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Maternal trauma has intergenerational implications, including worse birth outcomes, altered brain morphology, and poorer mental health. Research investigating intergenerational effects of maternal trauma on infant stress reactivity and regulation is limited. Maternal mental health during pregnancy may be a contributor: psychopathology is a sequela of trauma exposure and predictor of altered self-regulatory capacity in offspring of affected mothers. We assessed associations among maternal lifetime trauma and infant stress responsivity, mediated by psychological symptoms in pregnancy. Mothers reported lifetime trauma history and anxiety, depressive, and posttraumatic stress symptoms during pregnancy. At infant age 6 months, stress reactivity and regulation were assessed via maternal behavior ratings (Infant Behavior Questionnaire-Revised, IBQ-R) and behavioral (negative mood) and physiological (respiratory sinus arrhythmia, RSA) markers during a laboratory stressor (Still-Face Paradigm). Maternal trauma was directly associated with lower infant physiological regulation and indirectly associated with lower levels of both infant behavioral and physiological regulation via higher maternal anxiety during pregnancy. Maternal trauma was also indirectly associated with higher infant reactivity via higher maternal anxiety during pregnancy. Post hoc analyses indicated differential contributions of maternal prenatal versus postnatal anxiety to infant outcomes. Findings highlight potential contributory mechanisms toward maladaptive child stress response, which has been associated with poor behavioral, cognitive, and academic outcomes.
We expand upon prior work (Gibbons et al., 2012) relating childhood stressor effects, particularly harsh childhood environments, to risky behavior and ultimately physical health by adding longer-term outcomes – deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) methylation-based measures of accelerated aging (DNAm-aging). Further, following work on the effects of early exposure to danger (McLaughlin et al., 2014), we also identify an additional pathway from harsh childhood environments to DNAm-aging that we label the danger/FKBP5 pathway, which includes early exposure to dangerous community conditions that are thought to impact glucocorticoid regulation and pro-inflammatory mechanisms. Because different DNAm-aging indices provide different windows on accelerated aging, we contrast effects on early indices of DNAm-aging based on chronological age with later indices that focused on predicting biological outcomes. We utilize data from Family and Community Health Study participants (N = 449) from age 10 to 29. We find that harshness influences parenting, which, in turn, influences accelerated DNAm-aging through the risky cognitions and substance use (i.e., behavioral) pathway outlined by Gibbons et al. (2012). Harshness is also associated with increased exposure to threat/danger, which, in turn, leads to accelerated DNAm-aging through effects on FKBP5 activity and enhanced pro-inflammatory tendencies (i.e., the danger/FKBP5 pathway).
Catatonia, a severe neuropsychiatric syndrome, has few studies of sufficient scale to clarify its epidemiology or pathophysiology. We aimed to characterise demographic associations, peripheral inflammatory markers and outcome of catatonia.
Electronic healthcare records were searched for validated clinical diagnoses of catatonia. In a case–control study, demographics and inflammatory markers were compared in psychiatric inpatients with and without catatonia. In a cohort study, the two groups were compared in terms of their duration of admission and mortality.
We identified 1456 patients with catatonia (of whom 25.1% had two or more episodes) and 24 956 psychiatric inpatients without catatonia. Incidence was 10.6 episodes of catatonia per 100 000 person-years. Patients with and without catatonia were similar in sex, younger and more likely to be of Black ethnicity. Serum iron was reduced in patients with catatonia [11.6 v. 14.2 μmol/L, odds ratio (OR) 0.65 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.45–0.95), p = 0.03] and creatine kinase was raised [2545 v. 459 IU/L, OR 1.53 (95% CI 1.29–1.81), p < 0.001], but there was no difference in C-reactive protein or white cell count. N-Methyl-d-aspartate receptor antibodies were significantly associated with catatonia, but there were small numbers of positive results. Duration of hospitalisation was greater in the catatonia group (median: 43 v. 25 days), but there was no difference in mortality after adjustment.
In the largest clinical study of catatonia, we found catatonia occurred in approximately 1 per 10 000 person-years. Evidence for a proinflammatory state was mixed. Catatonia was associated with prolonged inpatient admission but not with increased mortality.
