calculations as well as data mining results is proposed, including a novel ship boundary calculation approach and newly constructed factors. Finally, a radar chart is used to illustrate the risk, and a risk cognition system is developed. Experiment results confirm the effectiveness of the method. It can be applied to train human operators of unmanned ship systems.
With the global spreading of Coronavirus disease (COVID-19), many primary care medical workers have been infected, particularly in the early stages of this pandemic. Although extensive studies have explored the COVID-19 transmission patterns and (non-) pharmaceutical intervention to protect the general public, limited research has analysed the measures to prevent nosocomial transmission based upon detailed interpersonal contacts between medical staff and patients.
This paper aims to develop and evaluate proactive prevention measures to contain the nosocomial transmission of COVID-19. The specific objectives are (1) to understand the virus transmission via interpersonal contacts among medical staff and patients; (2) to define proactive measures to reduce the risk of infection of medical staff and (3) evaluate the effectiveness of these measures to control the COVID-19 epidemic in hospitals.
We observed the operation of a typical primary hospital in China to understand the interpersonal contacts among medical staff and patients. We defined effective distance as the indicator for risk of transmission. Then three proactive measures were proposed based upon the observations, including a medical staff rotation system, the establishment of a separate fever clinic and medical staff working alone. Finally, the impacts of these measures are evaluated with a modified Susceptible-Exposure-Infected-Removed model accommodating the situation of hospitals and asymptomatic and latent infection of COVID-19. The case study was conducted with the hospital observed in December 2019 and February 2020.
The implementation of the medical staff rotation system has the most significant impact on containing the epidemic. The establishment of a separate fever clinic and medical staff working alone also benefits from inhibiting the epidemic outbreak. The simulation finds that if effective prevention and control measures are not taken in time, it will lead to a surge of infection cases in all asymptomatic probabilities and incubation periods.
Attentional bias toward health-threat may theoretically contribute to the development and maintenance of health anxiety, but the empirical findings have been controversial. This study aimed to synthesize and explore the heterogeneity in a health-threat related attentional bias of health-anxious individuals, and to determine the theoretical model that better represents the pattern of attentional bias in health anxiety. Four databases (Web of Science, PubMed, PsycINFO, and Scopus) were searched for relevant studies, with 17 articles (N = 1546) included for a qualitative review and 16 articles (18 studies) for a three-level meta-analysis (N = 1490). The meta-analytic results indicated that the health anxiety group, compared to the control group, showed significantly greater attentional bias toward health-threat (g = 0.256). Further analyses revealed that attentional bias type, paradigm, and stimuli type were significant moderators. Additionally, compared to the controls, health-anxious individuals displayed significantly greater attention maintenance (g = 0.327) but nonsignificant attention vigilance to health-threat (g = −0.116). Our results provide evidence for the attention maintenance model in health-anxious individuals. The implications for further research and treatment of elevated health anxiety in the context of coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) were also discussed.
There is a lack of evidence related to the prevalence of mental health symptoms as well as their heterogeneities during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic in Latin America, a large area spanning the equator. The current study aims to provide meta-analytical evidence on mental health symptoms during COVID-19 among frontline healthcare workers, general healthcare workers, the general population and university students in Latin America.
Bibliographical databases, such as PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, PsycINFO and medRxiv, were systematically searched to identify pertinent studies up to August 13, 2021. Two coders performed the screening using predefined eligibility criteria. Studies were assigned quality scores using the Mixed Methods Appraisal Tool. The double data extraction method was used to minimise data entry errors.
A total of 62 studies with 196 950 participants in Latin America were identified. The pooled prevalence of anxiety, depression, distress and insomnia was 35%, 35%, 32% and 35%, respectively. There was a higher prevalence of mental health symptoms in South America compared to Central America (36% v. 28%, p < 0.001), in countries speaking Portuguese (40%) v. Spanish (30%). The pooled prevalence of mental health symptoms in the general population, general healthcare workers, frontline healthcare workers and students in Latin America was 37%, 34%, 33% and 45%, respectively.
The high yet heterogenous level of prevalence of mental health symptoms emphasises the need for appropriate identification of psychological interventions in Latin America.
