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The Scarr–Rowe effect is a gene × environment interaction, which is characterized by a negative association between exposure to low socioeconomic status (SES) environments and the additive heritability of cognitive ability. Utilizing a polygenic score for educational attainment (EA3), it was found that the two-way interaction between EA3 and parental educational attainment (EA; used as a proxy for parental SES) was a significant positive predictor of participants’ composite cognitive ability (IQ) score (β = .018, SE = .008, p = .028) after controlling hierarchically for the direct effects of (population-stratification-controlled) EA3, parental EA, and 20 distinct interaction terms (10 involving the interactions between the principal components [PCs] and EA3, and 10 involving the interaction between the PCs and parental EA). The presence of this interaction is consistent with the Scarr–Rowe effect, as the expressivity of EA3 on cognitive ability increases with increasing parental EA. No statistically significant sex differences in the effect magnitudes were found, although the effect was significantly present in the female but not male sample.
To investigate potential age, period and birth cohort effects in the prevalence of suicide ideation in European ageing population.
A total of 50 782 community-dwelling adults (aged + 50) from 20 different European countries were collected in the Survey Health Ageing and Retirement study. A multilevel logistic regression model of repeated measures was modelled to assess the effects of age and other variables, including the variability of observations over three levels: birth cohort groups, time period assessment and individual differences.
The larger effect of variability was attributed to individual-level factors (57.8%). Youngest-old people (65–79 years) showed lower suicide ideation than middle-aged people (50–64 years). No significative differences were found for suicide ideation between middle-aged people and oldest-old (80 + years). Only 0.85% and 0.13% of the total variability of suicide ideation accounted for birth cohort and period effects, respectively. Cohorts born between 1941 and 1944 possessed the lowest estimates of suicide ideation. Conversely, suicide ideation started to rise with post-War generations and reached a significant level for people born from 1953–1957 to 1961–1964. Regarding the time period, participants assessed in 2006–2007 showed a lower likelihood of suicide ideation. The rest of the cohorts and period groups did not show any significant effect on the prevalence of suicide ideation.
Our results suggest that age and suicide ideation relationship is not linear in middle and older age. The European Baby boomers born from 50s to mid-60s might report higher suicide ideation than their ancestors. This scenario would imply a greater need for mental healthcare services for older people in the future.
We aimed to explore the expert perspective on relevant issues of individuals with bipolar disorder. The specific aims are to identify problems in functioning important to individuals with BD and to quantify these using the ICF.
An online survey on functioning in BD was conduced. For each ICF domain one question was presented. Recruited participants were psychiatrists, general physicians, psychologists, nurses and social workers worldwide. Answers were linked to the ICF according to predefined rules (Cieza, 2001). Data analyses include frequencies of ICF categories named by experts.
Health professionals from all WHO-world regions and from different professional backgrounds accepted our invitation to participate. The Americas was the highest represented region (36%) and a significant part of the professionals involved were psychiatrists. From all the concepts contained in the answers, body functions categories with highest frequency of appearance were emotional functions (3,5%), mentioned by 62% of the experts and sleep functions (2,4%) mentioned by 58%. The body structure brain corresponds to 2% of the total categories obtained and was included by 56% of the experts. Maintaining one's health was the most mentioned activity and participation (2,8%), referred by 36% of the participants and important environmental factors include health services (4,8%) and immediate family(3,8%), which appeared in 82% of the questionnaires.
The present study is an important step in applying of the ICF to BD. It also shows an important level of agreement between experts around the world regarding central issues of the disorder.
In 2009, Joan Y. Chiao, one of the leading experts in Cultural Neuroscience, labeled the research field as „a once and future discipline”. Ten years ago neuroscientists began to study cultural phenomena applying functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI). Since then the number of publications and research grants related to this topic has tremendously increased. This was reason enough to examine the concepts of culture implicated, but rarely explicitly discussed, in these studies. Therefore we analyzed 42 English language manuscripts of original fMRI studies spanning from the advent of Cultural Neuroscience in the year 2000 to 2010 published in peer-reviewed journals (indexed in large databases [MEDLINE, PsychInfo, PubMed). Common to all of them were cultural comparisons between divided groups and communities, as e.g. black vs. white, easterners vs. westerners, Asian vs. Caucasian, Americans vs. Turks.
We reviewed the manuscripts with regard to the following aspects: type of comparison, the conveyed concept of culture using the classification by Reckwitz [normative, totality-oriented, differentiation-theoretical and the meaning- and knowledge-oriented], implicit valuation of the comparisons, and the artifact of the comparison. We extracted two main lines of reasoning:
1) Universal models for the interaction between cultures and
2) investigations pursuing a differentiation of divided cultural groups.
