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Schools have been recognised as a potential setting for improving young peoples’ food and beverage choices; however, many schools fail to adhere to healthy food and beverage policy standards. The current study aimed to explore the enablers and barriers to effective implementation of and compliance with school-based food and beverage policies.
Systematic review and meta-synthesis. Eight electronic databases were searched for articles in June 2019. Studies were eligible for inclusion if they reported on implementation and/or compliance of school-based food and/or beverage policies with outcomes relating to enablers and/or barriers. This review had no restrictions on study design, year of publication or language. Seventy-two full-text articles were assessed for eligibility, of which twenty-eight were included in this review.
Studies conducted globally that focused on schools.
School-based healthy food and beverage policies.
Financial (cost of policy-compliant foods, decreased profit and revenue), physical (availability of policy-compliant foods, close geographical proximity to unhealthy food outlets) and social (poor knowledge, understanding, and negative stakeholders’ attitudes towards policy) factors were the most frequently reported barriers for policy implementation. Sufficient funding, effective policy communication and management, and positive stakeholders’ attitudes were the most frequently reported enablers for policy implementation.
There is a need for better communication strategies, financial and social support prior to school-based food policy implementation. Findings of this review contribute to a thorough understanding of factors that underpin best practice recommendations for the implementation of school-based food policy, and inform those responsible for improving public health nutrition.
Thin films of Transition Metal Oxides (TMOs) were deposited by reactive sputtering of pure transition metal targets in Argon-Oxygen gas mixture at elevated substrate temperature for efficient energy consumption. The atomic composition and thickness of the TMO films was determined by Rutherford Backscattering Spectroscopy (RBS). Optical transmittance and reflectance spectrum of the films on quartz substrate was measured with thin film measuring system at room temperature and slightly elevated temperature. The surface morphology and structure of the TMO films was determined with Atomic Force Microscope (AFM).
In this report, we describe recent efforts in fabricating new nanocarbon-supported titanium dioxide structures that exhibit high surface area and improved electrical conductivity. Nanocarbons consisting of single-walled carbon nanotubes and carbon aerogel nanoparticles were used to support titanium dioxide particles and produce monoliths with densities as low as 80 mg/cm 3. The electrical conductivity of the nanocarbon-supported titanium dioxide was dictated by the conductivity of the nanocarbon support while the pore structure was dominated by the titanium dioxide aerogel particles. The conductivity of the monoliths presented here was 72 S/m and the surface area was 203 m2/g.
This paper proposes an alternative to the complex stratigraphical nomenclature introduced in recent descriptions of the stratigraphy of Eastern Svalbard. We believe that the platform nature of the Mesozoic succession in Svalbard enables recognition of individual stratigraphical units over very wide areas. Our principal conclusions are that the Wilhelmøya Formation can be recognized as the upper formation of the Kapp Toscana Group and occurs throughout Eastern Svalbard. It overlies the De Geerdalen Formation on Hopen and Wilhelmøya. The Janusfjellet and Helvetiafjellet Formations can be recognized on Kong Karls Land.
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