This paper characterizes novel “star” defects in GaN films grown with metal–organic vapor phase deposition (MOVPE) on GaN substrates with electron channeling contrast imaging (ECCI) and high-resolution electron backscatter diffraction (HREBSD). These defects are hundreds of microns in size and tend to aggregate threading dislocations at their centers. They are the intersection of six nearly ideal low-angle tilt boundaries composed of $\langle a\rangle$-type pyramidal edge dislocations, each on a unique slip system.
This research communication reports the results from questionnaires used to identify the impact of recent research into the disinfection of cattle foot-trimming equipment to prevent bovine digital dermatitis (BDD) transmission on (a) biosecurity knowledge and (b) hygiene practice of foot health professionals. An initial questionnaire found that more than half of participating farmers, veterinary surgeons and commercial foot-trimmers were not considering hand or hoof-knife hygiene in their working practices. The following year, after the release of a foot-trimming hygiene protocol and a comprehensive knowledge exchange programme by the University of Liverpool, a second survey showed 35/80 (43.8%) farmers, veterinary surgeons and commercial foot-trimmers sampled considered they were now more aware of the risk of spreading BDD during foot- trimming. Furthermore, 36/80 (45.0%) had enhanced their hygiene practice in the last year, impacting an estimated 1383 farms and 5130 cows trimmed each week. Participants who reported having seen both the foot-trimming hygiene protocol we developed with AHDB Dairy and other articles about foot-trimming hygiene in the farming and veterinary press, were significantly more likely to have changed their working practices. Difficulties accessing water and cleaning facilities on farms were identified as the greatest barrier to improving biosecurity practices. Participants' preferred priority for future research was continued collection of evidence for the importance and efficacy of good foot-trimming hygiene practices.
Coronary artery aneurysms in children were observed as a rare complication associated with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). This case report describes the severe end of the spectrum of the new multisystem inflammatory syndrome in a 12-year-old child with coronary aneurysms, myocardial dysfunction, and shock, managed successfully with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation support and immunomodulation therapy. This report also highlights the additional benefits of cardiac CT in the diagnosis and follow-up of coronary aneurysms.
The question presented for our review is alleged to be complicated one, but it is instead rather easily stated and ruled upon. May Dominick (the Appellant), serving as trustee of a spendthrift trust that his mother Inez (the Settlor) created for the benefit of his brother John (the Trust Beneficiary) refuse to distribute trust funds to satisfy John’s current and past child support obligations, even if John wishes to make the payments? We would like to take a moment to rephrase this issue a bit less formally, stating instead: May a man, who has been put in charge of managing funds for another man, arbitrarily decide to deprive a mother and two children of the court-ordered funds they are entitled to receive for basic survival and necessities?17 Despite the Appellant’s unpersuasive arguments to the contrary and misplaced reliance on irrelevant case law, we think this question is not as complicated as it is alleged to be, and we thus answer this question unabashedly in the negative.
The extent to which Clinical and Translational Science Award (CTSA) programs offer publicly accessible online resources for training in community-engaged research (CEnR) core competencies is unknown. This study cataloged publicly accessible online CEnR resources from CTSAs and mapped resources to CEnR core competency domains.
Following a search and review of the current literature regarding CEnR competencies, CEnR core competency domains were identified and defined. A systematic review of publicly accessible online CEnR resources from all 64 current CTSAs was conducted between July 2018 and May 2019. Resource content was independently reviewed by two reviewers and scored for the inclusion of each CEnR core competency domain. Domain scores across all resources were assessed using descriptive statistics.
Eight CEnR core competency domains were identified. Overall, 214 CEnR resources publicly accessible online from 35 CTSAs were eligible for review. Scoring discrepancies for at least one domain within a resource initially occurred in 51% of resources. “CEnR methods” (50.5%) and “Knowledge and relationships with communities” (40.2%) were the most frequently addressed domains, while “CEnR program evaluation” (12.1%) and “Dissemination and advocacy” (11.2%) were the least frequently addressed domains. Additionally, challenges were noted in navigating CTSA websites to access CEnR resources, and CEnR competency nomenclature was not standardized.