Both lines tend to simplify culture as an inflexible set of traits, specificities or biological diversities. We argue against the rigid understanding of culture, point out its disguised valuation and risks considering the Hackingian ‘looping effect’.
The project PARADISE (Psychosocial fActors Relevant to BrAin DISorders in Europe) funded by the European Community (Grant Agreement 652 no. HEALTH-F2-2009-241572) is being carried out in terms of the theoretical conceptualization of “horizontal epidemiology”, which argues that the psychosocial difficulties (PSDs) people have to deal with when they have a brain disorder - either psychiatric or neurological - And the determinants of those PSDs are common across brain disorders.
To develop and test an innovative approach to collect clinical data on the PSDs based on the horizontal epidemiology.
1) To determine the PSDs and determinants commonly relevant across brain disorders. 2) To create a data collection protocol to describe and assess PSDs and their determinants across brain disorders.
In the first phase, a pilot data collection protocol was developed based on literature reviews and focus groups in 9 brain disorders (dementia, depression, epilepsy, migraine, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's Disease, schizophrenia, stroke and substance use disorders) as well as data analyses of surveys and expert consultations. in the current second phase, the protocol is being tested in a sample of 700 patients across Europe.
The pilot data collection protocol contains 63 PSDs and 64 determinants, which have been identified as common across brain disorders.
If we are right about the hypothesis of horizontal epidemiology in brain disorders, this way of collecting information would have profound consequences for how we organize and deliver services to people with brain disorders across Europe, improving their lives and life opportunities.
The paper is related to an adaptive satellite communication system for data transmission from small, low cost, low Earth orbit satellites. Tests run in a set-up consisting of a number of software-defined radio (SDR) modules operating as a satellite, a ground station, and a satellite channel simulator, have shown that by changing modulation scheme and code rate one can obtain increase of amount of data which can be downloaded from a satellite during a single pass over a ground station approximately by a factor of 2. To determine data rates obtainable in an SDR system using a common personal computer as a digital signal processing device, execution times of particular processing steps involved in the reception process were measured.
This paper reports on an ultra-wideband low-noise distributed amplifier (LNDA) in a transferred-substrate InP double heterojunction bipolar transistor (DHBT) technology which exhibits a uniform low-noise characteristic over a large frequency range. To obtain very high bandwidth, a distributed architecture has been chosen with cascode unit gain cells. Each unit cell consists of two cascode-connected transistors with 500 nm emitter length and ft/fmax of ~360/492 GHz, respectively. Due to optimum line-impedance matching, low common-base transistor capacitance, and low collector-current operation, the circuit exhibits a low-noise figure (NF) over a broad frequency range. A 3-dB bandwidth from 40 to 185 GHz is measured, with an NF of 8 dB within the frequency range between 75 and 105 GHz. Moreover, this circuit demonstrates the widest 3-dB bandwidth operation among all reported single-stage amplifiers with a cascode configuration. Additionally, this work has proposed that the noise sources of the InP DHBTs are largely uncorrelated. As a result, a reliable prediction can be done for the NF of ultra-wideband circuits beyond the frequency range of the measurement equipment.
Novel designs of a circularly polarized 2 × 2 and 4 × 4 slot array antennas (CPSAAs) are proposed. Sequential phase feed network composed of a section of 270° and four strips is utilized to feed the array structures. Array elements are simple linearly polarized wide slot antennas (WSAs) composed of simple radiating patches with truncation on four corners and slotted ground plane on substrate backside. Each WSA operates over the UWB frequency band of 3.1–10.6 GHz. When the WSAs are arranged in the form of 2 × 2 and 4 × 4 CPSAAs, frequency bands of 3–13.1 and 1.4–12.3 GHz are covered, respectively. More importantly, CP is generated at 4.5–8 and 4.6–8.8 GHz for 2 × 2 and 4 × 4 CPSAAs, respectively. This is while; the WSAs are linearly polarized elements. Higher gain values and wider bandwidths are obtained with respect to single WSA. Design process and performance analysis of the single and array antennas are discussed through the paper.
