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Scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) allows for imaging, diffraction, and spectroscopy of materials on length scales ranging from microns to atoms. By using a high-speed, direct electron detector, it is now possible to record a full two-dimensional (2D) image of the diffracted electron beam at each probe position, typically a 2D grid of probe positions. These 4D-STEM datasets are rich in information, including signatures of the local structure, orientation, deformation, electromagnetic fields, and other sample-dependent properties. However, extracting this information requires complex analysis pipelines that include data wrangling, calibration, analysis, and visualization, all while maintaining robustness against imaging distortions and artifacts. In this paper, we present py4DSTEM, an analysis toolkit for measuring material properties from 4D-STEM datasets, written in the Python language and released with an open-source license. We describe the algorithmic steps for dataset calibration and various 4D-STEM property measurements in detail and present results from several experimental datasets. We also implement a simple and universal file format appropriate for electron microscopy data in py4DSTEM, which uses the open-source HDF5 standard. We hope this tool will benefit the research community and help improve the standards for data and computational methods in electron microscopy, and we invite the community to contribute to this ongoing project.
Weedy rice (WR) (Oryza sativa L.) is the most troublesome weed infesting rice paddies in Brazil. Several changes have occurred in this region regarding crop management, especially WR control based on the Clearfield™ (CL) Rice Production System launched in 2003. This survey’s objective was to evaluate the WR infestation status by assessing the producers’ perception and the management practices used in southern Brazil after eighteen years of CL use in Brazil. Rice consultants and extension agents distributed a questionnaire with 213 producers in the Rio Grande do Sul (RS) and Santa Catarina (SC) state in the 2018/19 growing season. In RS, most farms are larger than 150 ha, farmers use minimal or conventional tillage, permanent flooding, adopted the CL system for more than two years, use clomazone PRE tank-mixed with glyphosate at the rice spiking stage, and use crop rotation with soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] or pasture. In SC, rice farms are small, averaging from 20 to 30 ha, farmers predominantly plant pre-germinated rice and do not rotate rice with other crops and roguing is practiced. Comparing both states, the CL System is used in 99.5, and 69.3% of the total surveyed rice area in RS and SC, respectively. Imidazolinone-resistant WR is present in 68.4 and 26.6% of rice farms in RS and SC, respectively. Rice cultivation in Brazil is currently coexisting with WR with minimal integration of control methods. However, integrated practices can control this weed and are fundamental to the sustainability of systems based on herbicide-resistant rice cultivars.
The ability to recognize others’ emotions is a central aspect of socioemotional functioning. Emotion recognition impairments are well documented in Alzheimer’s disease and other dementias, but it is less understood whether they are also present in mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Results on facial emotion recognition are mixed, and crucially, it remains unclear whether the potential impairments are specific to faces or extend across sensory modalities,
In the current study, 32 MCI patients and 33 cognitively intact controls completed a comprehensive neuropsychological assessment and two forced-choice emotion recognition tasks, including visual and auditory stimuli. The emotion recognition tasks required participants to categorize emotions in facial expressions and in nonverbal vocalizations (e.g., laughter, crying) expressing neutrality, anger, disgust, fear, happiness, pleasure, surprise, or sadness.
MCI patients performed worse than controls for both facial expressions and vocalizations. The effect was large, similar across tasks and individual emotions, and it was not explained by sensory losses or affective symptomatology. Emotion recognition impairments were more pronounced among patients with lower global cognitive performance, but they did not correlate with the ability to perform activities of daily living.
These findings indicate that MCI is associated with emotion recognition difficulties and that such difficulties extend beyond vision, plausibly reflecting a failure at supramodal levels of emotional processing. This highlights the importance of considering emotion recognition abilities as part of standard neuropsychological testing in MCI, and as a target of interventions aimed at improving social cognition in these patients.
