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Benzobicyclon will be the first 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase (HPPD)–inhibiting herbicide available in US rice production pending registration completion. An observation of benzobicyclon controlling weedy rice in two field trials prompted a greenhouse and field evaluation to determine if benzobicyclon would control weedy rice accessions from Arkansas, Mississippi, and southeastern Missouri. A total of 100 accessions were screened in the greenhouse and field. Percentage mortality was determined in the greenhouse, and percentage control was recorded in the field. Benzobicyclon at 371 g ai ha–1 caused at least 80% mortality of 22 accessions in the greenhouse and at least 80% control of 30 accessions in the field. For most accessions, individual plants within the accession varied in response to benzobicyclon. Based on these results, the sensitivity of weedy rice to benzobicyclon varies across accessions collected in the midsouthern United States, and it may provide an additional control option for weedy rice in some fields.
An estimated 293,300 healthcare-associated cases of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) occur annually in the United States. To date, research has focused on developing risk prediction models for CDI that work well across institutions. However, this one-size-fits-all approach ignores important hospital-specific factors. We focus on a generalizable method for building facility-specific models. We demonstrate the applicability of the approach using electronic health records (EHR) from the University of Michigan Hospitals (UM) and the Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH).
We utilized EHR data from 191,014 adult admissions to UM and 65,718 adult admissions to MGH. We extracted patient demographics, admission details, patient history, and daily hospitalization details, resulting in 4,836 features from patients at UM and 1,837 from patients at MGH. We used L2 regularized logistic regression to learn the models, and we measured the discriminative performance of the models on held-out data from each hospital.
Using the UM and MGH test data, the models achieved area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) values of 0.82 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.80–0.84) and 0.75 ( 95% CI, 0.73–0.78), respectively. Some predictive factors were shared between the 2 models, but many of the top predictive factors differed between facilities.
A data-driven approach to building models for estimating daily patient risk for CDI was used to build institution-specific models at 2 large hospitals with different patient populations and EHR systems. In contrast to traditional approaches that focus on developing models that apply across hospitals, our generalizable approach yields risk-stratification models tailored to an institution. These hospital-specific models allow for earlier and more accurate identification of high-risk patients and better targeting of infection prevention strategies.
Palmer amaranth is one of the most problematic weeds in the midsouthern United States, and the evolution of resistance to protoporphyrinogen oxidase (PPO) inhibitors in biotypes already resistant to glyphosate and acetolactate synthase (ALS) inhibitors is a major cause of concern to soybean and cotton growers in these states. A late-season weed-escape survey was conducted in the major row crop–producing counties (29 counties) to determine the severity of PPO-inhibitor resistance in Arkansas. A total of 227 Palmer amaranth accessions were sprayed with fomesafen at 395 g ha−1 to identify putative resistant plants. A TaqMan qPCR assay was used to confirm the presence of the ΔG210 codon deletion or the R128G/M (homologous to R98 mutation in common ragweed) target-site resistance mechanisms in the PPX2 gene. Out of the 227 accessions screened, 44 were completely controlled with fomesafen, and 16 had only one or two severely injured plants (≥98% mortality) when compared with the 1986 susceptible check (100% mortality). The remaining 167 accessions were genotypically screened, and 82 (49%) accessions were found to harbor the ΔG210 deletion in the PPX2 gene. The R128G was observed in 47 (28%) out of the 167 accessions screened. The mutation R128M, on the other hand was rare, found in only three accessions. About 13% of the accessions were segregating for both the ΔG210 and R128G mutations. Sixteen percent of the tested accessions had mortality ratings <90% and did not test positive for the ΔG210 or the R128G/M resistance mechanisms, indicating that a novel target or non–target site resistance mechanism is likely. Overall, PPO inhibitor–resistant Palmer amaranth is widespread in Arkansas, and the ΔG210 resistance mechanism is especially dominant in the northeast corridor, while the R128G mutation is more prevalent in counties near Memphis, TN.
Benzobicyclon is the first 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase-inhibiting herbicide pursued for commercial registration in U.S. rice production. A study was conducted in 2015 and 2016 to evaluate the response of eight rice cultivars to post-flood application timings of benzobicyclon at 494 g ai ha-1 (proposed 2X rate). ‘Caffey’, ‘CL151’, ‘CLXL745’, ‘Jupiter’, ‘LaKast’, ‘Mermentau’, ‘Roy J’, and ‘XL753’ were evaluated in response to applications of benzobicyclon. The highest level of visible injury was observed in LaKast at 7% in 2015. No visible injury was detected among other cultivars either year at 2 weeks after treatment. In 2015 and 2016, no more than a four-day delay to reach 50% heading occurred across all cultivars. Rough rice yield was not affected by any of the post-flood application timings of benzobicyclon. A second study was conducted in 2016 at three locations throughout Arkansas to investigate the tolerance of 19 tropical japonica (inbred and hybrid) and two indica inbred cultivars to a premix containing benzobicyclon at 494 g ai ha-1 and halosulfuron at 72 g ai ha-1 applied 1 week after flooding. The tropical japonica cultivars have excellent crop safety to benzobicyclon while application to the indica cultivars, Rondo and Purple Marker, expressed severe phytotoxicity. Benzobicyclon caused less than a 2 d delay in heading to the japonica cultivars. Rough rice yield of the tropical japonica cultivars was not affected by benzobicyclon while yields of both indica cultivars were negatively affected. Benzobicyclon can safely be applied to drill-seeded tropical japonica inbred and hybrid cultivars in a post-flood application without concerns for crop injury. Benzobicyclon should not be used on indica cultivars as it will cause severe injury, delayed heading, and yield loss.
