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The basal ganglia represents a key component of the pathophysiological model for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). This brain region is part of several neural circuits, including the orbitofronto-striatal circuit and dorsolateral prefronto-striatal circuit. There are, however, no published studies investigating those circuits at a network level in non-medicated patients with OCD. Resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging scans were obtained from 20 non-medicated patients with OCD and 23 matched healthy volunteers. Voxelwise statistical parametric maps testing strength of functional connectivity of three striatal seed regions of interest (ROIs) with remaining brain regions were calculated and compared between groups. We performed additional correlation analyses between strength of connectivity and the severity scores for obsessive-compulsive symptoms, depression, and anxiety in the OCD group. Positive functional connectivity with the ventral striatum was significantly increased (Pcorrected <.05) in the orbitofrontal cortex, ventral medial prefrontal cortex and dorsal lateral prefrontal cortex of subjects with OCD. There was no significant correlation between measures of symptom severity and the strength of connectivity (Puncorrected <.001). This is the first study to investigate the corticostriatal connectivity in non-medicated patients with OCD. These findings provide the first direct evidence supporting a pathophysiological model involving basal ganglia circuitry in OCD.
There is paucity of published literature on antidepressants in a cost-consequence study design.
Measuring clinical outcomes of pharmacotherapy.
Costs and consequences determination in depressive episode acute medical care.
Cost-consequence analysis;Setting-Serbian tertiary university clinic(2010-2012). Patient visits to attending psychiatrists:baseline, 3,8 weeks. HDRS-17 and Q-LES-Q-SF scale were applied in each of control visits. Resource use patterns and costs were evidenced for up to 14 weeks from study entry. Micro-costing approach allowed for most direct and indirect costs measurement. Costs were expressed in national currency-Central Serbian Dinar(1€≈115.85CSD;2012). Societal perspective and 14 weeks time horizon were adopted. Random selection of 65 depressive patients was based on clinical criteria and their assignment to either one of three different treatment protocols.5 patients were lost to follow up.
There was no statistically significant difference in terms of therapeutic response by the HDRS scores before and after introducing treatment groups(χ2=4.339; ?=0.362). QALY value increased by 11.77(SSRI group);8.93(SNRI)and 12.54 (heterocyclics). Mean cost per QALY was 9,937.51 CSD for SSRI; 7,138.27 CSD in SNRI; and 6,164.96 CSD for heterocyclics. There were 28.69 depression with free days in SSRI, 21.78 days in SNRI, and 30.59 days in heterocyclic group. Cost-effectiveness assessment was was 346.38 CSD per day(SSRI); 327.74 CSD(SNRI), and 201.54 CSD(heterocyclics).
Heterocyclic antidepressants provide highest'value for money' in terms of QALY in depressive episode treatment and its treatment is most cost effective. Cost-consequence evaluations have heavier impact to clinical decision making with regards to major depressive disorder treatment in the absence of clear clinical superiority of any major pharmacological protocol.
Reduced white matter integrity in the corpus callosum (CC) has been reported in treatment-resistant depression (TRD). rTMS is assumed to have remote effect on interconnected area with the stimulation site, and this effect is speculated to be one of the therapeutic mechanisms of rTMS treatment. In this preliminary study, we examined changes of callosal fiber integrity in 5 segments of the CC before and after rTMS treatment for TRD.
The subjects were 2 patients with treatment-resistant unipolar depression and 1 patient with treatment-resistant bipolar depression, and 24 healthy controls (HC group). The patients underwent 4-week high frequency rTMS to their left DLPFC. In diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) tractography, the CC was divided into 5 segments (orbital, frontal, parietal, temporal, and occipital) based on their cortical projection zones, and fractional anisotropy (FA) value of each segment was estimated. We compared FA in the CC between the patients and the HC groups, and examined changes of FA in the CC after rTMS treatment in the patients.
The patients showed reduced FA in the frontal, parietal, temporal, and occipital-callosal segments compared to the HC group. All patients responded to the rTMS treatment, and FA in the orbital, frontal, parietal, temporal-callosal segments increased after the rTMS treatment.
Our results suggest that white matter integrity in the CC is reduced in TRD and that increased white matter integrity in the CC might be related with the therapeutic mechanisms of rTMS treatment.
In bipolar disorder (BD), reduced white matter (WM) integrity in the corpus callosum has been reported, but its detailed localization difference has not been clarified. In this study, we examined fiber integrity in 7 segments of the corpus callosum and their relationships with clinical symptoms in BD.