Our objective was to evaluate the efficacy of intramammary administration, at drying-off, of a Panax ginseng extract (PGe) combined with cephalexin (Ceph) on the post-calving bacteriological cure rate of pre-existing intramammary infections (IMI) and on the occurrence of new IMI during the dry period. In addition, milk yield and somatic cell count (SCC) in the post-treatment lactation were evaluated. One hundred and eight late-lactation cows were randomly divided into two experimental groups and were treated at drying-off with Ceph alone or PGe combined with Ceph.Cure rates for IMI present at drying-off were similar for both treatments (OR = 0.95, 95% CI = 0.33–2.74). Cure rates for Staphylococcus aureus were lower (OR = 15.4, 95% CI = 1.66–142.52) in quarters treated with PGe + Ceph than in those treated with Ceph alone. Intramammary infusion of PGe + Ceph at drying-off had no effect on preventing new dry period IMI (OR = 0.75, 95% CI = 0.38–1.51), compared with infusion of Ceph alone. Milk production and SCC in the ensuing lactation were not affected by PGe + Ceph treatment. In conclusion, addition of PGe to dry cow therapy did not show any advantage over the use of dry cow therapy alone.
Cognitive impairment is common in bipolar disorder and is emerging as a therapeutic target to enhance quality of life and function. A systematic search was conducted on PubMed, PsycInfo, Cochrane, clinicaltrials.gov, and Embase databases for blinded or open-label randomized controlled trials evaluating the pro-cognitive effects of pharmacological, neurostimulation, or psychological interventions for bipolar disorder. Twenty-two trials were identified, evaluating a total of 16 different pro-cognitive interventions. The methodological quality of the identified trials were assessed using the Cochrane Risk of Bias tool. Currently, no intervention (i.e., pharmacologic, neurostimulation, cognitive remediation) has demonstrated robust and independent pro-cognitive effects in adults with bipolar disorder. Findings are preliminary and methodological limitations limit the interpretation of results. Methodological considerations including, but not limited to, the enrichment with populations with pre-treatment cognitive impairment, as well as the inclusion of individuals who are in remission are encouraged. Future trials may also consider targeting interventions to specific cognitive subgroups and the use of biomarkers of cognitive function.
Benzodiazepine (BZD) prescription rates have increased over the past decade in the United States. Available literature indicates that sociodemographic factors may influence diagnostic patterns and/or prescription behaviour. Herein, the aim of this study is to determine whether the gender of the prescriber and/or patient influences BZD prescription.
Cross-sectional study using data from the Florida Medicaid Managed Medical Assistance Program from January 1, 2018 to December 31, 2018. Eligible recipients ages 18 to 64, inclusive, enrolled in the Florida Medicaid plan for at least 1 day, and were dually eligible. Recipients either had a serious mental illness (SMI), or non-SMI and anxiety.
Total 125 463 cases were identified (i.e., received BZD or non-BZD prescription). Main effect of patient and prescriber gender was significant F(1, 125 459) = 0.105, P = 0 .745, partial η2 < 0.001. Relative risk (RR) of male prescribers prescribing a BZD compared to female prescribers was 1.540, 95% confidence intervals (CI) [1.513, 1.567], whereas the RR of male patients being prescribed a BZD compared to female patients was 1.16, 95% CI [1.14, 1.18]. Main effects of patient and prescriber gender were statistically significant F(1, 125 459) = 188.232, P < 0.001, partial η2 = 0.001 and F(1, 125 459) = 349.704, P < 0.001, partial η2 = 0.013, respectively.
Male prescribers are more likely to prescribe BZDs, and male patients are more likely to receive BZDs. Further studies are required to characterize factors that influence this gender-by-gender interaction.
Depression is strongly associated with chronic disease; yet, the direction of this relationship is poorly understood. Allostatic load (AL) provides a framework for elucidating depression-disease pathways. We aimed to investigate bidirectional, longitudinal associations of baseline depressive symptoms or AL with 5-year AL or depressive symptoms, respectively.
Data were from baseline, 2-year, and 5-year visits of 620 adults (45–75 years) enrolled in the Boston Puerto Rican Health Study. The Center for Epidemiology Studies Depression (CES-D) scale (0–60) captured depressive symptoms, which were categorized at baseline as low (<8), subthreshold (8–15), or depression-likely (⩾16) symptoms. AL was calculated from 11 parameters of biological functioning, representing five physiological systems. Baseline AL scores were categorized by the number of dysregulated parameters: low (0–2), moderate (3–5), or high (⩾6) AL. Multivariable, multilevel random intercept and slope linear regression models were used to examine associations between 3-category baseline CES-D score and 5-year continuous AL score, and between baseline 3-category AL and 5-year continuous CES-D score.
