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The aim of the present study is to develop a relatively simple flight dynamic model which should have the ability to analyse trim, stability and response characteristics of a rotorcraft under various manoeuvring conditions. This study further addresses the influence of numerical aspects of perturbation step size in linearised model identification and integration timestep on non-linear model response. In addition, the effects of inflow models on the non-linear response are analysed. A new updated Drees inflow model is proposed in this study and the applicability of this model in rotorcraft flight dynamics is studied. It is noted that the updated Drees inflow model predicts the control response characteristics fairly close to control response characteristics obtained using dynamic inflow for a wide range of flight conditions such as hover, forward flight and recovery from steady level turn. A comparison is shown between flight test data, the control response obtained from the simple flight dynamic model, and the response obtained using a more detailed aeroelastic and flight dynamic model.
To validate the ovine model of profound oropharyngeal dysphagia and compare swallowing outcomes of laryngotracheal separation with those of total laryngectomy.
Under real-time fluoroscopy, swallowing trials were conducted using the head and neck of two Dorper cross ewes and one human cadaver, secured in lateral fluoroscopic orientation. Barium trials were administered at baseline, pre- and post-laryngohyoid suspension, following laryngotracheal separation, and following laryngectomy in the ovine model.
Mean pre-intervention Penetration Aspiration Scale and National Institutes of Health Swallow Safety Scale scores were 8 ± 0 and 6 ± 0 respectively in sheep and human cadavers, with 100 per cent intra- and inter-species reproducibility. These scores improved to 1 ± 0 and 2 ± 0 post-laryngohyoid suspension (p < 0.01). Aerodigestive tract residue was 18.6 ± 2.4 ml at baseline, 15.4 ± 3.8 ml after laryngotracheal separation and 3.0 ± 0.7 ml after total laryngectomy (p < 0.001).
The ovine model displayed perfect intra- and inter- species reliability for the Penetration Aspiration Scale and Swallow Safety Scale. Less aerodigestive tract residue after narrow-field laryngectomy suggests that swallowing outcomes after total laryngectomy are superior to those after laryngotracheal separation.
Cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), is a serious pest of several crops throughout the world, representing millions of United States of America dollars worth of damage. This pest can adapt to various cropping systems in a wide geographical range and has high migratory potential. It features high fecundity and can develop resistance to almost all insecticides used for its management. Several investigations to develop microsatellite markers for H. armigera have not been successful because of the paucity of microsatellites in the lepidopteran genome. As well, collections of H. armigera from cotton fields of southern and western India were not yet studied for molecular genetic diversity. The current study aimed to screen publicly available expressed sequence tag resources for simple sequence repeats and assess their potential as DNA markers for assessment of gene flow between collections of southern and western India. We identified 30 polymorphic microsatellites for potential use in diversity analysis of H. armigera collections. Genetic diversity analysis revealed that the collections were widely diverse with population differentiation index (Fst) of 0.17. Furthermore, gene flow analysis revealed a mean frequency of private alleles of 11% within the collections. The microsatellite resources we developed could be widely used for molecular diversity or population genetic research involving this important pest of cotton and food crops.
The presence of pneumococcal capsular antigen (PCA) in the oropharynx was sought in subjects without respiratory tract infection. Saliva specimens from 239 subjects were analysed by counter-current immunoelectrophoresis using ‘Omni-serum’. 15.5% gave positive reactions but only 24% of positive samples were typable and therefore due to pneumococcal or pneumococcal-like antigens. Given that oropharyngeal production of antigens occurs we investigated whether PCA in expectorated sputum arose from oropharyngeal contamination. Sixteen patients with pneumococcal pneumonia, and with sputum positive for PCA, were investigated in detail. On the basis of serotyping and concentration the PCA in sputum was thought to arise from the lower respiratory tract in all cases. This was confirmed by a simple, novel approach involving the comparison of concentrations in concomitant samples of saliva and sputum. Thus while oropharyngeal production of antigens poses a potential diagnostic problem the latter approach can be used to exclude contamination.
