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Pathological gambling (PG) is a severe and persistent pattern of problem gambling that has been aligned with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). However, no study has compared the neurocognitive profiles of individuals with PG and OCD.
We compared neurocognitive functioning, including executive function, verbal learning and memory, and visual–spatial organization and memory among 16 pathological gamblers, 31 drug-naïve OCD subjects, and 52 healthy controls.
The only neurocognitive marker common to both groups was increased fragmentation errors on the Rey–Osterrieth Complex Figure Test (ROCF). The PG subjects showed increased nonperseverative error on the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test and organization difficulties in the ROCF, whereas the OCD subjects revealed longer response times on the Stroop test and retention difficulties on the immediate recall scale of the ROCF.
A more careful approach is required in considering whether PG is a part of the OCD spectrum, as little evidence of neurocognitive overlap between PG and OCD has been reported.
We investigated microstructures, compositional distributions, and electrical properties of dielectric CaCu3Ti4O12 (CCTO) thin films deposited on Pt/TiO2/SiO2/Si substrates from 700 to 800 °C by pulsed laser deposition. With increasing the deposition temperature from 700 to 750 °C, the dielectric constants (εr) of CCTO films were greatly enhanced from ∼300 to ∼2000 at 10 kHz, respectively. However, the εr values of CCTO films were gradually decreased above 750 °C, which was surely attributable to the formation of a TiO2-rich dead layer at the interface between CCTO and Pt electrode. Compositional analyses by Auger electron spectroscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, and electron energy loss spectroscopy revealed that the TiO2-rich dead layer became thicker because of severe Cu diffusion from CCTO films to Pt electrode. The leakage current behaviors of CCTO films are in good agreement with Poole–Frenkel conduction mechanism, where both the TiO2-rich dead layer and rutile TiO2 nanocrystalline particles are considered to play a role of charge trapping centers.
We have investigated the stability of short channel (1.5μm) p-Type polycrystalline silicon (poly-Si) Thin Film Transistors (TFTs) on the glass substrate under AC bias stress. The variation of threshold voltage in short channel poly-Si TFT was considerably higher than that of long channel poly-Si TFT. Threshold voltage of the short channel TFT was considerably moved to the positive direction during AC bias stress, whereas the threshold voltage of a long channel was rarely moved. The variation of threshold voltage in the short channel p-type TFT under AC bias stess was more compared to that under DC bias stress. The threshold voltage of short channel (L=1.5μm) poly-Si TFT was increased about -7.44V from -0.305V to -7.745V when VGS = 5 (base value) ~ -15V (peak value), VDS = -15V was applied for 3,000 seconds. This positive shift of threshold voltage and significantly degraded s-swing value in the short channel TFT under dynamic stress (AC) may be due to the increase of the stress-induced trap state density at gate insulator / channel interface region.
We have propsed MgO/AZO bi-layer transparent conducting oxide (TCO) for thin film solar cells. From XRD analysis, it was observed that the full width at half maximum of AZO decreased when it was grown on MgO precursor. The Hall mobility of MgO/AZO bi-layer was 17.5cm2/Vs, whereas that of AZO was 20.8cm2/Vs. These indicated that the crystallinity of AZO decreased by employing MgO precursor. However, the haze (=total diffusive transmittance/total transmittance) characteristics of highly crystalline AZO was significantly improved by MgO precursor. The average haze in the visible region increased from 14.3 to 48.2%, and that in the NIR region increased from 6.3 to 18.9%. The reflectance of microcrystalline silicon solar cell was decreased and external quantum efficiency was significantly improved by applying MgO/AZO bi-layer TCO. The efficiency of microcrystalline silicon solar cell with MgO/AZO bi-layer front TCO was 6.66%, whereas the efficiency of one with AZO single TCO was 5.19%.
We successfully fabricated a-IGZO TFTs employing a Ti/Cu source/drain (S/D) and SiNx passivation in order to reduce the line-resistance, as compared to most oxide TFTs that use Mo (or TCO) and SiO2 for their S/D and passivation, respectively. Although passivated with SiNx, the TFT exhibits good transfer characteristics without a negative shift. However, the TFT employing a Mo S/D exhibited conductor-like characteristics when passivated with SiNx. Our investigation suggests that the IGZO oxygen vacancies found in the Ti/Cu S/D are controlled, resulting in low concentrations, and so prevent the SiNx-passivated TFT from having a negative shift.