Baseline subthreshold depressive symptoms [(mean (95% CI)): 4.8 (4.5–5.2)], but not depression-likely symptoms [4.5 (4.2–4.9)], was significantly associated with higher 5-year AL scores, compared to low depressive symptoms [4.3 (3.9–4.7)]. Baseline high AL [19.4 (17.6–21.2)], but not low AL [18.5 (16.5–20.6)], was significantly associated with higher 5-year CES-D score, compared to baseline moderate AL [16.9 (15.3–18.5)].
Depressive symptoms and AL had a bi-directional relationship over time, indicating a nuanced pathway linking depression with chronic diseases among a minority population.
The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic represents an unprecedented threat to mental health. Herein, we assessed the impact of COVID-19 on subthreshold depressive symptoms and identified potential mitigating factors.
Participants were from Depression Cohort in China (ChiCTR registry number 1900022145). Adults (n = 1722) with subthreshold depressive symptoms were enrolled between March and October 2019 in a 6-month, community-based interventional study that aimed to prevent clinical depression using psychoeducation. A total of 1506 participants completed the study in Shenzhen, China: 726 participants, who completed the study between March 2019 and January 2020 (i.e. before COVID-19), comprised the ‘wave 1’ group; 780 participants, who were enrolled before COVID-19 and completed the 6-month endpoint assessment during COVID-19, comprised ‘wave 2’. Symptoms of depression, anxiety and insomnia were assessed at baseline and endpoint (i.e. 6-month follow-up) using the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9), Generalised Anxiety Disorder-7 (GAD-7) and Insomnia Severity Index (ISI), respectively. Measures of resilience and regular exercise were assessed at baseline. We compared the mental health outcomes between wave 1 and wave 2 groups. We additionally investigated how mental health outcomes changed across disparate stages of the COVID-19 pandemic in China, i.e. peak (7–13 February), post-peak (14–27 February), remission plateau (28 February−present).
COVID-19 increased the risk for three mental outcomes: (1) depression (odds ratio [OR] = 1.30, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.04–1.62); (2) anxiety (OR = 1.47, 95% CI: 1.16–1.88) and (3) insomnia (OR = 1.37, 95% CI: 1.07–1.77). The highest proportion of probable depression and anxiety was observed post-peak, with 52.9% and 41.4%, respectively. Greater baseline resilience scores had a protective effect on the three main outcomes (depression: OR = 0.26, 95% CI: 0.19–0.37; anxiety: OR = 1.22, 95% CI: 0.14–0.33 and insomnia: OR = 0.18, 95% CI: 0.11–0.28). Furthermore, regular physical activity mitigated the risk for depression (OR = 0.79, 95% CI: 0.79–0.99).
The COVID-19 pandemic exerted a highly significant and negative impact on symptoms of depression, anxiety and insomnia. Mental health outcomes fluctuated as a function of the duration of the pandemic and were alleviated to some extent with the observed decline in community-based transmission. Augmenting resiliency and regular exercise provide an opportunity to mitigate the risk for mental health symptoms during this severe public health crisis.
Families facing end-stage nonmalignant chronic diseases (NMCDs) are presented with similar symptom burdens and need for psycho-social–spiritual support as their counterparts with advanced cancers. However, NMCD patients tend to face more variable disease trajectories, and thus may require different anticipatory supports, delivered in familiar environments. The Life Rainbow Programme (LRP) provides holistic, transdisciplinary, community-based end-of-life care for patients with NMCDs and their caregivers. This paper reports on the 3-month outcomes using a single-group, pre–post comparison.
Patients with end-stage NMCDs were screened for eligibility by a medical team before being referred to the LRP. Patients were assessed at baseline (T0), 1 month (T1), and 3 months (T2) using the Integrated Palliative Outcome Scale (IPOS). Their hospital use in the previous month was also measured by presentations at accident and emergency services, admissions to intensive care units, and number of hospital bed-days. Caregivers were assessed at T0 and T2 using the Chinese version of the Modified Caregiver Strain Index, and self-reported health, psychological, spiritual, and overall well-being. Over-time changes in outcomes for patients, and caregivers, were tested using paired-sample t-tests, Wilcoxon-signed rank tests, and chi-square tests.
