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Lithospheric thinning occurred in the North China Craton (NCC) that resulted in extensive Mesozoic magmatism, which has provided the opportunity to explore the mechanism of the destruction of the NCC. In this study, new zircon U–Pb ages, geochemical and Lu–Hf isotopic data are presented for Early Cretaceous adakitic rocks in the Liaodong Peninsula, with the aim of establishing their origin as well as the thinning mechanism of the NCC. The zircon U–Pb data show that crystallization occurred during 127–120 Ma (i.e. Early Cretaceous). These rocks are characterized by high Sr (294–711 ppm) content and Sr/Y ratio (38.5–108), low Yb (0.54–1.24 ppm) and Y (4.9–16.4 ppm) contents, and with no obvious Eu anomalies, implying that they are adakitic rocks. They are enriched in large-ion lithophile elements (e.g. Ba, K, Pb and Sr) and depleted in high-field-strength elements (e.g. Nb, Ta, P and Ti). These adakitic rocks have negative zircon ϵHf(t) contents (−28.9 to −15.0) with two-stage Hf model ages (TDM2) of 3004–2131 Ma. Based on the geochemical features, such as low TiO2 and MgO contents, and high La/Yb and K2O/Na2O ratios, these adakites originated from the partial melting of thickened eclogitic lower crust. They were in an extensional setting associated with the slab rollback of the Palaeo-Pacific Ocean. In combination with previous studies, as a result of the rapid retracting of the Palaeo-Pacific Ocean during 130–120 Ma, the asthenosphere upwelled and modified the thickened lithospheric mantle, which lost its stability, resulting in the lithospheric delamination and thinning of the NCC.
There is a lack of evidence related to the prevalence of mental health symptoms as well as their heterogeneities during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic in Latin America, a large area spanning the equator. The current study aims to provide meta-analytical evidence on mental health symptoms during COVID-19 among frontline healthcare workers, general healthcare workers, the general population and university students in Latin America.
Bibliographical databases, such as PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, PsycINFO and medRxiv, were systematically searched to identify pertinent studies up to August 13, 2021. Two coders performed the screening using predefined eligibility criteria. Studies were assigned quality scores using the Mixed Methods Appraisal Tool. The double data extraction method was used to minimise data entry errors.
A total of 62 studies with 196 950 participants in Latin America were identified. The pooled prevalence of anxiety, depression, distress and insomnia was 35%, 35%, 32% and 35%, respectively. There was a higher prevalence of mental health symptoms in South America compared to Central America (36% v. 28%, p < 0.001), in countries speaking Portuguese (40%) v. Spanish (30%). The pooled prevalence of mental health symptoms in the general population, general healthcare workers, frontline healthcare workers and students in Latin America was 37%, 34%, 33% and 45%, respectively.
The high yet heterogenous level of prevalence of mental health symptoms emphasises the need for appropriate identification of psychological interventions in Latin America.
Environmental hypoxia exposure causes fertility problems in human and animals. Compelling evidence suggests that chronic hypoxia impairs spermatogenesis and reduces sperm motility. However, it is unclear whether paternal hypoxic exposure affects fertilization and early embryo development. In the present study, we exposed male mice to high altitude (3200 m above sea level) for 7 or 60 days to evaluate the effects of hypoxia on sperm quality, zygotic DNA methylation and blastocyst formation. Compared with age-matched controls, hypoxia-treated males exhibited reduced fertility after mating with normoxic females as a result of defects in sperm motility and function. Results of in vitro fertilization (IVF) experiments revealed that 60 days’ exposure significantly reduced cleavage and blastocyst rates by 30% and 70%, respectively. Immunohistochemical staining of pronuclear formation indicated that the pronuclear formation process was disturbed and expression of imprinted genes was reduced in early embryos after paternal hypoxia. Overall, the findings of this study suggested that exposing male mice to hypoxia impaired sperm function and affected key events during early embryo development in mammals.
Inflammation might play a role in bipolar disorder (BD), but it remains unclear the relationship between inflammation and brain structural and functional abnormalities in patients with BD. In this study, we focused on the alterations of functional connectivity (FC), peripheral pro-inflammatory cytokines and their correlations to investigate the role of inflammation in FC in BD depression.