Patients with BD (BD group, n = 17) and age-matched healthy controls (HC group, n = 24) were examined using diffusion tensor imaging tractography. The corpus callosum was divided into 7 segments (orbital frontal, anterior frontal, superior frontal, superior parietal, posterior parietal, temporal, and occipital) based on their cortical projection zones, and fractional anisotropy (FA) value of each segment was estimated. Differences in FA of each segment between the groups were examined using ANOVA with repeated measures. Correlations between FA of each segment and clinical symptoms (HAM-D, YMRS) were assessed using Spearman's rank correlation test in the BD group.
The BD group showed reduced FA in the orbital frontal, superior frontal, and posterior parietal-callosal segments compared to the HC group. In addition, the BD group showed a significant negative correlation between FA in the orbital frontal-callosal segment and HAM-D scores.
Our results suggest that WM integrity in the anterior part of the corpus callosum is reduced in BD and that orbital frontal-callosal disintegrity may be related with severity of bipolar depression.
The increasing number of dementia is of major public health concern. This study aims to calculate the projected number and prevalence of dementia in Japan, using data from the Toyama Dementia Survey.
The Toyama Dementia Survey was conducted 6 times in 1983, 1985, 1990, 1996, 2001, and 2014. In the 2014 survey, the subjects were randomly chosen from residents aged 65 or more in Toyama prefecture, with a sampling rate of 0.5%. Of those, 1303 men and women agreed to participate (participation rate: 84.8%). An interview with a screening questionnaire was conducted by public health nurses. Psychiatrists and public health nurses further investigated for the suspected cases of dementia and diagnosed whether the cases had dementia. The 1985–2001 surveys were conducted in a similar way, and, therefore, data from the 1985–2014 surveys were used in the analysis.
The prevalence of dementia in Toyama prefecture increased from 4.7% in 1985 to 15.7% in 2014. Using the age and sex-specific prevalence of dementia in the 2014 survey, the projected number of dementia is approximately 4.8 million (prevalence rate: 14.1%) in 2015, 6.1 million (16.7%) in 2025, and 7.2 million (19.2%) in 2035. Using the age and sex-specific prevalence of dementia as estimated by linear regression models, the projected number of dementia is approximately 4.7 million (13.9%) in 2015, 7.1 million (19.5%) in 2025, and 9.7 million (25.8%) in 2035.
The number of dementia in Japan could double in the next 20 years, which corresponds to 1 in 4 elderly people.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
Measurements in the infrared wavelength domain allow direct assessment of the physical state and energy balance of cool matter in space, enabling the detailed study of the processes that govern the formation and evolution of stars and planetary systems in galaxies over cosmic time. Previous infrared missions revealed a great deal about the obscured Universe, but were hampered by limited sensitivity.
SPICA takes the next step in infrared observational capability by combining a large 2.5-meter diameter telescope, cooled to below 8 K, with instruments employing ultra-sensitive detectors. A combination of passive cooling and mechanical coolers will be used to cool both the telescope and the instruments. With mechanical coolers the mission lifetime is not limited by the supply of cryogen. With the combination of low telescope background and instruments with state-of-the-art detectors SPICA provides a huge advance on the capabilities of previous missions.
SPICA instruments offer spectral resolving power ranging from R ~50 through 11 000 in the 17–230 μm domain and R ~28.000 spectroscopy between 12 and 18 μm. SPICA will provide efficient 30–37 μm broad band mapping, and small field spectroscopic and polarimetric imaging at 100, 200 and 350 μm. SPICA will provide infrared spectroscopy with an unprecedented sensitivity of ~5 × 10−20 W m−2 (5σ/1 h)—over two orders of magnitude improvement over what earlier missions. This exceptional performance leap, will open entirely new domains in infrared astronomy; galaxy evolution and metal production over cosmic time, dust formation and evolution from very early epochs onwards, the formation history of planetary systems.
Smectites in the montmorillonite-beidellite pseudo-binary system were synthesized from glass at the hydrothermal conditions 100 MPa and 250–500°C. Products were analysed by X-ray powder diffraction for randomly oriented and glycolated samples, and also according to the Greene-Kelly test. A new mixed-layer mineral consisting of regularly interstratified montmorillonite-beidellite was found below 400°C for M50B50 composition, where M and B denote the compositions of ideal Na-montmorillonite and Na-beidellite, respectively. Montmorillonite was obtained as a single phase below 375°C in the composition range from M100B0 to M78B22. Above 375°C, montmorillonite decomposed into an assemblage of beidellite, saponite and a silica mineral. Beidellite as a single phase was synthesized below 400°C for M0B100 composition. Above 450°C, Na-rectorite (regularly interstratified paragonite-beidellite), Mg-free dioctahedral smectite and/or Mg-rich trioctahedral smectite appeared together with silica minerals. These smectites showed the same swelling behaviour as that of montmorillonite. Phase relations in the montmorillonite-beidellite pseudo-binary system indicate no complete solid-solution series.