Seventy-four patients and 36 caregivers participated in this research study. Patients reported significant improvements in all IPOS domains at both 1 and 3 months [ranging from Cohen's d = 0.495 (nausea) to 1.793 (depression and information needs fulfilled)]. Average hospital bed-days in the previous month fell from 3.50 to 1.68, comparing baseline and 1 month (p < 0.05). At 3 months, caregiver strain was significantly reduced (r = 0.332), while spiritual well-being was enhanced (r = 0.333).
After receiving 3 month's LRP services, patients with end-stage NMCDs and their caregivers experienced significant improvements in the quality of life and well-being, and their hospital bed-days were reduced.
To examine children’s exposure to food and beverage advertising across a year of Colombian television based on whether products exceed Pan-American Health Organization (PAHO)-defined nutrient thresholds.
Nutritional information was obtained for all foods and beverages advertised and used to categorise each product according to the product category (e.g. beverage, snack food) and nutritional quality based on the PAHO model for identifying products in excess of free sugars, Na or saturated fat or containing non-caloric sweeteners or trans-fat. Television audience ratings data were used to derive the average child audience (unique child viewers) per ad and the number of times ads were seen by children in a single week (weekly impressions) based on product category and nutritional quality.
All food and beverage ads on cable and over-the-air TV in Colombia in 2017.
Of all instances of TV ads, 89·3 % were of unhealthy products. A larger proportion of male and female children, as well as children from low (88·01 %), mid (89·10 %) and high (89·10 %) socio-economic status, are exposed to advertising of unhealthy products, but no significant difference was found between these proportions.
The majority of foods and beverages advertised to Colombian children are unhealthy. These findings highlight a need to implement statutory measures to reduce children’s exposure to unhealthy food advertising in Colombia, as obesity and overweight have been increasing among school-age children in Colombia, and exposure to television advertising of unhealthy foods is a known contributor to children’s food intake and obesity.
We propose a stochastic model for claims reserving that captures dependence along development years within a single triangle. This dependence is based on a gamma process with a moving average form of order
$p \ge 0$
which is achieved through the use of poisson latent variables. We carry out Bayesian inference on model parameters and borrow strength across several triangles, coming from different lines of businesses or companies, through the use of hierarchical priors. We carry out a simulation study as well as a real data analysis. Results show that reserve estimates, for the real data set studied, are more accurate with our gamma dependence model as compared to the benchmark over-dispersed poisson that assumes independence.
Graphlet counting is a widely explored problem in network analysis and has been successfully applied to a variety of applications in many domains, most notatbly bioinformatics, social science, and infrastructure network studies. Efficiently computing graphlet counts remains challenging due to the combinatorial explosion, where a naive enumeration algorithm needs O(Nk) time for k-node graphlets in a network of size N. Recently, many works introduced carefully designed combinatorial and sampling methods with encouraging results. However, the existing methods ignore the fact that graphlet counts and the graph structural information are correlated. They always consider a graph as a new input and repeat the tedious counting procedure on a regular basis even if it is similar or exactly isomorphic to previously studied graphs. This provides an opportunity to speed up the graphlet count estimation procedure by exploiting this correlation via learning methods. In this paper, we raise a novel graphlet count learning (GCL) problem: given a set of historical graphs with known graphlet counts, how to learn to estimate/predict graphlet count for unseen graphs coming from the same (or similar) underlying distribution. We develop a deep learning framework which contains two convolutional neural network models and a series of data preprocessing techniques to solve the GCL problem. Extensive experiments are conducted on three types of synthetic random graphs and three types of real-world graphs for all 3-, 4-, and 5-node graphlets to demonstrate the accuracy, efficiency, and generalizability of our framework. Compared with state-of-the-art exact/sampling methods, our framework shows great potential, which can offer up to two orders of magnitude speedup on synthetic graphs and achieve on par speed on real-world graphs with competitive accuracy.