In this study, 42 unmedicated patients with BD II depression and 62 healthy controls (HCs) were enrolled. Resting-state-functional magnetic resonance imaging was performed in all participants and independent component analysis was used. Serum levels of Interleukin-6 (IL-6) and Interleukin-8 (IL-8) were measured in all participants. Correlation between FC values and IL-6 and IL-8 levels in BD was calculated.
Compared with the HCs, BD II patients showed decreased FC in the left orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) implicating the limbic network and the right precentral gyrus implicating the somatomotor network. BD II showed increased IL-6 (p = 0.039), IL-8 (p = 0.002) levels. Moreover, abnormal FC in the right precentral gyrus were inversely correlated with the IL-8 (r = −0.458, p = 0.004) levels in BD II. No significant correlation was found between FC in the left OFC and cytokines levels.
Our findings that serum IL-8 levels are associated with impaired FC in the right precentral gyrus in BD II patients suggest that inflammation might play a crucial role in brain functional abnormalities in BD.
Volcanic tuffs are important in determining the stratigraphic age of sedimentary sequences, which is closely related to the tectonic, sedimentological, geomorphological, palaeoclimatic, and palaeo-ecological evolution of the sequences. However, it may be difficult practically to identify tuffs in stratigraphic sections, especially when they are altered after deposition. In this study, a series of petrographic, mineralogical, and geochemical analyses was deployed in the tuff layers cropping out in the Lunpola Basin of the central Tibetan Plateau, which is a crucial site for studying the dynamics and processes of the Cenozoic uplift of the Tibetan Plateau and its environmental impacts. In these pyroclastic layers, authigenic analcime is the main volcanic glass alteration product. The analcime-bearing samples are Na-enriched, in contrast to the K-abundant magmatic rocks in the central Tibetan Plateau. The distribution patterns of the rare earth elements (REEs) of the bulk analcime-bearing samples are similar to those of the magmatic rocks but different from those of the analcime-poor sediments and analogues of well-mixed upper continental material (e.g. the upper continental crust and post-Archaean Australian average shales). The distinct distributions of Na and REEs among analcime-bearing samples, analcime-poor sediments, and volcanic rocks reveal that analcime formed both from alteration of volcanic material and from mixing processes with non-volcanic sediments. It is proposed, therefore, that the discrimination plot of Na2O/Al2O3-(La/Yb)N may be used to distinguish the analcime-related pyroclastic rocks from the basin sedimentary sequence, and thus it may provide a means of discriminating between various volcanic material and of supporting age dating by tephrochronology in the central Tibetan Plateau.
Rare earth elements (REE) in marine minerals have been widely used as proxies for the redox status of depositional and/or diagenetic environments. Phosphate nodules, which are thought to grow within decimetres below the sediment–water interface and to be able to scavenge REE from the ambient pore water, are potential archives of subtle changes in REE compositions. Whether their REE signals represent specific redox conditions or they can be used to track the overlying water chemistry is worth exploring. Through in situ laser ablation – inductively coupled plasma – mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS), we investigate the REE compositions of a drill-core-preserved phosphate nodule from the lower Cambrian Niutitang Formation in the Daotuo area, northeastern Guizhou Province, South China. REE distributions of the nodule show concentric layers with systematic decreases in Ce anomalies (Ce/Ce*) from the core to the rim. The lowest Ce/Ce* appears in the outer rim where REE concentrations are relatively high. These results are interpreted to reflect REE exchange with pore water at a very early stage or bathymetric variation during apatite precipitation. The origin of the shale-normalized middle REE (MREE) enrichment in our sample is less constrained. Possible driving factors include preferential MREE substitution for Ca in the apatite lattice, degradation of organic matter and deposition beneath a ferruginous zone. Although speculative, the last possibility is consistent with the chemically stratified model for early Cambrian oceans, in which dynamic fluctuations of the chemocline provided an ideal depositional context for phosphogenesis.
The association of atrioventricular septal defect and transposition of the great arteries is very rare. As a rule, these patients have unbalanced ventricles. However, there have been no studies describing the results of single-ventricle palliation in these children.
All children who underwent surgery with a diagnosis of atrioventricular septal defect and transposition of the great arteries were included in the study. Data were obtained from medical records.