We have investigated the effects of hydrogen plasma treatment on the hysteresis phenomenon and electrical properties of solid phase crystallized silicon thin film transistors (SPC-Si TFTs) employing alternating magnetic field crystallization (AMFC). We employed H2 plasma treatment on the SPC-Si active layer before SiO2 gate insulator deposition. By increasng the power and time duration of H2 plasma treatment, it was observed that hysteresis phenomenon of SPC-Si TFT was suppressed and electrical properties such as threshold voltage, field effect mobility was improved considerably. This is due to role of hydrogen atom by passivating the defects and grain boundary trap states in SPC-Si film. However, relatively high power and long hydrogen plasma treatment (100W, 5 minutes) could degrade the electrical characteristics of the device. SPC-Si TFT for 100W power of PECVD and 3 minutes with the H2 plasma treatment exhibit the significant improvement of electrical characterics (VTH = - 3.85V, μFE = 21.16cm2/Vs), and a smaller hysteresis phenomenon (∆VTH = -0.30V) which is suitable for high quality AMOLED Display.
MgO thin films are widely used in plasma display panels (PDPs) to protect the dielectric layer, which is composed of PbO2, B2O3, and SiO2 compound, against ion bombardment during discharge. To improve the electrical properties of the MgO thin films, (Ba,Sr,Ca)CO3 or LaB6, which has a lower work function than that of MgO, added to the MgO films. The effects of (Ba,Sr,Ca)CO3 or LaB6 addition on the electrical properties, microstructure, and electronic band structure were investigated. In the case where (Ba,Sr,Ca)CO3 was added, the firing voltage, which is the voltage when the panel is ignited the first time during increasing input voltage, was about 18.4 V lower than that of the conventional MgO films. In the case where LaB6 was added, the firing voltage was also reduced by about 24 V. The luminance and luminous efficiency were also increased. Of particular interest was the valence band spectra changed after adding (Ba,Sr,Ca)CO3 or LaB6. The valence band edge, which is the top of the valence band, was shifted to lower binding states and the width of the valence band was increased. Moreover, the band gap was slightly reduced. Considering the emission mechanism of MgO films in plasma display panels, these results mean that the secondary electrons can be ejected more easily and the ejected electrons have more energy. Therefore, the addition of (Ba,Sr,Ca)CO3 or LaB6 might improve the electrical properties.
We have investigated temperature dependence on the hysteresis phenomenon of SLS poly-Si TFT on a glass substrate, extremely at low temperature (213K). The p-type sequential lataral solidification (SLS) polycrystalline Silicon (poly-Si) TFT was fabricated on glass substrate. As the temperature was reduced, it was observed that hysteresis phenomenon was increased, whereas the hysteresis was suppressed at high temperature. This could be explained by a difference of initially electron and hole trapped charges into gate insulator is much larger in low temperature than in high temperature. And we have verified that drain current was changed with a different previous gate starting voltage even at same bias condition by experimental results due to the hysteresis phenomenon of SLS poly-Si TFT. Hysteresis of SLS poly-Si TFT should be improved for a pixel element of high quality AMOLED display.
We have fabricated the new top gate depletion mode n-type alternating magnetic field enhanced rapid thermal annealing (AMFERTA) polycrystalline silicon (poly-Si) thin film transistors (TFTs), which show the excellent electrical characteristics and superior stability compared with hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) TFTs and excimer laser crystallized (ELC) low temperature polycrystalline silicon (LTPS) TFTs. The fabricated AMFERTA poly-Si TFTs were not degraded under hot-carrier stress, and highly biased vertical field stress. The considerably large threshold voltage shift (ΔVTH) and trap state density reducing were occurred when the gate bias and drain bias were both large enough. The dominant mechanism of instability in the fabricated depletion mode AMFERTA poly-Si TFTs may be due to carrier induced donor-like defects reduction within the channel layer, especially near the drain junction.
Asian plantain (Plantago asiatica) essential oil (PAEO) contains multiple bioactive compounds, but its potential effects on lipid metabolism have not been examined. PAEO was found to be mostly composed of oxygenated monoterpenes, with linalool as the major component (82·5 %, w/w), measured using GC–MS. Incubation of 0–200 μg PAEO/ml with HepG2 cells for 24 h resulted in no significant toxicity. Incubation with 0·2 mg PAEO/ml altered the expression of LDL receptor (+83 %; P < 0·05) and 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA (HMG-CoA) reductase ( − 37 %; P < 0·05), as assessed using RT-PCR. LDL oxidation was markedly inhibited by PAEO treatment due to the prevalence of linalool compounds in PAEO. Oral administration of PAEO for 3 weeks in C57BL/6 mice significantly reduced plasma total cholesterol and TAG concentrations by 29 and 46 %, respectively. The mRNA (+58 %; P < 0·05), but not protein, levels of the LDL receptor were significantly higher, whereas both mRNA and protein levels of HMG-CoA reductase were significantly lower ( − 46 and − 11 %, respectively; P < 0·05) in the liver of PAEO-fed than of control mice. The mRNA levels of CYP7A1 were marginally reduced in HepG2 cells, but not in mouse liver after PAEO treatment. Thus, PAEO may have hypocholesterolaemic effects by altering the expression of HMG-CoA reductase. Reduced TAG and oxidised LDL may provide additional cardiovascular protective benefits.