In this paper we report the growth of ZnO nanowires (12-60 nm) and nanorods (500 nm) by a method of Catalysis Free Direct Vapor Phase (DVP) technique. The nanowires were grown on c-Al2O3 and pulsed laser deposited ZnO nucleation layer on Al2O3 substrates at 800 °C without employing any metal catalysts that are conventionally used in MOCVD or Vapor-Liquid-Solid phase techniques. The ZnO nanowires are found to emit UV light at 386 nm with considerably lower green band emission.
We studied the structural and magnetic properties of dilutely (5 mol%) doped 3d elements (Co and Fe) in PLD grown HfO2 high-k dielectric thin films. Monoclinic phase of HfO2 was stabilized by Co- and Fe- substitution at significantly low growth temperature (∼725 °C). No magnetic moment was observed in Co-doped HfO2 films. On the other hand, 5 mol% Fe-doped HfO2 films grown at different oxygen partial pressures (10-6 torr to 10 mtorr) showed interesting magnetization behavior with varying coercive field due to the segregation of Fe2O3 and Fe3O4 phases. Magnetic force microscopy (MFM) study revealed magnetic impurity phase segregation. Films grown at 1 × 10-4 torr of oxygen partial pressure (O2pp) showed oriented Fe3O4 impurity line (220) and the coercive field (Hc) ∼ 350 Oe. Films grown at higher oxygen partial pressure (1x10-2 torr) showed no impurities and magnetization was absent. Coercive field varied as a function of oxygen partial pressure. This property will be of great interest from the view point of magneto-optic applications.
State of the art commercial cathodes for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) include LaMnO3 with a zirconia-based electrolyte. However, the vacancy concentration in A site doped LaMnO3 is low, thus ionic conductivity is also very low (10−7 – 10−8 S/cm at 800 °C). The surface path dominates the reaction rate of the LaMnO3 cathode; therefore the optimized electrode is a porous composite material of both the cathode material and electrolyte and relies on triple-point boundaries for performance. The electrical conductivity and thermal expansion properties of this cathode material and other A3+B3+O3 perovskites can be tuned by substitution at the A and/or B site. The numerous combinations of composition, processing and microstructure needed for improved cathode performance is well suited for a high throughput screening (HTS) approach towards optimization and discovery. We present here a high throughput discovery process that includes, synthesis, performance testing and characterization techniques directed towards new low temperature SOFC cathode materials.
In this paper we present the accelerated reliability testing of MgZnO based UV detectors. The UV detectors are fabricated on glass, quartz and sapphire substrates by Pulsed Laser Deposition (PLD) technique. The films are highly oriented and show sharp transmission at 350nm and 330nm for Mg composition of 10% and 20% in ZnO, respectively. The device response has been studied and life expectancy of the devices has been estimated from the accelerated tests.
ZnO, a well-known piezoelectric material, is used to develop micro-scale Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) delay line sensor. In this work, SAW delay line Devices are fabricated employing ZnO films that are deposited by RF sputtering technique. Films are characterized prior to device fabrication by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) for film crystalline quality, UV-visible transmission spectroscopy for optical characteristics, and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) for surface morphology. Interdigital electrodes producing surface acoustic waves in the hundreds of MHz are developed by photolithography and metalization techniques. SAW delay line device testing, measurement and characteristics on RF sputtered ZnO films are presented and compared.
We report on the fabrication, characterization, and processing of boron nitride films for use in high temperature applications such as field passivation, capping layers for thermal annealing of SiC, and protecting metallic filaments from their working environments. The BN films have been fabricated by pulsed laser deposition and spray techniques. The deposited films were characterized by X-ray Diffraction, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, Ultraviolet-Visible Spectroscopy, Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry and Transmission Electron Microscopy. The BN films deposited in the temperature range of 200-500°C have been found to be poorly crystalline, whereas the films fabricated above 600°C have been found to be microcrystalline. The as-deposited films were annealed at various temperatures ranging from 900°C to 1700°C in order to densify the films and study the applicability of the coatings. An AlN buffer layer was also applied in a few cases to improve chemical bonding with the substrate. Adhesion of the films with the heater components was greatly improved for high temperature annealed samples due to good interfacial bonding with the substrate material. Our results on the properties of BN films with an emphasis on characterization, processing, and implications for high temperature applications are discussed.