In this article, an extremely wideband, isolation-enhanced, low-profile “Multiple-Input-Multiple-Output” (MIMO) antenna along with dual-band-notched features has been investigated. The antenna proposed herein, possesses two mutually orthogonal staircase-etched radiators for achieving a wide bandwidth. The radiating elements are placed mutually perpendicular in order to achieve polarization diversity and high isolation, i.e. for minimization of mutual coupling effect between adjacent radiating elements. The antenna exhibits an extremely wide frequency bandwidth covering 1.2–19.4 GHz except two frequency band notches centered at 3.5 and 5.5 GHz, respectively, originated due to the incorporation of a “Rectangular Complementary Split Ring Resonator (RCSRR)” structure and by etching dual “L-shaped” slits in the ground plane. The center frequency of the notched bands is adjusted by fine tuning of the dimensions of the incorporated band-notching structures. Isolation level (S21) better than −20 dB has been obtained due to the insertion of a “T-shaped” parasitic element as a decoupling structure. A prototype of the proposed antenna having dimension of 20 mm × 20 mm (0.08 λo × 0.08 λo) is fabricated and the antenna responses have been measured. Obtained results show that the miniaturized MIMO diversity antenna is undoubtedly a capable contender for communications supporting an extremely wide impedance bandwidth along with band-notched features for WLAN and WiMAX.
This paper describes a method to analyze open or closed elliptical structures with constant axial ratio by a Body-of-Revolution (BoR) Finite Element Method (FEM). The method is based on Transformation Optics, a coordinate transformation that maps the elliptical shape to a circular shape, for which BoR-FEM represents a greatly efficient tool for the analysis.
Concentrates-fed lamb meat is often associated with an unfavourable lipid profile (high levels of saturated and/or n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids; SFA and PUFA). For this reason, Spanish sheep producers from Mediterranean areas are turning to traditional grazing by ewes to obtain healthier lamb meat. The objective of this research was to determine the effects of maternal grazing on the fatty acid (FA) composition of weaned lamb meat. The ewes (Segureña breed) were allocated to two different rearing systems during pregnancy (5 months) and lactation (45 days): (i) feeding indoors on barley grain and lucerne pellets; (ii) grazing on cereal stubble, fallow land and seasonal pastures consisting of Mediterranean shrubs, herbs and trees. Two groups of 20 autumn and spring lambs were sampled. The lambs were weaned at 13.1±0.9 kg and 45.0±4.1 days age and fed on grain-based concentrates until they reached 24.8±2.1 kg live weight (light lambs slaughtered at 98.3±3.6 days of age). The FA content was determined in the intramuscular loin fat by gas chromatography using a flame ionization detector. The ewe diet did not affect the levels of the main lamb FAs (C18:1c+t, C16:0 and C18:2c), and so did not provide any additional reduction in fat saturation. Saturated fatty acids represented around 40% of total FAs determined in the meat. Ewe grazing acted as an n-3 PUFA-promoting diet, providing a lamb meat with a lower n-6/n-3 ratio. Spring lamb meat had higher proportions of n-3 PUFA (C18:3n-3, C20:5, C22:5 and C22:6) and conjugated linoleic acid (C18:2c9t11+c11t9) to the detriment of the n-6 PUFAs (C20:4, C20:2 and C22:4), while autumn lamb meat also had higher levels of C18:3n-3 and C18:3n-6, and lower level of C20:4, which points to little seasonal differences. The n-6/n-3 ratio achieved by ewe grazing fell from 8.2 to 4.1 (Spring) and from 7.6 to 5.5 (Autumn), values which are close to those recommended in human diet for good cardiovascular health. These n-6/n-3 reductions were associated with lower levels of total PUFA and C20:4n-6. Our research concluded that grazing on stubble and Mediterranean shrubland by ewes, a sustainable rearing practice involving local agro resources, contributed to obtaining weaned lamb meat with a more favourable lipid profile and so can be recommended to sheep farmers.
A far-infrared observatory such as the SPace Infrared telescope for Cosmology and Astrophysics, with its unprecedented spectroscopic sensitivity, would unveil the role of feedback in galaxy evolution during the last ~10 Gyr of the Universe (z = 1.5–2), through the use of far- and mid-infrared molecular and ionic fine structure lines that trace outflowing and infalling gas. Outflowing gas is identified in the far-infrared through P-Cygni line shapes and absorption blueshifted wings in molecular lines with high dipolar moments, and through emission line wings of fine-structure lines of ionised gas. We quantify the detectability of galaxy-scale massive molecular and ionised outflows as a function of redshift in AGN-dominated, starburst-dominated, and main-sequence galaxies, explore the detectability of metal-rich inflows in the local Universe, and describe the most significant synergies with other current and future observatories that will measure feedback in galaxies via complementary tracers at other wavelengths.