Objectives: The present study examined differences in neurocognitive outcomes among non-Hispanic Black and White stroke survivors using the NIH Toolbox-Cognition Battery (NIHTB-CB), and investigated the roles of healthcare variables in explaining racial differences in neurocognitive outcomes post-stroke. Methods: One-hundred seventy adults (91 Black; 79 White), who participated in a multisite study were included (age: M=56.4; SD=12.6; education: M=13.7; SD=2.5; 50% male; years post-stroke: 1–18; stroke type: 72% ischemic, 28% hemorrhagic). Neurocognitive function was assessed with the NIHTB-CB, using demographically corrected norms. Participants completed measures of socio-demographic characteristics, health literacy, and healthcare use and access. Stroke severity was assessed with the Modified Rankin Scale. Results: An independent samples t test indicated Blacks showed more neurocognitive impairment (NIHTB-CB Fluid Composite T-score: M=37.63; SD=11.67) than Whites (Fluid T-score: M=42.59, SD=11.54; p=.006). This difference remained significant after adjusting for reading level (NIHTB-CB Oral Reading), and when stratified by stroke severity. Blacks also scored lower on health literacy, reported differences in insurance type, and reported decreased confidence in the doctors treating them. Multivariable models adjusting for reading level and injury severity showed that health literacy and insurance type were statistically significant predictors of the Fluid cognitive composite (p<.001 and p=.02, respectively) and significantly mediated racial differences on neurocognitive impairment. Conclusions: We replicated prior work showing that Blacks are at increased risk for poorer neurocognitive outcomes post-stroke than Whites. Health literacy and insurance type might be important modifiable factors influencing these differences. (JINS, 2017, 23, 640–652)
We previously found a weak response in serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25(OH)D3) concentrations when dogs were supplemented with oral vitamin D3 (D3). In the present study, we determined the relative potency of oral 25(OH)D3 compared with D3 for increasing vitamin D status in dogs with low serum 25(OH)D concentrations. Four male and three female, 4-year-old, intact, lean, genetically related, Chinese-crested/beagle dogs were studied in a randomised, single cross-over trial. After feeding a low-vitamin D diet (<4 IU/100 g) for 30 d, four dogs received daily D3 supplementation at 2·3 µg/kg body weight0·75, while three dogs received a molar equivalency as 25(OH)D3. The supplements, dissolved in ethanol, were applied to a commercial treat for consumption. Serum 25(OH)D3 and 24R,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (24R,25(OH)2D3) were analysed weekly using a validated HPLC method. Both supplementations increased (P ≤ 0·01) serum 25(OH)D3 concentrations. However, oral 25(OH)D3 resulted in greater (P < 0·0001) concentrations than D3 by week 1, with a difference of 173 % (P < 0·0001) by week 2. The supplementation period was limited to 14 d after serum 25(OH)D3 concentrations were not appearing to plateau. Thereafter, a washout period of 1 month separated the cross-over. Following 25(OH)D3, but not D3 supplementation, serum 24R,25(OH)2D3 concentrations increased (P ≤ 0·02), 3 to 5 weeks after initiating supplementation. Vitamin D status, as indicated by serum 25(OH)D3 and 24R,25(OH)2D3 concentrations, is more rapidly and efficiently increased in adult dogs by oral supplementation of 25(OH)D3 than D3.
The title The Location of Culture suggests that the book's author, Homi K. Bhabha, places an overriding importance on a culture's spatial and geographic situation. Lest Bhabha's readers get too fixated on culture's site and locality, however, the title's emphasis on place is soon qualified by an epigraph from the book's most-cited author, Frantz Fanon, that emphasizes temporality: “The architecture of this work is rooted in the temporal. Every human problem must be considered from the standpoint of time” (qtd. in Bhabha xiv). So, while culture must be located, the architecture of The Location of Culture is rooted in the temporal. The place and time of its moments of production are affirmed throughout its essays with a wealth of contemporary references and opening comments like “In Britain, in the 1980s …” (27). No book of theory is more self-consciously embedded in its own space and time. The Location of Culture, published in 1994, is a very English book, written from within the political, cultural, and intellectual world of the London of the 1980s and early 1990s, in which migrant activists from the Caribbean and South Asia such as Bhabha, Salman Rushdie, and Stuart Hall were challenging the verities of a long-established, socialist, masculinist, English intellectual and political culture. The brilliant innovation of The Location of Culture was to create a new language, a new articulation and understanding of minority positions—which is why the response to it has been so overwhelming, from academics, artists, and many others. The work that went into The Location of Culture was intimately related to Bhabha's own milieu and time: the book is the product of his decennium mirabile in London.