Our findings guide CEnR stakeholders to identify publicly accessible online resources and gaps to address in CEnR resource development. Standardized nomenclature for CEnR competency is needed for effective CEnR resource classification. Uniform organization of CTSA websites may maximize navigability.
The Clinical and Translational Science Awards (CTSA) program of the National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences (NCATS) seeks to improve population health by accelerating the translation of scientific discoveries in the laboratory and clinic into practices for the community. CTSAs achieve this goal, in part, through their pilot project programs that fund promising early career investigators and innovative early-stage research projects across the translational research spectrum. However, there have been few reports on individual pilot projects and their impacts on the investigators who receive them and no studies on the long-term impact and outcomes of pilot projects.
The Georgia CTSA funded 183 pilot projects from 2007 to 2015. We used a structured evaluation framework, the payback framework, to document the outcomes of 16 purposefully-selected pilot projects supported by the Georgia CTSA. We used a case study approach including bibliometric analyses of publications associated with the selected projects, document review, and investigator interviews.
These pilot projects had positive impact based on outcomes in five “payback categories”: (1) knowledge; (2) research targeting, capacity building, and absorption; (3) policy and product development; (4) health benefits; and (5) broader economic benefits.
Results could inform our understanding of the diversity and breadth of outcomes resulting from Georgia CTSA-supported research and provide a framework for evaluating long-term pilot project outcomes across CTSAs.
OBJECTIVES/GOALS: The extent that Clinical and Translational Science Award (CTSA) programs offer resources accessible online for training in community-engaged research (CEnR) core competencies is unknown. This study cataloged CEnR resources accessible online from CTSAs and mapped resources to CEnR core competencies. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Eight domains of CEnR core competencies were identified: knowledge/perceptions of CEnR; personal traits necessary for CEnR; knowledge of/relationships with communities; training for performing CEnR; CEnR methods; program evaluation; resource sharing and communication; and dissemination and advocacy. A systematic review of CEnR resources accessible online from CTSAs was conducted between July 2018 and May 2019. Resource content was independently reviewed by two reviewers and scored for inclusion of each domain of CEnR core competencies. Domain scores across all resources and inter-rater reliability in scoring domains were assessed using descriptive statistics and Cohen’s kappa coefficients. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Overall, 214 resources available from 24 CTSAs were eligible for full review. Scoring discrepancies for at least one domain within a resource initially occurred in 51% of resources. “CEnR methods” (50.5%; 108 of 214) and “Knowledge of/relationships with the community” (40.2%; 86 of 214) were most frequently addressed and “Program evaluation” (12.1%; 26 of 214) and “Dissemination and advocacy” (11.2%; 24 of 214) were least frequently addressed domains. Additionally, challenges were noted in navigating CTSA websites to access CEnR resources, and CEnR competency nomenclature was not standardized. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: Our findings guide CEnR stakeholders to identify CEnR resources accessible online and gaps to address in CEnR resource development. Standardized nomenclature for CEnR competencies is needed for effective CEnR resource classification. Uniform organization of CTSA websites may maximize navigability. CONFLICT OF INTEREST DESCRIPTION: In addition to the funding information listed previously (see above), within the last three years, R.J. Piasecki has been employed as: Project Coordinator, CEnR Online Learning Project, Johns Hopkins University School of Nursing (Current) Temporary Employee (Doctoral Student Intern), Michigan State University Institute for Health Policy (Current) Clinical RN, Intrastaff at the Johns Hopkins Health System (Past) Research Data Analysis Assistant, Maryland Institute for Emergency Medical Services (Past - contracted)
Identifying the mechanisms linking early experiences, genetic risk factors, and their interaction with later health consequences is central to the development of preventive interventions and identifying potential boundary conditions for their efficacy. In the current investigation of 412 African American adolescents followed across a 20-year period, we examined change in body mass index (BMI) across adolescence as one possible mechanism linking childhood adversity and adult health. We found associations of childhood adversity with objective indicators of young adult health, including a cardiometabolic risk index, a methylomic aging index, and a count of chronic health conditions. Childhood adversities were associated with objective indicators indirectly through their association with gains in BMI across adolescence and early adulthood. We also found evidence of an association of genetic risk with weight gain across adolescence and young adult health, as well as genetic moderation of childhood adversity's effect on gains in BMI, resulting in moderated mediation. These patterns indicated that genetic risk moderated the indirect pathways from childhood adversity to young adult health outcomes and childhood adversity moderated the indirect pathways from genetic risk to young adult health outcomes through effects on weight gain during adolescence and early adulthood.