Laser–plasma accelerators (LPAs) have great potential to realize a compact X-ray free-electron laser (FEL), which is limited by the beam properties currently. Two-color high-intensity X-ray FEL provides a powerful tool for probing ultrafast dynamic systems. In this paper, we present a simple and feasible method to generate a two-color X-ray FEL pulse based on an LPA beam. In this scheme, time-dependent mismatch along the bunch is generated and manipulated by the designed lattice system, enabling FEL lasing at different wavelength within two undulator sections. The time separation between the two pulses can be precisely adjusted by varying the time-delay chicane. Numerical simulations show that two-color soft X-ray FELs with gigawatt-level peak power and femtosecond duration can be generated, which confirm the validity and feasibility of the scheme.
Deficits in event-related potential (ERP) including duration mismatch negativity (MMN) and P3a have been demonstrated widely in chronic schizophrenia (SZ) but inconsistent findings were reported in first-episode patients. Psychotropic medications and diagnosis might contribute to different findings on MMN/P3a ERP in first-episode patients. The present study examined MMN and P3a in first episode drug naïve SZ and bipolar disorder (BPD) patients and explored the relationships among ERPs, neurocognition and global functioning.
Twenty SZ, 24 BPD and 49 age and sex-matched healthy controls were enrolled in this study. Data of clinical symptoms [Positive and Negative Symptoms Scale (PANSS), Young Manic Rating Scale (YMRS), Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD)], neurocognition [Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS), Cattell's Culture Fair Intelligence Test (CCFT), Delay Matching to Sample (DMS), Rapid Visual Information Processing (RVP)], and functioning [Functioning Assessment Short Test (FAST)] were collected. P3a and MMN were elicited using a passive auditory oddball paradigm.
Significant MMN and P3a deficits and impaired neurocognition were found in both SZ and BPD patients. In SZ, MMN was significantly correlated with FAST (r = 0.48) and CCFT (r = −0.31). In BPD, MMN was significantly correlated with DMS (r = −0.54). For P3a, RVP and FAST scores were significant predictors in SZ, whereas RVP, WAIS and FAST were significant predictors in BPD.
The present study found deficits in MMN, P3a, neurocognition in drug naïve SZ and BPD patients. These deficits appeared to link with levels of higher-order cognition and functioning.
The Jueluotage area, which is located in the southern branch of the Eastern Tianshan and northeast of the Tarim Basin, represents a vital locality for investigating intracontinental reactivation induced by the tectonic events at the Eurasian plate margin. This study applies zircon and apatite (U–Th)/He and apatite fission-track thermochronology to the Jueluotage area in the Eastern Tianshan. Our data and thermal history modelling show that the Jueluotage area experienced Triassic–Early Jurassic (˜240–180 Ma) cooling, reflecting the closure of the North Tianshan Ocean and subsequent far-field effects of collision/accretion of the Qiangtang Block and Kunlun terrane. Following this period of fast cooling, a differential exhumation process occurred between the various tectonic belts in the Jueluotage area. The Aqishan–Yamansu belt was exposed at the surface during the Triassic–Early Jurassic cooling phase and experienced subsequent burial, which continued until Early Cretaceous time when a pulse of exhumation occurred. However, the major fault zones (Kanggurtag ductile shear zone and Aqikkuduk Fault) and Central Tianshan arc have remained tectonically stable since Early Jurassic time. No Cenozoic rapid cooling was recorded by the low-temperature thermochronology results in this study, indicating that much of the Jueluotage area was exhumed to the upper crust in the late Mesozoic period.
The aim of the present study was to compare the rate of preterm birth (PTB) and growth from birth to 18 years between twins conceived by in vitro fertilization (IVF) and twins conceived by spontaneous conception (SC) in mainland China. The retrospective cohort study included 1164 twins resulting from IVF and 25,654 twins conceived spontaneously, of which 494 from IVF and 6338 from SC were opposite-sex twins. PTB and low birth weight (LBW), and growth, including length/height and weight, were compared between the two groups at five stages: infancy (0 year), toddler period (1–2 years), preschool (3–5 years), primary or elementary school (6–11 years), and adolescence (10–18 years). Few statistically significant differences were found for LBW and growth between the two groups after adjusting for PTB and other confounders. Twins born by IVF faced an increased risk of PTB compared with those born by SC (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 8.21, 95% confidence interval [CI] [3.19, 21.13], p < .001 in all twins and aOR 10.12, 95% CI [2.32, 44.04], p = .002 in opposite-sex twins). Twins born by IVF experienced a similar growth at five stages (0–18 years old) when compared with those born by SC. PTB risk, however, is significantly higher for twins conceived by IVF than those conceived by SC.