Although evidence from psychosis patients demonstrates the adverse effects of cannabis use (CU) at a young age and that the rate of CU is high in subgroups of young violent patients with psychotic disorders, little is known about the possible effect of the age of onset of CU on later violent behaviors (VB). So, we aimed to explore the impact of age at onset of CU on the risk of displaying VB in a cohort of early psychosis patients.
Data were collected prospectively over a 36-month period in the context of an early psychosis cohort study. A total of 265 patients, aged 18–35 years, were included in the study. Logistic regression was performed to assess the link between age of onset of substance use and VB.
Among the 265 patients, 72 had displayed VB and 193 had not. While violent patients began using cannabis on average at age 15.29 (0.45), nonviolent patients had started on average at age 16.97 (0.35) (p = 0.004). Early-onset CU (up to age 15) was a risk factor for VB (odds ratio = 4.47, confidence interval [CI]: 1.13–20.06) when the model was adjusted for age group, other types of substance use, being a user or a nonuser and various violence risk factors and covariates. History of violence and early CU (until 15) were the two main risk factors for VB.
Our results suggest that early-onset CU may play a role in the emergence of VB in early psychosis.
This research communication describes the influence of diet, mammary quarter position and milking process on the temperature of teats and udder of cows fed diets containing different lipid sources. Five primiparous cows were fed diets containing cottonseed, sunflower seed, soybeans or soybean oil as a source of lipids and a reference diet without the inclusion of lipid sources in a 5 × 5 Latin Square design. Milk yield was determined in the last five days of each period. Milk samples were collected for SCC analysis on the last two days of each experimental period. The images of the mammary gland were obtained using an infrared camera and were analyzed with appropriate computer software. Milk yield was 14.8% higher for cows fed soybeans as a source of lipids. Diets and somatic cell counts did not influence the temperature of teats and udder. The milking process reduced the temperature of teats and udder by 0.79°C. Rear teats and rear quarters had higher surface temperatures than front teats and fore quarters. Changes in temperature of teats and mammary quarters occurred as a function of the milking process and quarter position. However, the diet and the SCC did not influence the temperature of teats and mammary quarters in this experiment.
Bipartite networks represent pairwise relationships between nodes belonging to two distinct classes. While established methods exist for analyzing unipartite networks, those for bipartite network analysis are somewhat obscure and relatively less developed. Community detection in such instances is frequently approached by first projecting the network onto a unipartite network, a method where edges between node classes are encoded as edges within one class. Here we test seven different projection schemes by assessing the performance of community detection on both: (i) a real-world dataset from social media and (ii) an ensemble of artificial networks with prescribed community structure. A number of performance and accuracy issues become apparent from the experimental findings, especially in the case of long-tailed degree distributions. Of the methods tested, the “hyperbolic” projection scheme alleviates most of these difficulties and is thus the most robust scheme of those tested. We conclude that any interpretation of community detection algorithm performance on projected networks must be done with care as certain network configurations require strong community preference for the bipartite structure to be reflected in the unipartite communities. Our results have implications for the analysis of detected community structure in projected unipartite networks.
Although the deviations of brain volume deficits in sporadic and familial first-episode schizophrenia patients (FEP) had been presented, the difference of brain asymmetries remained unidentified.
To assess the potential differences of volumetric asymmetries of gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) between groups.
To find out the different injury alteration of sporadic FEP and familial FEP.
42 sporadic and 30 familiar drug-naïve FEP with and 72 matched normal controls (NC) were recruited. Participants were assessed with neuropsychological tests and scanned by a 3.0T MRI to obtain T1-weighted and DTI images. Lateralization distribution maps of GM and WM volume were generated by employing optimized voxel-based morphometry. The asymmetries were analyzed by comparing calculating Laterality Index (LI) voxel by voxel.
All three groups showed similar overall brain torque. Familiar FEP have more regional extensive GM asymmetry brain lesions compared to sporadic FEP. There was no shared regional lesion between two groups. LIGM and LIWM in right superior temporal were negatively correlated. Significant negative correlations were also found between LIGM of left superior parietal lobule and LIWM of right superior parietal lobule, and between LIGM of right inferior parietal lobule and LIWM of left inferior parietal lobule. The asymmetry in distinct brain regions were related to cognitive deficits especially in the domains of language and memory.