The intensity of annual Spanish influenza activity is currently estimated from historical data of the Spanish Influenza Sentinel Surveillance System (SISSS) using qualitative indicators from the European Influenza Surveillance Network. However, these indicators are subjective, based on qualitative comparison with historical data of influenza-like illness rates. This pilot study assesses the implementation of Moving Epidemic Method (MEM) intensity levels during the 2014–2015 influenza season within the 17 sentinel networks covered by SISSS, comparing them to historically reported indicators. Intensity levels reported and those obtained with MEM at the epidemic peak of the influenza wave, and at national and regional levels did not show statistical difference (P = 0·74, Wilcoxon signed-rank test), suggesting that the implementation of MEM would have limited disrupting effects on the dynamic of notification within the surveillance system. MEM allows objective influenza surveillance monitoring and standardization of criteria for comparing the intensity of influenza epidemics in regions in Spain. Following this pilot study, MEM has been adopted to harmonize the reporting of intensity levels of influenza activity in Spain, starting in the 2015–2016 season.
In up to a quarter of patients, schizophrenia is resistant to standard treatments. We undertook a naturalistic study of 153 patients treated in the tertiary referral in-patient unit of the National Psychosis Service based at the Maudsley Hospital in London. A retrospective analysis of symptoms on admission and discharge was undertaken using the OPCRIT tool, along with preliminary economic modelling of potential costs related to changes in accommodation.
In-patient treatment demonstrated statistically significant improvements in all symptom categories in patients already identified as having schizophrenia refractory to standard secondary care. The preliminary cost analysis showed net savings to referring authorities due to changes from pre- to post-discharge accommodation.
Despite the enormous clinical, personal and societal burden of refractory psychotic illnesses, there is insufficient information on the outcomes of specialised tertiary-level care. Our pilot data support its utility in all domains measured.
We present a highly reliable and efficient mid-infrared colour-based selection technique for luminous active galactic nuclei (AGN) using the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) survey. Our technique is designed to identify objects with red mid-infrared power-law spectral energy distributions. We studied the dependency of our mid-infrared selection on the AGN intrinsic luminosity and the effectiveness of our technique to uncover obscured AGN missed in X-ray surveys. To do so we used two samples of luminous AGN independently selected in hard X-ray and optical surveys. We used the largest catalogue of 887 [OIII] λ5007-selected type 2 quasars (QSO2s) at z≲0.83 in the literature from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), and the 258 hard (>4.5 keV) X-ray-selected AGN from the Bright Ultrahard XMM-Newton Survey (BUXS). The effectiveness of our mid-infrared selection technique increases with the AGN luminosity. At high luminosities and at least up to z~1 our technique is very effective at identifying both Compton-thin and Compton-thick AGN.
The Burst Observer and Optical Transient Exploring System (BOOTES), is a global robotic
observatory network, which started in 1998 with Spanish leadership devoted to study
optical emissions from gamma ray bursts (GRBs) that occur in the Universe. We present shot
history and current status of BOOTES network. The Network philosophy, science and some
details of 117 GRBs followed-up are discussed.
Countries of the Wider Caribbean have committed to principled ocean governance through several multilateral environmental and fisheries agreements at both the regional (e.g., the Cartagena Convention SPAW Protocol) and international level (e.g., the Convention on Biological Diversity, the United Nations Fish Stocks Agreement, the FAO Code of Conduct for Responsible Fishing). They have also committed to the 2002 World Summit on Sustainable Development (WSSD) targets for fisheries and biodiversity conservation. However, the ongoing challenge is to put in place the measures required to give effect to these principles at the local, national and regional levels (Fanning et al. 2009). While not minimising the important role of science in an ecosystem approach to managing the living marine resources of the Wider Caribbean Region, the chapters in this book serve to highlight the importance that regional experts have placed on the role of governance to address the problems in the region.
This synthesis chapter presents the outputs of a discussion specifically relating to the role of governance in achieving and implementing a shared vision for ecosystem-based management (EBM) in the Wider Caribbean, using the process described in Chapter 1. In terms of structure, the chapter first describes a vision for governance and reports on the priorities assigned to the identified vision elements. It then discusses how the vision might be achieved by taking into account assisting factors (those that facilitate achievement) and resisting factors (those that inhibit achievement). The chapter concludes with guidance on the strategic direction needed to implement the vision, identifying specific actions to be undertaken for each of the vision elements.
The occupational breakdown of members of the Governance Working Group reflected the diversity of affiliations present at the EBM Symposium and included governmental, intergovernmental, academic, non-governmental and private sector (fishers and fishing industry and consulting) representatives. With guidance provided by the facilitator, this diverse grouping of participants was asked to first address the question: “What do you see in place in 10 years’ time when EBM/EAF has become a reality in the Caribbean?”. This diversity provided for a fruitful and comprehensive visioning process, the results of which are summarised in Table 25.1, in terms of the key vision elements and their subcomponents, and in Figure 25.1, which illustrates the level of priority assigned to each of the vision elements.