Introduction: Paramedics commonly administer intravenous dextrose to severely hypoglycemic patients. Typically, the treatment provided is a 25g ampule of 50% dextrose (D50). This dose of D50 is meant to ensure a return to consciousness. However, this dose may be unnecessary and lead to harm or difficulties regulating blood glucose post treatment. We hypothesize that a lower dose such as dextrose 10% (D10) or titrating the D50 to desired level of consciousness may be optimal and avoid adverse events. Methods: We systematically searched Medline, Embase, CINAHL and Cochrane Central on June 5th 2019. PRISMA guidelines were followed. The GRADE methods and risk of bias assessments were applied to determine the certainty of the evidence. We included primary literature investigating the use of intravenous dextrose in hypoglycemic diabetic patients presenting to paramedics or the emergency department. Outcomes of interest were related to the safe and effective reversal of symptoms and blood glucose levels (BGL). Results: 660 abstracts were screened, 40 full text articles, with eight studies included. Data from three randomized controlled trials and five observational studies were analyzed. A single RCT comparing D10 to D50 was identified. The primary significant finding of the study was an increased post-treatment glycemic profile by 3.2 mmol/L in the D50 group; no other outcomes had significant differences between groups. When comparing pooled data from all the included studies we find higher symptom resolution in the D10 group compared to the D50 group; at 99.8% and 94.9% respectively. However, the mean time to resolution was approximately 4 minutes longer in the D10 group (4.1 minutes (D50) and 8 minutes (D10)). There was more need for subsequent doses in the D10 group at 23.0% versus 16.5% in the D50 group. The post treatment glycemic profile was lower in the D10 group at 5.9 mmol/L versus 8.5 mmol/L in the D50 group. Both treatments had nearly complete resolution of hypoglycemia; 98.7% (D50) and 99.2% (D10). No adverse events were observed in the D10 group (0/871) compared to 12/133 adverse events in the D50 group. Conclusion: D10 may be as effective as D50 at resolving symptoms and correcting hypoglycemia. Although the desired effect can take several minutes longer there appear to be fewer adverse events. The post treatment glycemic profile may facilitate less challenging ongoing glucose management by the patients.
Introduction: The Prehospital Evidence-based Practice (PEP) program is an online, freely accessible, continuously updated repository of appraised EMS research evidence. This report is an analysis of published evidence for EMS interventions used to assess and treat patients suffering from hypoglycemia. Methods: PubMed was systematically searched in June 2019. One author screened titles, abstracts and full-texts for relevance. Trained appraisers reviewed full text articles, scored each on a three-point Level of Evidence (LOE) scale (based on study design and quality) and three-point Direction of Evidence (DOE) scale (supportive, neutral, or opposing findings for each intervention's primary outcome), abstracted the primary outcome, setting and assigned an outcome category (patient or process). Second party appraisal was conducted for all included studies. The level and direction of each intervention was plotted in an evidence matrix, based on appraisals. Results: Twenty-nine studies were included and appraised for seven interventions: 5 drugs (Dextrose 50% (D50), Dextrose 10% (D10), glucagon, oral glucose and thiamine), one assessment tool (point-of-care (POC) glucose testing) and one call disposition (treat-and-release). The most frequently reported study primary outcomes were related to: clinical improvement (n = 15, 51.7%), feasibility/safety (n = 8, 27.6%), and diagnostics (n = 6, 20.7%). The majority of outcomes were patient focused (n = 18, 62.0%). Conclusion: EMS interventions for treating hypoglycemia are informed by high-quality supportive evidence. Both D50 and D10 are supported by high-quality evidence; suggesting D10 may be an effective alternative to the standard D50. “Treat-and-release” practices for hypoglycemia are supported by moderate-quality evidence for the patient related outcomes of relapse, patient preference and complications. This body of evidence is high-quality, patient-focused and conducted in the prehospital setting thus generalizable paramedic practice.