A total of 38 patients with atrioventricular septal defect and transposition of the great arteries underwent single-ventricle palliation at the study institution between 1971 and 2016. The mean follow-up was 12.4 years (median: 14.6 years, range 2–43.3 years). Most children had unbalanced atrioventricular septal defect (94.7%, 36/38). Survival was 67.6% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 50.0–80.2%) at 10 years and 57.8% (95% CI: 38.0–73.4%) at 20 years. By 10 years, 58.6% (95% CI: 40.8–72.7%) had progressed to Fontan completion, while 32.5% (95% CI: 18.2–47.6%) had died. In patients achieving Fontan completion, 20-year event-free survival was 73.3% (95% CI: 34.8–91.3%), while 5.0% (95% CI: 0.4–20.5%) had undergone cardiac transplantation and 21.7% (95% CI: 3.2–50.8%) had undergone takedown of the Fontan circulation. Freedom from atrioventricular valve surgery was 57.0% (95% CI: 37.2–72.7%) at 10 and 20 years.
The association of atrioventricular septal defect and transposition of the great arteries is very rare, and most of these children have unbalanced ventricles. Single-ventricle palliation results in 25-year overall survival of 50%. However, in patients, who had Fontan completion, survival was 75% at 25 years after Fontan operation.
The microbiota–gut–brain axis, especially the microbial tryptophan (Trp) biosynthesis and metabolism pathway (MiTBamp), may play a critical role in the pathogenesis of major depressive disorder (MDD). However, studies on the MiTBamp in MDD are lacking. The aim of the present study was to analyze the gut microbiota composition and the MiTBamp in MDD patients.
We performed shotgun metagenomic sequencing of stool samples from 26 MDD patients and 29 healthy controls (HCs). In addition to the microbiota community and the MiTBamp analyses, we also built a classification based on the Random Forests (RF) and Boruta algorithm to identify the gut microbiota as biomarkers for MDD.
The Bacteroidetes abundance was strongly reduced whereas that of Actinobacteria was significantly increased in the MDD patients compared with the abundance in the HCs. Most noteworthy, the MDD patients had increased levels of Bifidobacterium, which is commonly used as a probiotic. Four Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) orthologies (KOs) (K01817, K11358, K01626, K01667) abundances in the MiTBamp were significantly lower in the MDD group. Furthermore, we found a negative correlation between the K01626 abundance and the HAMD scores in the MDD group. Finally, RF classification at the genus level can achieve an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.890.
The present findings enabled a better understanding of the changes in gut microbiota and the related Trp pathway in MDD. Alterations of the gut microbiota may have the potential as biomarkers for distinguishing MDD patients form HCs.
The Sichuan–Yunnan–Guizhou (SYG) Pb–Zn metallogenic province is one of the most productive areas of Pb–Zn resources in China. The Fule deposit occurs in Permian carbonate and contains Pb–Zn reserves exceeding 1 Mt. To investigate the sulphur source, in situ S isotopic analysis of sphalerite and pyrite was carried out using nanoscale secondary-ion mass spectrometry. The results show that the δ34S values of the sulphide minerals range from +16.1‰ to +23.0‰, higher than that of marine sulphates hosted in Permian carbonate rocks (+11‰), but similar to that of sulphates over a broader area (+12.9‰ to +25.9‰). The sulphates in the regional rocks could therefore represent an important source of S for the Fule deposit via thermochemical sulphate reduction. The S source of the Fule deposit is different from those of most other Pb–Zn deposits in the SYG Pb–Zn mineralization province, which were mainly derived from the ore-bearing strata. The δ34S values of the early to late generations and some single sulphide crystals from the cores to rims show a slight increasing trend, implying that partial Rayleigh fractionation took place in the Fule deposit. It is suggested that the Fule sulphide precipitation resulted from the mixing of a metalliferous fluid with a H2S-rich fluid derived from the regional strata. Combining the geology, mineralogy and S isotope results with previous Pb isotope studies, it is suggested that the Fule deposit should be attributed to a Mississippi Valley type deposit.
Paediatric heart transplantation in Australia is centralised at The Royal Children’s Hospital, Melbourne. Survival to adulthood is improving but the ongoing need for complex medical therapy, surveillance, and potential for late complications continues to impact on quality of life. Quality of life in adults who underwent heart transplantation in childhood in Australia has not been assessed.
Cross-sectional quality of life data were collected from paediatric heart transplant survivors >18 years of age using Rand 36-Item Health Survey. Self-reported raw scores were transformed to a 0–100 scale with higher scores indicating better quality of life. Mean scores were compared to National Health Survey Short Form-36 Population Norms data using the independent sample t-test.