Based on the characteristics of high-frequency swing during fast swimming of fish, this paper designs a bionic fish-driven joint based on electromagnetic drive to achieve high-frequency swing. Aiming at the characteristic parameters of high-frequency swing control, the Fourier transform is used to separate the characteristic parameters and then compared the driving accuracy of the joints in open-loop and closed-loop. The comparison results show that the closed-loop control is performed after Fourier transform. Under the same driving conditions, the closed-loop control method can improve the joint driving accuracy. Then a bionic fish robot composed of three joints is designed according to this method and Kane method is used to model it dynamically and combined with the central pattern generator control method to complete model simulation and related experiments. The experimental results show that the bionic fish prototype can swim faster under high-frequency swing under electromagnetically driven joints.
Environmental hypoxia exposure causes fertility problems in human and animals. Compelling evidence suggests that chronic hypoxia impairs spermatogenesis and reduces sperm motility. However, it is unclear whether paternal hypoxic exposure affects fertilization and early embryo development. In the present study, we exposed male mice to high altitude (3200 m above sea level) for 7 or 60 days to evaluate the effects of hypoxia on sperm quality, zygotic DNA methylation and blastocyst formation. Compared with age-matched controls, hypoxia-treated males exhibited reduced fertility after mating with normoxic females as a result of defects in sperm motility and function. Results of in vitro fertilization (IVF) experiments revealed that 60 days’ exposure significantly reduced cleavage and blastocyst rates by 30% and 70%, respectively. Immunohistochemical staining of pronuclear formation indicated that the pronuclear formation process was disturbed and expression of imprinted genes was reduced in early embryos after paternal hypoxia. Overall, the findings of this study suggested that exposing male mice to hypoxia impaired sperm function and affected key events during early embryo development in mammals.
This paper addresses fixed-time trajectory tracking for a dual-arm free-floating space robot (FFSR) with the large initial errors and bounded uncertainty. A wrist-based trajectory planning method is improved by fixed-time stability to fast eliminate the error caused by singularity. Then, a novel low-chattering and global-nonsingular fixed-time terminal sliding mode control strategy is studied by state approaching angle and switching sliding mode; the practical fixed-reachable Lyapunov stability analysis is presented for a mechanical control system. In the end, the proposed trajectory planning method and controller are combined to improve the tracking accuracy of end-effector to the nanoscale. Simulation results validate the effectiveness of the proposed methodologies.
The study was conducted to determine the effects of three dietary Se sources, such as sodium-selenite (S-S), seleno-yeast (S-Y) and seleno-methionine (S-M), on Se concentration, glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and TXNRD activities, and mRNA expression of fifteen representative selenoproteins, and protein expression of four endoplasmic reticulum-resided selenoproteins in a wide range of tissues of yellow catfish. Compared with S-S and S-M groups, dietary S-Y significantly decreased growth performance and feed utilisation of yellow catfish. Dietary Se sources significantly influenced Se contents in the spleen, dorsal muscle and the kidney, GPX activities in spleen, kidney, intestine, muscle and mesenteric fat, and TXNRD activities in the heart, intestine and mesenteric fat. Among ten tested tissues, dietary Se sources influenced mRNA expression of GPX4 and SELENOK in three tissues; GPX3, SELENOS and TXNRD2 in four tissues; SELENOF, SELENON and DIO2 in five tissues; SELENOM, GPX1/2 and TXNRD3 in six tissues; SELENOW in seven tissue and SELENOP and SELENOT in eight tissues. Based on these observations above, S-S and S-M seem to be suitable Se sources for improving growth performance and feed utilisation of yellow catfish. Dietary Se sources differentially influence the expression of selenoproteins in various tissues of yellow catfish. For the first time, we determined the expression of selenoproteins in fish in responses to dietary Se sources, which contributes to a better understanding of the functions and regulatory mechanisms of selenoporteins.