Background: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a risk for stroke. The Canadian Cardiovascular Society advises patients who are CHADS65 positive should be started on oral anticoagulation (OAC). Our local emergency department (ED) review showed that only 16% of CHADS65 positive patients were started on OAC and that 2% of our patients were diagnosed with stroke within 90 days. We implemented a new pathway for initiation of OAC in the ED (the SAFE pathway). Aim Statement: We report the effectiveness and safety of the SAFE pathway for initiation of OAC in patients treated for AF in the ED. Measures & Design: A multidisciplinary group of physicians and pharmacist developed the SAFE pathway for patients who are discharged home from the ED with a diagnosis of AF. Step 1: contraindications to OAC, Step 2: CHADS65 score, Step 3: OAC dosing if indicated. The pathway triggers referral to AF clinic, family physician letter and follow up call from the ED pharmacist. Patients are followed for 90 days by a structured medical record review and a structured telephone interview. We record persistence with OAC, stroke, TIA, systemic arterial embolism and major bleeding (ISTH criteria). Patient outcomes are fed back to the treating ED physician. Evaluation/ Results: The SAFE pathway was introduced in two EDs in June 2018. In total, 177 patients have had the pathway applied. The median age was 70 (interquartile range (IQR) 61-78), 48% male, median CHADS2 score 2 (IQR 0-2). 19/177 patients (11%) had a contraindication to initiating OAC. 122 patients (69%) had no contraindication to OAC and were CHADS65 positive. Of these 122 patients, 109 were given a prescription for OAC (96 the correct dose, 9 too high a dose and 4 too low a dose). 6 patients declined OAC and the physician did not want to start OAC for 7 patients. 73/122 were contacted by phone at 90 days, 15 could not be reached and 34 have not completed 90 days of follow up since their ED visit. Of the 73 who were reached by phone after 90 days, 65 were still taking an anticoagulant. To date, 1 patient who declined OAC (CHADS2 score of 2) had a stroke within 90 days and one patient prescribed OAC had a gastrointestinal bleed. Discussion/Impact: The SAFE pathway appears safe and effective although we continue to evaluate and improve the process.
Teams are an integral part of organizations; however, changes in the nature of work – including increases in globalization, the scale and complexity of problems, and the capabilities of technology – have fundamentally altered the nature of teams. In this chapter, we delineate three important changes to the nature of teams: (1) complex organizational challenges are requiring complex and fluid patterns of teamwork; (2) teams are being assembled and led by members as well as managers; and (3) technology is increasingly interwoven with teamwork. In reference to these changes, we provide recommendations for future research and management of teams.
We describe an ultra-wide-bandwidth, low-frequency receiver recently installed on the Parkes radio telescope. The receiver system provides continuous frequency coverage from 704 to 4032 MHz. For much of the band (
), the system temperature is approximately 22 K and the receiver system remains in a linear regime even in the presence of strong mobile phone transmissions. We discuss the scientific and technical aspects of the new receiver, including its astronomical objectives, as well as the feed, receiver, digitiser, and signal processor design. We describe the pipeline routines that form the archive-ready data products and how those data files can be accessed from the archives. The system performance is quantified, including the system noise and linearity, beam shape, antenna efficiency, polarisation calibration, and timing stability.
The available literature suggests that treatments and health services for psychosis are considered to be poorly organized and highly variable. Little is known, however, about how inpatient care is provided to individuals experiencing early psychosis. To facilitate quality improvement activities, we characterized the care this patient group receives in an inner city hospital.