A total of 64 patients (64/151) who underwent transplantation at The Royal Children’s Hospital between 1988 and 2016 survived to adulthood. In total 51 patients (51/64, 80%) were alive at the time of the study and 27 (53%) responded with a mean age of 25 ± 6 years, being a median of 11 years (interquartile range 7–19) post-transplantation. Most self-reported quality of life subscale scores were not significantly different from the Australian normative population data. However, self-reported ‘General Health’ was significantly worse than normative data (p = 0.02). Overall, 93% (25/27) reported their general health as being the same or better compared to 1-year ago.
Adult survivors after paediatric heart transplantation in Australia report good quality of life in multiple domains and demonstrate independence in activities of daily living and employment. However, lifelong medical treatment may affect perceptions of general health.
Toxigenic Clostridium difficile (C. difficile) carriers represent an important source in the transmission of C. difficile infection (CDI) during hospitalisation, but its prevalence and mode in patients with hepatic cirrhosis are not well established. We investigated longitudinal changes in carriage rates and strain types of toxigenic C. difficile from admission to discharge among hepatic cirrhosis patients. Toxigenic C. difficile was detected in 104 (19.8%) of 526 hepatic cirrhosis patients on admission, and the carriage status changed in a portion of patients during hospitalisation. Approximately 56% (58/104) of patients lost the colonisation during their hospital stay. Among the remaining 48 patients who remained positive for toxigenic C. difficile, the numbers of patients who were positive at one, two, three and four isolations were 10 (55.6%), three (16.7%), two (11.1%) and three (16.7%), respectively. Twenty-eight patients retained a particular monophyletic strain at multiple isolations. The genotype most frequently identified was the same as that frequently identified in symptomatic CDI patients. A total of 25% (26/104) of patients were diagnosed with CDI during their hospital stay. Conclusions: Colonisation with toxigenic C. difficile strains occurs frequently in cirrhosis patients and is a risk factor for CDI.
We report new field observations, zircon U–Pb ages and geochemical data for the discrete members of the Zhaheba ophiolite complex in northeastern Junggar of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB) with the aim to understand the accretion process of the eastern Junggar terrane. The zircon age data reveal that the cumulates of the Zhaheba ophiolite crystallized at ~485 Ma while the volcanic sequences erupted at ~400 Ma. Thus, the volcanic sequences are not members of the Zhaheba ophiolite. Chromian spinels from the serpentinite have comparable elemental compositions to those of spinels from MORB-type ophiolites. Similarly, the rift affinity of clinopyroxene and positive zircon εHf(t) (13–20) and mantle δ18O (+5.37‰) values of the cumulates imply that the cumulates crystallized from primitive magmas derived from a depleted mantle source. Elemental and Nd isotopic compositions indicate that the basalts in the Zhaheba area were derived from partial melting of a mantle wedge metasomatized by adakitic melts and/or subduction-related fluids. The data presented in this contribution, together with previous studies, indicate that the Zhaheba–Almantai and Kelameili ophiolites were MORB-type, which implies that there were at least two mid-ocean ridges during Ordovician to early Devonian times in the Junggar Ocean. In the earlier stage, intra-oceanic subduction led to the formation of the intra-oceanic arc, and then the Kelameili ophiolite accreted to an intra-oceanic accretionary wedge. In the later stage, the Zhaheba–Almantai ophiolite accreted to the accretionary wedge along the southern margin of the Iritish suture zone during the roll-back of the subduction zone from north to south.