How do we know where languages begin and where they end? It is widely assumed that languages exist as discrete, distinct entities, an idea that forms the basis of mono- and multilingualism, as well as of source and target languages in translation theory. What created that clear-cut division between languages? I argue that our current conception of language was invented as part of the process of the creation of the nation-state. The idea of a language, and therefore of translation, was a product of nation-state formation that required the construction of boundaries to divide homogeneous territories, peoples, and their languages. The Stammbaum model of linguistic filiation emerged as part of the same politicized ideology of modernity. Against this, I consider the alternative model of language mixture, which conceptualizes language as a transformative process of interaction without boundaries and challenges ideas of a language and of translation.
Little is known regarding optimal vitamin D status in adult dogs. To date no studies on vitamin D supplementation for improving vitamin D status have been reported for adult dogs. The aims of this study were to identify dogs with low vitamin D status and evaluate an oral dosage of cholecalciferol (D3) for effectiveness in increasing vitamin D status. For this, forty-six privately owned dogs were evaluated. Of the dogs, thirty-three (or 71·7 %) had serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations less than 100 ng/ml, a minimum previously suggested for vitamin D sufficiency in dogs. Subsequently, thirteen dogs were enrolled in a supplementation trial. Dogs were given either a D3 supplement (n 7; 2·3 µg/kg0·75) or olive oil placebo (n 6) daily with food. Serum concentrations of 25(OH)D were determined at weeks 1, 3 and 6, and at the trial end. Only at the trial end (weeks 9–10) was 25(OH)D significantly greater (P = 0·05) in supplemented v. placebo dogs. Serum concentrations of 24R,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol determined at the trial end were about 40 % of that of 25(OH)D3 and not significantly different between the groups. Concentrations of parathyroid hormone, ionised Ca, P and creatinine measured in initial and final serum samples indicated supplementation caused no toxicity. We conclude that vitamin D3 supplementation at a dosage near the National Research Council recommended safe-upper limit was not effective for rapidly raising serum 25(OH)D concentrations in healthy, adult dogs. Further work is needed in evaluating the metabolism of orally administered D3 in dogs before dosing recommendations can be made.
The room temperature electronic characteristics of resonant tunneling diodes (RTDs) containing AlAs/InGaAs quantum wells are studied. Differences in the peak current and voltages, associated with device-to-device variations in the structure and width of the quantum well are analyzed. A method to use these differences between devices is introduced and shown to uniquely identify each of the individual devices under test. This investigation shows that quantum confinement in RTDs allows them to operate as physical unclonable functions.
A segment of the debate surrounding the commercialization and use of glyphosate-resistant (GR) crops focuses on the theory that the implementation of these traits is an extension of the intensification of agriculture that will further erode the biodiversity of agricultural landscapes. A large field-scale study was initiated in 2006 in the United States on 156 different field sites with a minimum 3-yr history of GR-corn, -cotton or -soybean in the cropping system. The impact of cropping system, crop rotation, frequency of using the GR crop trait, and several categorical variables on seedbank weed population density and diversity was analyzed. The parameters of total weed population density of all species in the seedbank, species richness, Shannon's H′ and evenness were not affected by any management treatment. The similarity between the seedbank and aboveground weed community was more strongly related to location than management; previous year's crops and cropping systems were also important while GR trait rotation was not. The composition of the weed flora was more strongly related to location (geography) than any other parameter. The diversity of weed flora in agricultural sites with a history of GR crop production can be influenced by several factors relating to the specific method in which the GR trait is integrated (cropping system, crop rotation, GR trait rotation), the specific weed species, and the geographical location. Continuous GR crop, compared to fields with other cropping systems, only had greater species diversity (species richness) of some life forms, i.e., biennials, winter annuals, and prostrate weeds. Overall diversity was related to geography and not cropping system. These results justify further research to clarify the complexities of crops grown with herbicide-resistance traits to provide a more complete characterization of their culture and local adaptation to the weed seedbank.
Satellite altimetric time series allow high-precision monitoring of ice-sheet mass balance. Understanding elevation changes in these regions is important because outlet glaciers along ice-sheet margins are critical in controlling flow of inland ice. Here we discuss a new airborne altimetry dataset collected as part of the ICECAP (International Collaborative Exploration of the Cryosphere by Airborne Profiling) project over East Antarctica. Using the ALAMO (Airborne Laser Altimeter with Mapping Optics) system of a scanning photon-counting lidar combined with a laser altimeter, we extend the 2003–09 surface elevation record of NASA’s ICESat satellite, by determining cross-track slope and thus independently correcting for ICESat’s cross-track pointing errors. In areas of high slope, cross-track errors result in measured elevation change that combines surface slope and the actual Δz/Δt signal. Slope corrections are particularly important in coastal ice streams, which often exhibit both rapidly changing elevations and high surface slopes. As a test case (assuming that surface slopes do not change significantly) we observe a lack of ice dynamic change at Cook Ice Shelf, while significant thinning occurred at Totten and Denman Glaciers during 2003–09.