We performed chart reviews of individuals admitted to psychiatric inpatient units at St. Paul's Hospital, Vancouver, British Columbia between 01/04/2014 and 31/03/2016. Those who were 17–25 years of age and hospitalized for psychotic symptoms at the time of admission were included. Demographic and health service use were summarized using descriptive characteristics.
We identified 73 inpatients (mean age = 22; males = 78%; Caucasian = 41%) that met study inclusion criteria, having a combined total of 102 care episodes and an average length of stay of 30.7 days (median = 18; min = 3; max = 268). Half of the care episodes were repeat admissions, with up to 30% of the patients readmitted within 28 days of discharge. Physical and mental status examinations (MSE) were performed in virtually all care episodes, although frequency is low (31.4% had daily physical examinations and 18.6% had MSE every nursing shift). In 49% and 50% of care episodes, patients were given oral antipsychotics and discharged on depot medications. Even when indicated, not all care episodes had follow-up appointments (60%) or referrals to income assistance (35%), community mental health teams (61%), and housing support (38%).
Specific programs are needed to address current gaps in inpatient care for patients with early psychosis.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
Indexing left ventricular mass to body surface area or height2.7 leads to inaccuracies in diagnosing left ventricular hypertrophy in obese children. Lean body mass predictive equations provide the opportunity to determine the utility of lean body mass in indexing left ventricular mass. Our objectives were to compare the diagnostic accuracy of predicted lean body mass, body surface area, and height in detecting abnormal left ventricle mass in obese children.
Obese non-hypertensive patients aged 4–21 years were recruited prospectively. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry was used to measure lean body mass. Height, weight, sex, race, and body mass index z-score were used to calculate predicted lean body mass.
We enrolled 328 patients. Average age was 12.6 ± 3.8 years. Measured lean body mass had the strongest relationship with left ventricular mass (R2 = 0.84, p < 0.01) compared to predicted lean body mass (R2 = 0.82, p < 0.01), body surface area (R2 = 0.80, p < 0.01), and height2.7 (R2 = 0.65, p < 0.01). Of the clinically derived variables, predicted lean body mass was the only measure to have an independent association with left ventricular mass (β = 0.90, p < 0.01). Predicted lean body mass was the most accurate scaling variable in detecting left ventricular hypertrophy (positive predictive value = 88%, negative predictive value = 99%).
Lean body mass is the strongest predictor of left ventricular mass in obese children. Predicted lean body mass is the most accurate anthropometric scaling variable for left ventricular mass in left ventricular hypertrophy detection. Predicted lean body mass should be considered for clinical use as the body size correcting variable for left ventricular mass in obese children.
Implementation scientists increasingly recognize that the process of implementation is dynamic, leading to ad hoc modifications that may challenge fidelity in protocol-driven interventions. However, limited attention to ad hoc modifications impairs investigators’ ability to develop evidence-based hypotheses about how such modifications may impact intervention effectiveness and cost. We propose a multi-method process map methodology to facilitate the systematic data collection necessary to characterize ad hoc modifications that may impact primary intervention outcomes.
We employ process maps (drawn from systems science), as well as focus groups and semi-structured interviews (drawn from social sciences) to investigate ad hoc modifications. Focus groups are conducted with the protocol’s developers and/or planners (the implementation team) to characterize the protocol “as envisioned,” while interviews conducted with frontline administrators characterize the process “as realized in practice.” Process maps with both samples are used to identify when modifications occurred across a protocol-driven intervention. A case study investigating a multistage screening protocol for autism spectrum disorders (ASD) is presented to illustrate application and utility of the multi-method process maps.
In this case study, frontline administrators reported ad hoc modifications that potentially influenced the primary study outcome (e.g., time to ASD diagnosis). Ad hoc modifications occurred to accommodate (1) whether providers and/or parents were concerned about ASD, (2) perceptions of parental readiness to discuss ASD, and (3) perceptions of family service delivery needs and priorities.
Investigation of ad hoc modifications on primary outcomes offers new opportunities to develop empirically based adaptive interventions. Routine reporting standards are critical to provide full transparency when studying ad hoc modifications.