To save content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about saving content to .
To save content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about saving to your Kindle.
Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Ultrafast laser synthesis and processing of materials is a burgeoning field that is still in its infancy. This article and the theme articles in this issue review recent developments in the fundamental physics of ultrafast laser–solid interactions as well as the state of our understanding of ultrafast laser-driven surface morphology, modification of transparent media, 3D photo-polymerization and additive fabrication, spallation of graphene, and biological interactions. Also reviewed is the current state of emerging commercial high average power lasers, central to the widespread adoption of ultrafast laser synthesis and processing of materials. It is remarkable that ultrafast lasers with 20 to 600 femtosecond pulse duration can have such a dramatic impact on materials. As we learn more about the fundamental mechanisms that drive the ultrafast laser-material response, even more applications are anticipated to emerge. This revolutionary approach to materials synthesis and processing has already spawned several commercial technologies and promises to create many more in the near future.
An ultrafast laser irradiation method for the removal of corrosion from Daguerreotypes without detrimentally affecting image quality has been developed. Corrosion products such as silver oxide and silver sulfide may be removed by chemical cleaning but these reactions are hard to control and are often damaging to the underlying silver, ruining the image. The Ti:Sapphire 150 fs laser pulses used in this study are focused to a beam diameter of 60 μm and are normally incident to the Daguerreotype. It was found that the corrosion layer has a lower material removal threshold than silver allowing for removal of corrosion with minimal removal of vital information contained in the silver substrate.
Organized nanostructures are formed after irradiation of layers of randomly aligned single-wall carbon nanotube (SWNT)-polymer composites by a Ti:Sapphire 775 nm laser with a 150 fs pulse at fluences near 0.1 J/cm2. At varying peak fluences morphology is seen where the tubes are ejected from the substrate or formed into long, parallel structures of SWNT’s. These structures have been created on both glass substrates and carbon grids. Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) investigation of the structures reveal that they are composed of bundled nanotubes typically 400 nm – 1 micron long. Large-area laser patterning of the film allows for structuring of the film without detrimental decreases in conductivity.
Blister features produced by laser-induced delamination of silicon dioxide from silicon substrates were analyzed with thin-film buckling mechanics. These analyses revealed the role of the interaction between the material and the femtosecond (fs)-pulsed laser on blister formation. In particular, it was deduced that the magnitude of the compressive residual film stress within the irradiated region appeared to exceed the intrinsic residual stress obtained from wafer curvature techniques. This apparent increase in the compressive stress after fs-pulsed laser irradiation may be caused by a modification of the oxide, which resulted in a local rarefaction of the film. The results demonstrated important features of the interaction between materials and fs-pulsed laser, including the presence of subtle modification thresholds and the limited role of thermal effects.
In this article, we present summaries of the evolution of surface morphology resulting from the irradiation of single-crystal silicon with femtosecond laser pulses. In the first section, we discuss the development of micrometer-sized cones on a silicon surface irradiated with hundreds of femtosecond laser pulses in the presence of sulfur hexafluoride and other gases. We propose a general formation mechanism for the surface spikes. In the second section, we discuss the formation of blisters or bubbles at the interface between a thermal silicon oxide and a silicon surface after irradiation with one or more femtosecond laser pulses. We discuss the physical mechanism for blister formation and its potential use as channels in microfluidic devices.
Femtosecond (fs = 10−15 sec.) laser ablation of Si(100) with thermally grown oxide films was studied with pump/probe imaging techniques in order to determine the role of film thickness on ablation dynamics. Two different imaging geometries were used in this study. Front view images were formed with the reflection of a delayed probe pulse from the area of a sample irradiated with a pump pulse. By changing the delay between the pump and probe pulses, images were obtained showing the evolution of the surface as a function of time (0 – 12 ns after the arrival of the pump pulse). The side view imaging technique, also known as shadowographic imaging, an image was formed of a delayed probe pulse which passed through the ablation plume produced by a pump pulse parallel to the sample surface. Both laser induced shock wave propagation and material removal were observed to change with increased thermal oxide thickness.
Pump-probe imaging of femtosecond pulsed laser ablation was performed to investigate the mechanical shock induced on an intermetallic superalloy CMSX-4 during femtosecond laser machining. Time resolved shadowgraphic images were collected of the shock wave produced in the air above the target following laser exposure (0-10.3 nanoseconds). The dimensions of the shock wave were measured as a function of delay time and laser fluence (1.27 J/cm2 - 62.8 J/cm2). Time-resolved shadowgraphic images of the ablation event will be presented, and the corresponding damage morphology as a function of incident laser fluence will be discussed.