We have investigated the epitaxy, surfaces, interfaces, and defects in AlN thin films grown on SiC by pulsed laser deposition. The stress origin, evolution, and relaxation in these films is reported. The crystalline structure and surface morphology of the epitaxially grown AlN thin films on SiC (0001) substrates have been studied using x-ray diffraction (θ–2θ, ω, and Ψ scans) and atomic force microscopy, respectively. The defect analysis has been carried out by using Rutherford backscattering spectrometry and ion channeling technique. The films were grown at various substrate temperatures ranging from room temperature to 1100 °C. X-ray diffraction measurements show highly oriented AlN films when grown at temperatures of 750- 800 °C, and single crystals above 800 °C. The films grown in the temperature range of 950 °C to 1000 °C have been found to be highly strained, whereas the films grown above 1000 °C were found to be cracked along the crystallographic axes. The results of stress as a function of growth temperature, thermal mismatch, growth mode, and buffer layer thickness will be presented, and the implications of these results for wide band gap power electronics will be discussed.
Advancing technology continues to place greater and greater demands on semiconductor devices. It is clear that Si technology alone will not be able to meet all of these demands. Silicon Carbide (SiC) is a promising material for highpower and high-temperature applications, such as SiC devices for controlling power in a more electric vehicle in which the SiC device is cooled by the engine oil (200 C.) SiC is well suited for high-power/temperature applications due to its large bandgap of 3.03 eV (for 6H), high breakdown electric field of 2.4 x 106 V/cm (again for 6H), thermal stability, and chemical inertness. These properties hold the promise of reliable and robust performance, but the latter two also present challenges to fabricating such devices. For instance, a key part of making devices involves selected area doping. This is typically accomplished with ion implantation, because the rate of diffusion is so low, followed with an anneal to remove the implant damage and electrically activate the dopant.
La0.67Sr0.33MnO3 thin films were grown on LaAlO3 substrate in vacuum using pulsed laser deposition to investigate the effect of changing oxygen content. Transmission electron microscopy studies showed that the epitaxial (La0.67Sr0.33)2MnO4 phase with K2NiF4 structure formed unexpectedly as a matrix with a square-shaped nanometer-sized MnO phase distributed in a regular pattern throughout the whole film like self-assembled quantum dots. The MnO phase grew epitaxially from the LaAlO3 substrate to the top of the film with no outgrowth. High-resolution image simulation indicated that Sr ions take up only positions in every other La layer in the (La0.67Sr0.33)2MnO4 structure. Basing our theory on the composition and structure of the matrix phase, we propose that it is possibly electron-doped with a mixed valence of Mn2+/Mn3+ instead of the Mn3+/Mn4+ as in the hole-doped case.
The single quantum well heterostructures of MgZnO/ZnO/MgZnO were grown on c-plane sapphire substrate by pulsed laser deposition. The well width was varied from 10 nm to 40 nm by controlling the deposition rate via number of laser pulsed on ZnO target. Using photoluminescence spectroscopy, we have observed a blue shift with respect to a thick ZnO reference sample when the well width was decreased. These results were fitted with calculations based on the simple square well model using the appropriate electron and holes effective masses. The quantized-energy and band offset as a function of well width, growth conditions, interface roughness, and possible quantum size effects on the quantum wells are discussed.
A ZnO/Zn0.8Mg0.2O double barrier resonant tunneling device (DBRTD) is reported here for the first time. The structure consists of 6 nm ZnO quantum wells and 7 nm Zn0.8Mg0.2O barriers grown by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) on c-cut sapphire substrates. Negative differential resistance (NDR) peaks were obtained at room temperature. The structure is developed by using an indium-tin oxide (ITO) layer both as the back contact electrode and as an etch-stopping layer. The PLD growth quality, wet etching processing for developing the mesa structure, and the I-V characteristics of the device are reported.