The two patient groups had different alteration in injuries of brain asymmetry. Familiar FEP has more GM extensive asymmetry brain region, which may correlate with their high genetic burdens.
Novel commercially available software has enabled registration of both CT and MRI images to rapidly fuse with X-ray fluoroscopic imaging. We describe our initial experience performing cardiac catheterisations with the guidance of 3D imaging overlay using the VesselNavigator system (Philips Healthcare, Best, NL). A total of 33 patients with CHD were included in our study. Demographic, advanced imaging, and catheterisation data were collected between 1 December, 2016 and 31 January, 2019. We report successful use of this technology in both diagnostic and interventional cases such as placing stents and percutaneous valves, performing angioplasties, occlusion of collaterals, and guidance for lymphatic interventions. In addition, radiation exposure was markedly decreased when comparing our 10–15-year-old coarctation of the aorta stent angioplasty cohort to cases without the use of overlay technology and the most recently published national radiation dose benchmarks. No complications were encountered due to the application of overlay technology. 3D CT or MRI overlay for CHD intervention with rapid registration is feasible and aids decisions regarding access and planned angiographic angles. Operators found intraprocedural overlay fusion registration using placed vessel guidewires to be more accurate than attempts using bony structures.
Psychiatry wards are witness to violent behavior. Mental health professionals are called upon to prevent/deescalate potential violence.
Understand the causal factors that led to a serious group violence event in a psychiatric ward and review strategies to minimize the risk.
Provide a better understating and review current evidence.
Description of a group violence event. Non-systematic literature review concerning violence on psychiatric wards.
In a 29-bed acute closed-door mixed-gender general-hospital psychiatry ward staff had detected that a small group of patients increasingly defied instructions, refused treatment and intimidated users. Later, two of these patients, on cue from the psychotic content of another user with schizophrenia, intruded patients’ bedrooms and assaulted a 63 year-old female patient. These two patients, with bipolar disorder, were unemployed and had a history of previous psychiatric admissions, drug abuse, criminal offenses and treatment drop-out. De-escalation techniques failed and security was summoned. Offending patients were admitted to seclusion bedrooms and restrained. Upon a crisis meeting these two patients were transferred to two nearby psychiatric departments. There are several risk factors for violence in psychiatry wards, pertaining to the ward, staff, patients and psychopathology. Prevention measures are typically related to the timely detection of these variables and deescalation techniques. When these fail, seclusion, forced medication or mechanical restraint may be necessary.
This case report confirms that violence rarely erupts without warning. Additional staff training on violence prevention and tackling is required. Some variables (e.g. overcrowding) are current structural weaknesses of the health system.
Extrapyramidal symptoms are well known as side effects in therapy with antipsychotics. Explore this side effects is mandatory because they normally are a cause of treatment discontinuation or assess a change in medication. Some studies notice how long acting injectable antipsychotic cause less extrapyramidal symptoms than oral treatment, others does not find differences.
The aim of this study is to analyze the extrapyramidal symptoms presented on a group of patients treated with aripiprazole long acting injectable (ALAI) follow-up in a mental health care center.
Descriptive study of a group of patients treated with ALAI. To assess the possible extrapyramidal symptoms due to treatment we have used the Simpson-Angus Scale (SAS). The follow up was 3 months after initiation of treatment.
Six patients were included in the study, 2 women (33.3%) and 4 men (66.7%). The mean age of the sample was 37 years old. The different diagnoses of the group were 4 patients with psychotic disorder (66.7%; 2 schizophrenia, 1 schizoaffective disorder and 1 delusional chronic disorder) and the other 2 had an affective disorder (33.3%; both bipolar disorder). The average score for the SAS was 1.2 meaning normal results and therefore no significant extrapyramidal symptoms.
In our sample the average of the results obtained by applying the SAS is considered within normal limits. In our case as to extrapyramidal effects ALAI treatment has been well tolerated. A larger sample would be needed to obtain more reliable results.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.