The late Palaeoproterozoic to early Mesoproterozoic igneous rocks of southwestern China are characterized by a number of mafic intrusions and dykes. However, the origin and tectonic implications of these mafic intrusions and dykes remain unclear. The Hekou mafic intrusion, intruding into the Hekou Group in the Hekou area, SW China, is the biggest and most representative one. The intrusion is mainly composed of coarse-grained in the central zone (CZ) and medium- to fine-grained gabbroic rocks in the outer zone (OZ). Cameca secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) U–Pb zircon ages, and geochemical and Nd isotopic results for the intrusion are reported in this paper. SIMS U–Pb zircon ages indicate that the gabbroic rocks from the CZ and OZ were emplaced at 1735±6.5 Ma and 1736±4.0 Ma, respectively. This suggests that the Hekou intrusion originated from c. 1.7 Ga mafic magmatism in the southwestern Yangtze Block. The coarse-grained rocks in the CZ of the intrusion show fairly homogeneous major- and trace-element compositions. In contrast, the medium- to fine-grained rocks from the OZ display slightly evolved compositions, with relatively lower Mg nos, MgO, Al2O3, Cr and Ni contents, and higher SiO2, CaO and Zr concentrations than those of the rocks from the CZ. Although the gabbroic rocks of the intrusion have low total rare earth element (REE) contents (REE = 29.3–40.2 ppm) with slightly light REE (LREE)-enriched and heavy REE (HREE)-depleted patterns, they exhibit distinct trace-element and Nd isotopic features. The rocks from the CZ are characterized by slightly LREE-enriched and ‘convex upwards’ incompatible trace-element patterns with significant Th depletion and insignificant Nb and Ta depletion relative to La. However, the rocks from the OZ have relatively flatter REE patterns than those of the rocks from the CZ. In addition, the rocks from the OZ are slightly enriched in Th and depleted in Nb and Ta relative to La. The εNd(T) values of the CZ and the OZ rocks are +0.70 to +2.3 and −0.30 to +0.24, respectively. The parental magma for the Hekou gabbroic intrusion exhibits affinity with a subalkaline basaltic magma, which was possibly generated by relatively high degrees of partial melting of a slightly depleted asthenospheric mantle source. Their geochemical and isotopic variations were due to slight crystal fractionation with varying degrees of crustal contamination. The Hekou intrusion was therefore supposed to form in an anorogenic extensional environment. It is further suggested that c. 1.7 Ga is an important onset timing of widespread anorogenic magmatism in the southwestern Yangtze Block. We interpret the late Palaeoproterozoic gabbroic intrusion to represent anorogenic mafic magmatism, which was most likely related to the break-up of the Columbia supercontinent.
From November 24 to December 10, 2013, the Chinese People’s Liberation Army Navy [PLA(N)] hospital ship Peace Ark was deployed to the Leyte Gulf in the Philippines to provide humanitarian medical relief in Tacloban after Typhoon Haiyan. The purpose of this study was to assess the radiological services aboard the ship to provide guidance for future missions.
A retrospective review was performed on a cohort of 109 patients who underwent digital radiography (DR) and 59 patients who underwent computed tomography (CT) scans during a 16-day period during a humanitarian medical relief mission to the Philippines. Patient demographics, DR findings, and CT findings were analyzed.
The mean age of the 109 DR patients was 39.7 years for the 64 males and 43.7 years for the 45 females. A total of 148 DR examinations were performed of the chest (n=109), extremities (n=35), and spine (n=4). The mean age of the 59 CT patients was 43.8 years for the 32 males and 49.1 years for the 27 females. A total of 72 CT scans were performed of the head and neck (n=36), thorax (n=24), abdomen (n=5), spine (n=4), and extremities (n=3). The imaging findings mainly included disaster-related and non-disaster-related fractures, pulmonary tuberculosis, pulmonary infection, acute brain infarction, intracranial hematoma, and occupying lesions.
Analysis of radiological services during a humanitarian medical relief mission to the Philippines provided meaningful information for future humanitarian medical relief missions. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2016;10:16–19)
A joint diagnostic system was established for the diagnosis of laser-driven shock wave experiments. The system has high temporal resolution (time resolution ~12 ps) and high spatial resolution (spatial resolution ~7 μm) and fits for diagnostics of the experiment with small sample size and short time physical process. The joint diagnostic system was applied for shock wave measurement on the Shenguang-II laser facility. The passive shock breakout signal and active diagnostic signal were simultaneously obtained. The temporal measurement reliability of the system was verified using a multi-layered target. The experimental results show that the two measurement results were consistent.
The relationship between recurrent major depression (MD) in women and suicidality is complex. We investigated the extent to which patients who suffered with various forms of suicidal symptomatology can be distinguished from those subjects without such symptoms.
We examined the clinical features of the worst episode in 1970 Han Chinese women with recurrent DSM-IV MD between the ages of 30 and 60 years from across China. Student's t tests, and logistic and multiple logistic regression models were used to determine the association between suicidality and other clinical features of MD.
Suicidal symptomatology is significantly associated with a more severe form of MD, as indexed by both the number of episodes and number of MD symptoms. Patients reporting suicidal thoughts, plans or attempts experienced a significantly greater number of stressful life events. The depressive symptom most strongly associated with lifetime suicide attempt was feelings of worthlessness (odds ratio 4.25, 95% confidence interval 2.9–6.3). Excessive guilt, diminished concentration and impaired decision-making were also significantly associated with a suicide attempt.
