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Studying phenotypic and genetic characteristics of age at onset (AAO) and polarity at onset (PAO) in bipolar disorder can provide new insights into disease pathology and facilitate the development of screening tools.
To examine the genetic architecture of AAO and PAO and their association with bipolar disorder disease characteristics.
Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) and polygenic score (PGS) analyses of AAO (n = 12 977) and PAO (n = 6773) were conducted in patients with bipolar disorder from 34 cohorts and a replication sample (n = 2237). The association of onset with disease characteristics was investigated in two of these cohorts.
Earlier AAO was associated with a higher probability of psychotic symptoms, suicidality, lower educational attainment, not living together and fewer episodes. Depressive onset correlated with suicidality and manic onset correlated with delusions and manic episodes. Systematic differences in AAO between cohorts and continents of origin were observed. This was also reflected in single-nucleotide variant-based heritability estimates, with higher heritabilities for stricter onset definitions. Increased PGS for autism spectrum disorder (β = −0.34 years, s.e. = 0.08), major depression (β = −0.34 years, s.e. = 0.08), schizophrenia (β = −0.39 years, s.e. = 0.08), and educational attainment (β = −0.31 years, s.e. = 0.08) were associated with an earlier AAO. The AAO GWAS identified one significant locus, but this finding did not replicate. Neither GWAS nor PGS analyses yielded significant associations with PAO.
AAO and PAO are associated with indicators of bipolar disorder severity. Individuals with an earlier onset show an increased polygenic liability for a broad spectrum of psychiatric traits. Systematic differences in AAO across cohorts, continents and phenotype definitions introduce significant heterogeneity, affecting analyses.
The fast-evolving relationship between the promotion of welfare-enhancing competition and the balanced protection of intellectual property (IP) rights has attracted the attention of policymakers, analysts and scholars. This interest is inevitable in an environment that lays ever greater emphasis on the management of knowledge and innovation and on mechanisms to ensure that the public derives the expected social and economic benefits from this innovation and the spread of knowledge. This book looks at the positive linkage between IP and competition in jurisdictions around the world, surveying developments and policy issues from an international and comparative perspective. It includes analysis of key doctrinal and policy issues by leading academics and practitioners from around the globe and a cutting-edge survey of related developments across both developed and developing economies. It also situates current policy developments at the national level in the context of multilateral developments, at WIPO, WTO and elsewhere.
SEP-363856 is a novel psychotropic agent without dopamine D2 receptor occupancy. Although its mechanism of action has not been fully elucidated, preclinical data suggest that agonism at trace amine receptor 1 (TAAR1) and the serotonin 5-H1A receptor contributes to its efficacy. In a double-blind (DB), placebo-controlled study, SEP−363856 demonstrated significant efficacy in the treatment of an exacerbation of schizophrenia (Koblan et al, NEJM 2020; 82:1497–1506). We present results of a 6-month extension study whose aim was to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of longer-term treatment with SEP−363856.
Patients with an acute exacerbation of schizophrenia who completed a 4-week, DB, placebo-controlled, flexible-dose (50 or 75 mg) study of SEP−363856 were given the option to enroll in an extension study in which they were treated, open-label (OL), with flexible doses (25/50/75 mg/d) of SEP−363856 for 26-weeks. The primary outcomes were safety measures; effectiveness outcomes were secondary and included the PANSS total score and the Brief Negative Symptom Scale (BNSS) total score.
A total of 193 patients completed the 4-week DB study, and 156 (80.8%) were dosed in the OL extension study and received at least one dose of SEP−363856 (safety population). Study completer rate was 66.9%; reasons for discontinuation consisted of adverse event (11.5%), withdrawal of consent (10.2%), lack of efficacy (5.1%), and other (6.4%). 15 patients experienced an SAE: schizophrenia (n=11); acute psychosis (N=1); uterine hemorrhage and suicidal ideation (N=1 each); there were no deaths in the study. Individual AEs with an incidence =2% were schizophrenia (12.2%), headache (11.5%), insomnia (8.3%), anxiety (5.1%), somnolence (4.5%), nasopharyngitis (4.5%), nausea (3.8%), irritability (3.2%), influenza (3.2%), weight decreased (3.2%), and prolactin increased (2.6%). On movement scales, minimal mean change from OL-baseline to Week 26 occurred on the Barnes total score (−0.1), AIMS total score (0.0) and SAS score (−0.1). Mean month 6 change from DB baseline in weight was −0.3 kg. No clinically meaningful median changes were observed at week 26 in metabolic laboratory parameters (total and LDL cholesterol, triglycerides, hemoglobin A1c) or in prolactin levels. During 6 months of OL treatment, one patient had an increase in QTcF =60 msec; no patients had a QTcF interval =480 msec. Treatment with SEP−363856 was associated with significant improvement from OL baseline to week 26 in PANSS total score (−22.6) and BNSS total score (−11.3).
Treatment with SEP−363856 was associated with continued improvement from open-label baseline in the PANSS total (−22.6) and BNSS total (−11.3) scores. The most frequently reported adverse events (= 5%) were schizophrenia, headache, insomnia and anxiety. SEP−363856 had minimal effects on weight, lipids, glycemic indices, prolactin, and was associated with minimal risk of extrapyramidal symptom.