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Recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) on the dietary habits of the Japanese population have shown that an effect rs671 allele was inversely associated with fish consumption, whereas it was directly associated with coffee consumption. Although meat is a major source of protein and fat in the diet, whether genetic factors that influence meat-eating habits in healthy populations are unknown. This study aimed to conduct a GWAS to find genetic variations that affect meat consumption in a Japanese population. We analysed GWAS data using 14 076 participants from the Japan Multi-Institutional Collaborative Cohort (J-MICC) study. We used a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire to estimate food intake that was validated previously. Association of the imputed variants with total meat consumption per 1000 kcal energy was performed by linear regression analysis with adjustments for age, sex, and principal component analysis components 1–10. We found that no genetic variant, including rs671, was associated with meat consumption. The previously reported single nucleotide polymorphisms that were associated with meat consumption in samples of European ancestry could not be replicated in our J-MICC data. In conclusion, significant genetic factors that affect meat consumption were not observed in a Japanese population.
Differences in individual eating habits may be influenced by genetic factors, in addition to cultural, social or environmental factors. Previous studies suggested that genetic variants within sweet taste receptor genes family were associated with sweet taste perception and the intake of sweet foods. The aim of this study was to conduct a genome-wide association study (GWAS) to find genetic variations that affect confection consumption in a Japanese population. We analysed GWAS data on confection consumption using 14 073 participants from the Japan Multi-Institutional Collaborative Cohort study. We used a semi-quantitative FFQ to estimate food intake that was validated previously. Association of the imputed variants with confection consumption was performed by linear regression analysis with adjustments for age, sex, total energy intake and principal component analysis components 1–3. Furthermore, the analysis was repeated adjusting for alcohol intake (g/d) in addition to the above-described variables. We found 418 SNP located in 12q24 that were associated with confection consumption. SNP with the ten lowest P-values were located on nine genes including at the BRAP, ACAD10 and aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 regions on 12q24.12-13. After adjustment for alcohol intake, no variant was associated with confections intake with genome-wide significance. In conclusion, we found a significant number of SNP located on 12q24 genes that were associated with confections intake before adjustment for alcohol intake. However, all of them lost statistical significance after adjustment for alcohol intake.
The purpose of the present study was to examine the association between soya food consumption and insulin resistance using baseline data of the Japan Multi-Institutional Collaborative Cohort (J-MICC) Study in Tokushima, Japan.
This cross-sectional study included 1274 subjects, aged 34–70 years at baseline, living in Tokushima Prefecture between 2008 and 2013. Fasting blood samples were collected and information on lifestyle characteristics including soya food intake and medical history were obtained using a structured self-administered questionnaire. The homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) was measured and those with HOMA-IR≥2·5 were defined as having insulin resistance. Multiple logistic regression models were used to analyse the association between soya product intake and the prevalence of insulin resistance.
Rural communities located in Tokushima Prefecture, Japan, between 2008 and 2013.
A total of 1148 adults (565 men and 583 women), aged 34–70 years.
The frequency of intake of miso soup, total non-fried soya products and total soya products showed significant inverse dose–response relationships with insulin resistance, after adjustments for potential confounders. When soya product intake was calculated as soya protein and isoflavone, the odds ratios of insulin resistance decreased significantly as the estimated intake of soya protein increased. Furthermore, significant inverse dose–response relationships were observed for total non-fried soya products and total soya products, after adjustment for total vegetable or total fibre consumption.
The present results indicate that the intake of soya products and non-fried soya products is associated with reduced insulin resistance in the Japanese population.
Studies on the associations of dietary Ca and vitamin D intakes with arterial stiffness are scarce. In the present study, these associations were evaluated in Japanese men. Data from a total of 535 eligible men, aged 35–69 years, who participated in the baseline survey of a cohort study in Tokushima Prefecture, Japan, and underwent brachial–ankle pulse wave velocity (ba-PWV) measurements were analysed. ba-PWV is a measure of arterial stiffness and is recognised as a marker of atherosclerotic vascular damage. Information regarding the cohort's lifestyle characteristics including dietary behaviour over the past year was obtained from a structured self-administered questionnaire. Dietary Ca and vitamin D intakes were adjusted for total energy intake using the residual method and divided into quartiles; the highest quartile was used as the reference. General linear models were used to evaluate the associations between dietary Ca and vitamin D intakes and ba-PWV values adjusted for probable covariates. The association between dietary Ca intake and ba-PWV was further evaluated using similar general linear models stratified by dietary vitamin D intake (median or below/above median). Dietary Ca intake was found to be significantly inversely associated with ba-PWV after adjusting for probable covariates (P for trend = 0·020). However, no such association was observed between dietary vitamin D intake and ba-PWV. The inverse association between dietary Ca intake and ba-PWV was striking in subjects with higher dietary vitamin D intake. However, no association was found in subjects with lower dietary vitamin D intake. These results indicate that adequate dietary Ca and vitamin D intakes may be protective against the development of arterial stiffness in Japanese men.
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