This study contributes to the existing literature on risk factors for suicidal symptomatology in depressed women. Identifying specific depressive symptoms and co-morbid psychiatric disorders may help improve the clinical assessment of suicide risk in depressed patients. These findings could be helpful in identifying those who need more intense treatment strategies in order to prevent suicide.
All clinically-approved and many novel gadolinium (Gd)-based contrast agents used to enhance signal intensity in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are optically silent. To verify MRI results, a “gold standard” that can map and quantify Gd down to the parts per million (ppm) levels is required. Nuclear microscopy is a relatively new technique that has this capability and is composed of a combination of three ion beam techniques: scanning transmission ion microscopy, Rutherford backscattering spectrometry, and particle induced X-ray emission used in conjunction with a high energy proton microprobe. In this proof-of-concept study, we show that in diseased aortic vessel walls obtained at 2 and 4 h after intravenous injection of the myeloperoxidase-senstitive MRI agent, bis-5-hydroxytryptamide-diethylenetriamine-pentaacetate gadolinium, there was a time-dependant Gd clearance (2 h = 18.86 ppm, 4 h = 8.65 ppm). As expected, the control animal, injected with the clinically-approved conventional agent diethylenetriamine-pentaacetate gadolinium and sacrificed 1 week after injection, revealed no significant residual Gd in the tissue. Similar to known in vivo Gd pharmacokinetics, we found that Gd concentration dropped by a factor of 2 in vessel wall tissue in 1.64 h. Further high-resolution studies revealed that Gd was relatively uniformly distributed, consistent with random agent diffusion. We conclude that nuclear microscopy is potentially very useful for validation studies involving Gd-based magnetic resonance contrast agents.
Li2M(WO4)2 (M = Co and Ni) were synthesized by a conventional solid-state reaction method and characterized by powder x-ray diffraction, Brunauer-Emmet-Teller (BET) measurement, ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) diffuse reflectance spectra, Raman spectroscopy, and photocatalytic evaluation measurements. Photocatalytic water splitting results showed that Li2M(WO4)2 (M = Co and Ni) exhibited abilities for H2 evolution with Pt cocatalyst from an aqueous methanol solution and for O2 evolution from an aqueous AgNO3 solution under UV light irradiation. Theoretical calculation, absorbance analysis, and photocatalytic H2 evolution experiment revealed that the position of W 5d level shifted to the negative side with respect to the reduced potential of H+/H2. The photocatalytic H2 evolution over Li2M(WO4)2 is discussed from the view of crystal and electronic structure point.
To research the protective effect of melatonin against gentamicin ototoxicity.
Guinea pigs were randomly divided into four groups. The first group received intramuscular gentamicin (120 mg/kg body weight/day) for 17 days. Over the same time period, a second group simultaneously received intramuscular gentamicin (120 mg/kg body weight/day) plus (on the other side) intramuscular melatonin (0.3 ml kg body weight/day). Two groups of controls were treated for 17 days with either intramuscular melatonin or intramuscular saline. After the 17 days, each animal underwent distortion product otoacoustic emission testing (both ears). The guinea pigs were sacrificed by decapitation just after the final injection. Their cochleae were used to produce a tissue section, surface preparation and scanning electron microscope preparation.
Distortion product otoacoustic emission testing indicated gentamicin-induced hearing loss at 3, 4, 6 and 8 kHz in gentamicin-treated animals. Animals receiving melatonin co-therapy had significantly attenuated hearing loss and their cochleae showed lower rates of outer hair cell loss (comparing the same cochlear turns), compared with gentamicin-treated animals (p < 0.01).
These findings confirm the occurrence of outer hair cell loss after gentamicin treatment, and the attenuation of such loss following simultaneous melatonin injection, using the method of morphological evaluation. These results suggest that melatonin protects against gentamicin ototoxicity by interfering with cytotoxic mechanisms.
Magnetron sputter deposition of Ge2Sb2Te5 film is presented. Good thermal control of the wafer is found critical for maintaining process repeatability. In-situ wafer heating conditions have strong impact on as-deposited Ge2Sb2Te5 film properties such as resistivity, density, stress, composition, and microstructure. The effects of wafer bias and sputtering pressure are also discussed.