Aspidolite, the Na analogue of phlogopite, ideally NaMg3AlSi3O10(OH)2, occurring in hornfels from a contact aureole in Kasuga-mura, central Japan, has been approved as a mica species by the Commission on New Minerals and Mineral Names of the International Mineralogical Association. Aspidolite is interleaved with and surrounded by phlogopite. Based on its mode of occurrence, phlogopite is classified into two types; (1) phlogopite interleaved with aspidolite (= interleaved phlogopite) and (2) phlogopite rim. The aspidolite-phlogopite assemblage is associated with amphibole (pargasite-magnesiosadanagaite), titanite, calcite, scapolite, apatite, pyrrhotite and chalcopyrite. A representative chemical formula of aspidolite is (Na0.90K0.10)∑1.00(Mg2.27Al0.41Fe0.232+Ti0.05)∑2.96 (Al1.44Si2.56)∑4.00O10(OH1.97F0.03)∑2.00. Aspidolite has almost fully occupied the interlayer site; its Na/(Na+K) ratio ranges from 0.67 to 0.95. It has more tetrahedral Al (1.38—1.48 a.p.f.u. for O = 11) than the ideal aspidolite end-member showing progression of tschermakite-type substitution. The alternation of aspidolite and phlogopite parallel to the (001) plane may indicate a miscibility gap between these two phases. The phlogopite rim is interpreted as a later product, probably formed metasomatically. Aspidolite is optically biaxial negative with elongation positive and Z ‖ cleavage. Two polytypes (1M and 1A) of aspidolite were identified in X-ray powder diffraction patterns. Aspidolite-1M is monoclinic, space group C2/m, with refined unit-cell parameters a = 5.291(8), b = 9.16(2), c = 10.12(2) Å, β = 105.1(1)°, V = 473(1) Å3, Z = 2. Aspidolite-1A is triclinic, space group C, with a = 5.289(6), b = 9.16(1), c = 9.892(9) Å, α = 94.45(9), β = 97.74(9), γ = 90.0(1)°, V = 473.4(9) Å3, Z = 2.
IR spectroscopy in the range 12–230 μm with the SPace IR telescope for Cosmology and Astrophysics (SPICA) will reveal the physical processes governing the formation and evolution of galaxies and black holes through cosmic time, bridging the gap between the James Webb Space Telescope and the upcoming Extremely Large Telescopes at shorter wavelengths and the Atacama Large Millimeter Array at longer wavelengths. The SPICA, with its 2.5-m telescope actively cooled to below 8 K, will obtain the first spectroscopic determination, in the mid-IR rest-frame, of both the star-formation rate and black hole accretion rate histories of galaxies, reaching lookback times of 12 Gyr, for large statistically significant samples. Densities, temperatures, radiation fields, and gas-phase metallicities will be measured in dust-obscured galaxies and active galactic nuclei, sampling a large range in mass and luminosity, from faint local dwarf galaxies to luminous quasars in the distant Universe. Active galactic nuclei and starburst feedback and feeding mechanisms in distant galaxies will be uncovered through detailed measurements of molecular and atomic line profiles. The SPICA’s large-area deep spectrophotometric surveys will provide mid-IR spectra and continuum fluxes for unbiased samples of tens of thousands of galaxies, out to redshifts of z ~ 6.
In order to investigate the distinguishability about the progenitors of FeCCSNe and ECSNe, we calculate the luminosities and spectra of their pre-SN neutrinos and estimate the number of events at neutrino detectors.
It is now firmly established that a small anisotropy of the galactic cosmic rays exists, observable from Earth as a variation of intensity in sidereal time. The problem now is to determine more clearly the characteristics of the anisotropy and, in particular, its detailed spatial structure and how it depends upon the energy and composition of the cosmic rays. This is a very difficult task and, in the final analysis, may not be fully achievable from Earth-based observations. The purpose of the present paper is to describe briefly an installation now operating in Tasmania to provide further information on the spatial structure of the anisotropy.