A simple and efficient way of preparing highly sensitive SnO2 nanowire-based gas sensors without an arduous lithography process was studied. The network of SnO2 nanowires could be suspended upon the Si substrate by separating the Au catalyst layer from the substrate. As the electric current is transported along the networks of the nanowires, not along the bottom layer on the substrate, the sensitivity to gases was maximized in the suspended and networked structures. The sensitivities were 18 and 180 when the NO2 concentrations were 0.5 and 5 ppm. The response time was typically 20-50 s.
ZnO nanorods were synthesized by a hot-wall type pulsed laser ablation process. At temperatures 500∼800°C, ZnO thin films and wrinkles were synthesized. Above 800°C, vertically aligned ZnO nanorods were grown on the Si and sapphire substrate without any catalysts. The range of diameter was 100∼300nm. When Au catalyst were deposited on the substrate prior to the deposition, the process range of ZnO nanorod become wider and the diameter of ZnO narrower. Especially, ZnO could be grown selectively along the pattern of Au catalyst with the aid of Au-Zn alloy.
Highly (111) oriented Cu films with a thickness around 1800 Å were prepared on Si(100) at room temperature by partially ionized beam deposition (PIBD) at pressure of 8 × 10-7-1 × 10-6 Torr. Effects of acceleration voltage (Va) between 0 and 4 kV on such properties as crystallinity, surface roughness, resistivity, etc. of the films have been investigated. The Cu films deposited by PIBD had only (111) and (200) planes, and the relative intensity ratio, I(111)/I(200) of the Cu films increased from 6.8 at Va = 0 kV to 37 at Va = 4 kV. There was no indication of impurities in the system from Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) analyses. A large increase in grain size of the films occurred with Va up to Va = 1 kV, but little increase occurred with Va > 1 kV. Surface roughness of the Cu films decreased with Va, and resistivity showed the same trends as that of the surface roughness. In the Cu films by PIBD, it is considered that changes of resistivity are mainly due to a surface scattering rather than a grain boundary scattering. The via holes, dimensions of which are 0.5 μm in diameter and 1.5 μm in depth, in the Cu films made at Va = 4 kV were completely filled without voids. Interface adhesion of the Cu film on Si(100) deposited at Va = 3 kV was five times greater than that of Cu film deposited at Va = 0 kV, as determined by a scratch test.
Because of their high coercivity, cobalt alloy thin films are among the most popular materials used for ultra-high density longitudinal magnetic recording media. The recording and magnetic properties of the materials are related to their microstructure; in particular, depletion of Co in a grain boundary phase, and physical separation of the grains act to increase coercivity and thus to produce low noise media. We are studying a new alloy system comprising 18 nm thick Co-Cr-P-Pt films (Mr.t ≈ 0.9 memu/cm2), prepared by DC sputtering. A coercivity of 2600 Oe or higher was obtained in these films even when they were deposited without heating the substrate or applying a bias voltage. The effects of P and Pt addition were characterized by high-resolution TEM coupled with energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS). A Hitachi HF-2000 field emission TEM was used to image both low P (≈ 6 at. %) and high P (≈ 12 at. %) samples, and to provide a 1 nm beam for high spatial resolution EDS and EELS.
Changes of crystallinity and surface roughness are discussed in terms of the average energy per deposited atom in the partially ionized beam(PIB) deposition. The average energy per deposited atom can be controlled by adjusting the ionization potential, Vi and acceleration potential, Va. The ion beam consists of a Cu ion beam and residual gas ion beam and residual gases as well as Cu particles that were ionized and accelerated to provide the film with energy required for film-growth. The relative contribution of residual gas ions and Cu ions to total average energy per deposited atom was varied with the ionization potential. At fixed ionization potentials of Vi=400 V and Vi=450 V, the average energy per deposited atom was varied in the range of 0 to 120 eV with acceleration potential Va, of 0 to 4 kV. The relative intensity ratio, 1(111)/I(200), of the Cu films increased from 6 to 37 and the root mean square(Rms) surface roughness decreased with an increase in acceleration potential at Vi=400 V. The relative intensity ratio, I(lll)/I(200), of Cu films increased up to Va=2 kV at Vi=2 kV, above which a decrease occurred, and the surface roughness of Cu films increased as a funtion of acceleration potential. The degree of preferred orientation was closely related with the average energy per deposited atom. The change of Rms roughness might be affected by ion flux, particle energy and preferred orientation.
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