Pre-thinned foils composed of amorphous silicon and polycrystalline cobalt were irradiated using femtosecond pulse-length lasers at fluences sufficient for ablation (material removal). The resultant ablated hole and surrounding vicinity was studied using transmission electron microscopy to determine modifications to the structure. Evidence of cobalt silicide formation was observed within a 3 micron radius of the laser hole edge by use of selected area electron diffraction (SAED). In addition, elongated grains of crystalline silicon was observed within 500 nm of the laser hole edge, indicating melting of the amorphous silicon and heat dissipation slow enough to allow recyrstallization. This initial work demonstrates the use of pre-designed nanostructured multilayer systems as a method for nanoscale profiling of heat dissipation following pulsed laser irradiation.
Femtosecond pulsed laser damage of Silicon (100) with thermal oxide thin films was studied in order to further understand the optical and electrical properties of thin films and to evaluate their influence on the damage of the substrate. The damage threshold as a function of film thickness (2 – 1200 nm) was measured. The damage morphology produced by single laser pulses was also investigated. Two primary morphologies were observed, one in which the oxide film is completely removed, and the other in which the film is delaminated and expanded above the surface producing a bubble feature.
Highly selective and repeatable delamination of thermal oxide films from Si(100) substrates has been performed using single and multiple femtosecond laser pulses forming bubbles or blisters. By overlapping the bubbles laterally, tubes or capillaries can be formed with a range of volumes suitable for nanofluidics. By scanning the sample through the laser using an automated translation stage, patterns of tubes with arbitrary complexity can be formed, while the scan velocity can easily control the volume of the tubes. The production time for capillaries in this fashion is considerably less than with other lithographic techniques, while the proximity of the tubes to the underlying silicon substrate yields the possibility for integrated devices. The mechanism responsible for the delamination will be discussed and the optimal laser and sample translation conditions will be presented which provide the most uniform tubes. Atomic force microscopy and optical microscopy of capillaries with a range of volumes will be presented.
Reactive multilayer films of Co and Al were irradiated using femtosecond and nanosecond pulse-length lasers. While no ignition of a self-propagation reaction occurred during the laser machining studies, we observe considerable differences in the morphology and extent of damage induced by femtosecond and nanosecond lasers. Using scanning electron microscopy, we show that single metal layers can be removed at the micron scale with negligible damage to the underlying layers using femtosecond pulse-length lasers.
Ni/Al nanostructured multilayer foils were machined with femtosecond pulse-length laser irradiation at various fluences. Scanning electron microscopy, back-scattered electron detection, and atomic force microscopy were used to characterize the resulting laser modified regions. We show that material removal at the micron scale is possible with no ignition of a self-propagation reaction emanating from the irradiated areas, a danger minimized by the fact that the extremely short time duration of the pulse produces negligible heat dissipation into the multilayer system. Nevertheless, initial AFM and BSE results give indication that multilayers may be intermixing and reacting locally in areas smaller than the laser beam diameter, though the exact ignition mechanism is still to be determined.
Au/Cr and Au/Ti films were deposited on Si (100) substrates using DC planar magnetron sputtering to assess residual stress in high reflectivity coatings. The dependence of stress on argon sputter pressure, component materials, and film thickness is discussed. Stress evolution as a function of thickness for individual Cr, Ti and Au films is also investigated to identify high-stress components of these two-layer coatings. Near-zero stress Au/Ti films were achieved with a particular set of sputtering parameters. Using the same process conditions, films were deposited onto pre-released MEMS mirrors having a number of different shapes and sizes. Optical interferometry demonstrates minimal change in the bow of 500, 250, and 125 μm diameter mirrors, consistent with a λ/40 flatness (λ = 1319 nm).
Almost all thin films deposited on a substrate are in a state of stress. Fifty years ago pioneering work concerning the measurement of thin-film stresses was conducted by Brenner and Senderoff. They electroplated a metal film onto a thin metal substrate strip fixed at one end and measured the deflection of the free end of the substrate with a micrometer. Using a beam-bending analysis, they were able to calculate a residual stress from the measured deflection of the bimetallic film-substrate system. A variety of other, more sensitive methods of measuring the curvature of the surface of a film-substrate system have since been developed using, for example, capacitance measurements and interferometry techniques.
When a monochromatic x-ray beam is incident onto a curved single crystal, the diffraction condition is satisfied only for regions of the crystal where the inclination angle with respect to the incident beam exactly matches the Bragg angle. When a parallel beam plane-wave source is used, the diffracted beam from a particular set of (hkl) planes gives rise to a single narrow-contour band. If the crystal is rocked by an angle ω, the contour band will move by a certain distance D. The radius of curvature R of the crystal lattice planes is given by
where θ is the Bragg angle. Equal rocking angles produce equivalent D values for uniform curvature, or varied D values for nonuniform curvature. Using this procedure, detailed contour maps of the angular displacement field of the crystal can be mapped in two dimensions.
Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this to your organisation's collection.