The effects of laser energy fluence on the growth of pulsed laser deposited ZnO thin films on c-plane sapphire substrates were systematically investigated by using x-ray diffraction, Rutherford backscattering spectrometry with ion channeling, and scanning electron microscopy techniques. Optical and electrical properties of the ZnO epilayers were characterized by using ultraviolet-visible transmission spectroscopy and Van der Pauw measurements, respectively. It was found that the laser fluence has strong effects on the crystalline, optical and electrical qualities of the ZnO films. At low laser fluence, ZnO film grows via 3D-island mode with low deposition rate, loss of Zn near the surface and particulates on top of the film. High laser fluence may also cause simultaneous multi-layer growth and the degradation of crystalline, electrical, and optical quality of the ZnO films. The optimal laser fluence window was found between 1.2J/cm2 and 2.5 J/cm2 for obtaining high quality ZnO films for optoelectronic applications. The dependence of laser fluence on the ZnO growth mode, surface morphology and electrical and optical properties is discussed.
We report on the fabrication of device-quality AlN heterostructures grown on SiC for high-temperature electronic devices. The AlN films were grown by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) at substrate temperatures ranging from 25 °C (room temperature) to 1000 °C. The as-grown films were investigated using x-ray diffraction, Rutherford backscattering specttroscopy, ion channeling, atomic force microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. The AlN films grown above 700 °C were highly c-axis oriented with rocking curve FWHM of 5 to 6 arc-min. The ion channeling minimum yields near the surface region for the AlN films were ∼2 to 4%, indicating their high degree of crystallinity. TEM studies indicated that AlN films were epitaxial and single crystalline in nature with a large number of stacking faults as a results of lattice mismatch and growth induced defects. The surface roughness for the films was about 0.5 nm, which is close to the unit cell height of the AlN. Epitaxial TiN ohmic contacts were also developed on SiC, GaN, and AlN by in-situ PLD. Epitaxial TiN/AlN/SiC MIS capacitors with gate areas of 4 * 10−4 cm2 were fabricated, and high-temperature current-voltage (I-V) characteristics were studied up to 450 °C. We have measured leakage current densities of low 10−8 A/cm2 at room temperature, and have mid 10−3 A/cm2 at 450°C under a field of 2 MV/cm.
Lateral epitaxial overgrowth (LEO), pendeo-epitaxy (PE), and solid-phase epitaxial recrystallization (SPER) are discussed as three approaches for reducing the defect density in group III nitride based heterostructures. Studies of the LEO GaN and PE GaN revealed, that a major factor for the defect reduction in the laterally overgrown regions is the change of the dominant growth direction - from vertical in the window regions to lateral in the regions over the mask or over the trenches, and the related threading dislocations lines redistribution. The mechanisms of defect reduction in LEO GaN and PE GaN are similar, although they arise through different process routes, and are related to the free-standing (PE) or quasi-free-standing (LEO) growth of GaN, and the associated stress redistribution. The stress distributions in the LEO and PE GaN heterostructures are calculated and compared with finite element modeling. Another approach for reduction of the defects is the SPER process and the related thermal activation for dislocation reactions and grain boundary mobility and migration. This approach is shown in the example of annealed AlN films.
We successfully deposited high-quality TiN films on c-plane sapphire by using the pulsed laser deposition technique. TiN grew on sapphire with two in-plane epitaxial relationships: (111)TiN//(0001)sapphire and TiN//sapphire or (111)TiN// (0001)sapphire and TiN//sapphire. The TiN unit cell showed a ±30° in-plane rotation for sapphire. The misfit between the TiN film and the sapphire substrate was calculated by using the near coincidence site lattice approach. The deposited films were analyzed by x-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, Rutherford backscattering or channeling spectrometry, electrical, and spectrophotometric measurements. The dependence of the film's crystalline quality on the deposition temperature has been investigated. The full width half-maximum of the rocking curve of the TiN 111 peak was 0.2–0.3°. The minimum ion channeling was 5%, and the room temperature resistivity was as low as 13 μω cm.