Here we discuss requirements for high performance and solution processable organic semiconductors, by presenting a systematic investigation of 7-alkyl-2-phenylbenzothieno[3,2-b]benzothiophenes (Ph-BTBT-Cn’s). We found that the solubility and thermal properties of Ph-BTBT-Cn’s depend systematically on the substituted alkyl-chain length n. The observed features are well understood in terms of the change of molecular packing motif with n: The compounds with n ≤ 4 do not form independent alkyl chain layers, whereas those with n ≥ 5 form isolated alkyl chain layers. The latter compounds afford a series of isomorphous bilayer-type crystal structures that form two-dimensional carrier transport layers within the crystals. We also show that the Ph-BTBT-C10 afford high performance single-crystalline field-effect transistors the mobility of which reaches as high as 15.9 cm2/Vs. These results demonstrate a crucial role of the substituted alkyl chain length for obtaining high performance organic semiconductors and field-effect transistors.
Elements consistent with a cell mediated immune response were identified immunohistochemically in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) spinal cord and Alzheimer disease (AD) hippocampus. T helper/inducer and cytotoxic/suppressor lymphocytes were detected in affected tissues in both diseases. In addition, abundant reactive microglia were found expressing the major histocompatibility glycoproteins HLA-A,B,C and HLA-DR, as well as receptors for the Fc chain (Fcyγl), for complement 3 and 4, and for vitronectin. In AD, the complement proteins Clq, C4d, C3d and C5b-9 were found on dystrophic neurites, neuropile threads and some neurofibrillary tangles. In ALS, the only complement proteins identified were C4d and C3d. The integrin ligands vitronectin and ICAM-1 were also identified in affected tissues in both diseases.
The correlation of stress in Silicon Carbide (SiC) crystal and frequency shift in micro- Raman spectroscopy was determined by an experimental method. We applied uniaxial stress to 4H- and 6H-SiC single crystal square bar specimen shaped with (0001) and (11-20) faces by four point bending test, under measuring the frequency shift in micro-Raman spectroscopy. The results revealed that the linearity coefficients between stress and Raman shift were -1.96 cm-1/GPa for FTO(2/4)E2 on 4H-SiC (0001) face, -2.08 cm-1/GPa for FTO(2/4)E2 on 4H-SiC (11-20) face and -2.70 cm-1/GPa for FTO(2/6)E2 on 6H-SiC (0001) face. Determination of these coefficients has made it possible to evaluate the residual stress in SiC crystal quantitatively by micro-Raman spectroscopy. We evaluated the residual stress in SiC substrate that was grown in our laboratory by utilizing the results obtained in this study. The result of estimation indicated that the SiC substrate with a diameter of 6 inch remained residual stress as low as ±15 MPa.
To study the nature of Lyα blobs (aka LABs), we conduct a deep C IV and He II narrowband imaging survey of 13 Lyα blobs located in SSA22 proto-cluster at z ~ 3.1. We reach the unprecedented sensitivity, 5σ surface brightness limit of 2.1 − 3.4 × 10−18 erg s−1 cm−2 arcsec−2 per 1 arcsec2 aperture for two emission lines. We do not detect any extended C IV and He II emission, placing strong upper limits on the He II/Lyα and C IV/Lyα line ratios. We compare our limits with data in the literature related to the nebulae associated with high-redshift radio galaxies (HzRGs) and quasars, and we recover the data by modeling the LABs as nebulosities powered by a central QSO. For further information see Arrigoni Battaia et al. (2014).
Intrauterine growth-restricted (IUGR) offspring are at increased risk of adult obesity, as a result of changes in energy balance mechanisms. We hypothesized that impairment of hypothalamic insulin signaling contributes to hyperphagia in IUGR offspring. Study pregnant dams were 50% food restricted from days 10 to 21 to create IUGR newborns. At 5 weeks of age, food intake was measured following intracerebroventricular (icv) injection of vehicle or insulin (10 mU) in control and IUGR pups. At 6 weeks of age, with pups in fed or fasted (48 h) states, pups received icv vehicle or insulin after which they were decapitated, and hypothalamic arcuate (ARC) nucleus dissected for RNA and protein expression. IUGR rats consumed more food than controls under basal conditions, consistent with upregulated ARC phospho AMP-activated protein kinase (pAMPK) and neuropeptide Y (NPY). Insulin acutely reduced food intake in both control and IUGR rats. Consistent with anorexigenic stimulation, central insulin decreased AMP-activated protein kinase and NPY mRNA expression and increased proopiomelanocortin mRNA expression and pAkt, with significantly reduced responses in IUGR as compared with controls. Despite feeding, IUGR offspring exhibit a persistent state of orexigenic stimulation in the ARC nucleus and relative resistance to the anorexigenic effects of icv insulin. These results suggest that impaired insulin signaling contributes to hyperphagia and obesity in IUGR offspring.