In nature, competing species often achieve coexistence through niche differentiation. We examined this phenomenon for Pachycrepoideus vindemmiae and Spalangia endius (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae), two species of pupal parasitoids that are considered biological control agents of house fly, Musca domestica (Diptera: Muscidae). We examined the ability of each species, alone and in combination, to locate host pupae buried at different depths (0, 1, 2, 4, and 6 cm) in three types of substrate (sand, dry wheat bran, and spent fly diet). We then evaluated the competitiveness of each species by allowing first one species, then the other species, to parasitise host individuals within time periods ranging from less than 2 hours to 96 hours of each other. Spalangia endius exhibited greater ability than did P. vindemmiae to locate host pupae buried at depths below one centimetre. Conversely, P. vindemmiae exhibited a greater competitive ability, being more likely to emerge from pupae co-parasitised by S. endius, regardless of oviposition interval or sequence. Our findings suggest that these two parasitoid species coexist through niche differentiation. Our findings also indicate that to increase the effectiveness of biological control, the environmental conditions and risk of interspecific competition should be considered when selecting parasitoid species for release.
Nowadays, automated essay evaluation (AEE) systems play an important role in evaluating essays and have been successfully used in large-scale writing assessments. However, existing AEE systems mostly focus on grammar or shallow content measurements rather than higher-order traits such as ideas. This paper proposes a new formulation of graph-based features for concept maps using word embeddings to evaluate the quality of ideas for Chinese compositions. The concept map derived from the student’s composition is composed of the concepts appearing in the essay and the co-occurrence relationship between the concepts. By utilizing real compositions written by eighth-grade students from a large-scale assessment, the scoring accuracy of the computer evaluation system (named AECC-I: Automated Evaluation for Chinese Compositions—Ideas) is higher than the baselines. The results indicate that the proposed method deepens the construct-relevant coverage of automatic ideas evaluation in compositions and that it can provide constructive feedback for students.
To examine the association between sleep duration in different stages of life and amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI).
Design, setting, and participants:
A total of 2472 healthy elderly and 505 patients with aMCI in China were included in this study. The study analyzed the association between aMCI and sleep duration in different stages of life.
We compared sleep duration in different stages of life and analyzed the association between Montreal Cognitive Assessment scores and sleep duration by curve estimation. Logistic regression was used to evaluate the association between aMCI and sleep duration.
In the analysis, there were no results proving that sleep duration in youth (P = 0.719, sleep duration < 10 hours; P = 0.999, sleep duration ≥ 10 hours) or midlife (P = 0.898, sleep duration < 9 hours; P = 0.504, sleep duration ≥ 9 hours) had a significant association with aMCI. In the group sleeping less than 7 hours in late life, each hour more of sleep duration was associated with approximately 0.80 of the original risk of aMCI (P = 0.011, odds ratio = 0.80, 95% confidence interval = 0.68–0.95).
Among the elderly sleeping less than 7 hours, there is a decreased risk of aMCI for every additional hour of sleep.
A closed Quaternary saline paleolake, currently still a lake and named Dalangtan after one of its largest sub-basins, has widely distributed sediments in the western Qaidam Basin, NE Tibetan Plateau. Lacustrine salt minerals and fine sediments from this paleolake provide an environmental record for investigating paleoclimatic evolution in the Asian interior. However, detailed continuous Pliocene–Quaternary paleoclimatic records are broadly lacking from the NE Tibetan Plateau owing to poor exposure of the outcrops in section. For this study, we performed a detailed magnetostratigraphic dating and rock magnetic analysis on a 590-m-long core from the SG-5 borehole in the western Qaidam Basin. The results demonstrate that the lacustrine sediments in the SG-5 borehole were deposited more than ~3.0 Ma. Saline minerals began to increase at 1.2 Ma, and the magnetic susceptibility (χ) also changed at that time; the percentage frequency-dependent magnetic susceptibility was relatively low and uniform throughout the whole core. These observations, combined with the χ, pollen, salt ion, and grain-size records from other boreholes, indicate that the western Qaidam Basin and the greater Asian interior had a significant climate transition at 1.2 Ma during an extreme drought.