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Starting from the position that Celsus’ Jew is a real Jew and that he is (probably) quoting from a Jewish anti-Christian tract produced in Alexandria in the mid-second century CE, this essay explores the sources of Celsus’ knowledge of Judaism, not only the LXX but non-biblical sources as well, and assesses what Celsus might tell us about the Jewish community in Alexandria after the revolt under Trajan, and its relationship with emerging Christianity in the same city. It questions the standard claim that the Jewish community in Alexandria was obliterated when the Romans suppressed the revolt.
Excess hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activation is common in people with major depression and generalised anxiety disorder. We sought to determine whether higher circulating levels of the glucocorticoid cortisol are causally related to the expression of anhedonia-like and anxiety-like behaviours in marmosets.
Four marmosets (two male, two female) took part in the study. Cortisol and saline control injections were administered intramuscularly and salivary cortisol samples were taken before and after injections to determine if circulating cortisol levels changed from pre- to post-injection. To measure anhedonia-like behaviours, we trained marmosets on an appetitive Pavlovian conditioning paradigm, where animals learn to associate two anticipatory auditory cues (conditioned stimulus + or conditioned sitmulus -, CS+ or CS-) with the presence or absence of food reward (unconditioned stimulus + or unconditioned stimulus -, US+ or US-). Using cardiovascular telemetry probes and video cameras, we recorded animals' cardiovascular and behavioural arousal in freely moving conditions, comparing the injection of saline control versus 5mg/kg, 10mg/kg or 20mg/kg intramuscular cortisol. To measure anxiety-like behaviours, we used a human intruder (HI) paradigm, where marmosets are confronted with an unfamiliar human in their home cage. We recorded their behaviour on video cameras after saline control or 20mg/kg intramuscular cortisol. We used an exploratory-factor analysis (EFA) to determine how marmosets' behaviours towards the intruder loaded onto an 'anxiety-like' score. We then compared these scores under saline control versus cortisol conditions. Significance was set at p < 0.05.
Unlike saline control, we found that subcutaneous injections of 20 mg/kg cortisol successfully elevated peripheral cortisol concentrations to levels equivalent to peak circadian concentrations (p = 0.023). In the appetitive setting, 5 mg/kg, 10 mg/kg and 20 mg/kg cortisol injections blunted anticipatory (CS+ induced) increases in behavioural arousal (p = 0.004) but did not alter anticipatory cardiovascular arousal. Consummatory behavioural and cardiovascular arousal also remained intact. In the HI test, 20 mg/kg cortisol injections moderately increased anxiety towards the intruder as measured by an increase in marmosets' EFA-derived anxiety-like scores (p = 0.035).
In marmosets, elevated peripheral cortisol levels are causally related to the behavioural features of blunted reward anticipation together with elevated anxiety-like behaviours characteristic of mood and anxiety disorders. Future work will characterise the neuroimaging changes induced by elevated peripheral cortisol levels and identify the regions of the prefrontal cortex contributing to HPA axis regulation and dysregulation.
Christianity and Judaism as we know them today can both be traced back to the richly diverse Judaism that flourished in Palestine in late Second Temple times, but it was only after 70 CE that the two traditions began to define themselves over against each other in mutually exclusive ways. The period between the First Jewish Revolt (66–74 CE) and the Bar Kokhba war (132–135 CE) – the period in which much of the New Testament and the Apostolic Fathers was written – was crucial in this development. The aim of this study will be to throw light on this parting of the ways. It will outline briefly what we know about Rabbinic Judaism in Palestine and synagogal Judaism in the Diaspora at this time, and then read against this picture the references to Jews and Judaism in the Apostolic Fathers, especially in the Epistle of Barnabas. What Barnabas shows is a Christianity that sharply differentiates itself from Judaism, but at the same time does not want to sever all ties. It wants to hold on to the Jewish Scriptures as word of God, but through a process of allegorization to appropriate them as Christian Scripture.
The global community needs to be aware of the potential psychosocial consequences that may be experienced by health care workers who are actively managing patients with coronavirus disease (COVID-19). These health care workers are at increased risk for experiencing mood and trauma-related disorders, including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). In this concept article, strategies are recommended for individual health care workers and hospital leadership to aid in mitigating the risk of PTSD, as well as to build resilience in light of a potential second surge of COVID-19.
A Hamiltonian and action principle formalism for deriving three-dimensional gyroviscous magnetohydrodynamic models is presented. The uniqueness of the approach in constructing the gyroviscous tensor from first principles and its ability to explain the origin of the gyromap and the gyroviscous terms are highlighted. The procedure allows for the specification of free functions, which can be used to generate a wide range of gyroviscous models. Through the process of reduction, the noncanonical Hamiltonian bracket is obtained and briefly analysed.
X-ray micro-computed tomography (μCT) is a technique which can obtain three-dimensional images of a sample, including its internal structure, without the need for destructive sectioning. Here, we review the capability of the technique and examine its potential to provide novel insights into the lifestyles of parasites embedded within host tissue. The current capabilities and limitations of the technology in producing contrast in soft tissues are discussed, as well as the potential solutions for parasitologists looking to apply this technique. We present example images of the mouse whipworm Trichuris muris and discuss the application of μCT to provide unique insights into parasite behaviour and pathology, which are inaccessible to other imaging modalities.
Approximately half of the variation in wellbeing measures overlaps with variation in personality traits. Studies of non-human primate pedigrees and human twins suggest that this is due to common genetic influences. We tested whether personality polygenic scores for the NEO Five-Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI) domains and for item response theory (IRT) derived extraversion and neuroticism scores predict variance in wellbeing measures. Polygenic scores were based on published genome-wide association (GWA) results in over 17,000 individuals for the NEO-FFI and in over 63,000 for the IRT extraversion and neuroticism traits. The NEO-FFI polygenic scores were used to predict life satisfaction in 7 cohorts, positive affect in 12 cohorts, and general wellbeing in 1 cohort (maximal N = 46,508). Meta-analysis of these results showed no significant association between NEO-FFI personality polygenic scores and the wellbeing measures. IRT extraversion and neuroticism polygenic scores were used to predict life satisfaction and positive affect in almost 37,000 individuals from UK Biobank. Significant positive associations (effect sizes <0.05%) were observed between the extraversion polygenic score and wellbeing measures, and a negative association was observed between the polygenic neuroticism score and life satisfaction. Furthermore, using GWA data, genetic correlations of -0.49 and -0.55 were estimated between neuroticism with life satisfaction and positive affect, respectively. The moderate genetic correlation between neuroticism and wellbeing is in line with twin research showing that genetic influences on wellbeing are also shared with other independent personality domains.
The indigenous Christian population of the West Bank is a shrinking, historically fragmented community whose contribution to civil society outweighs its small size. The theme of this essay is these Christians’ unique contribution in a context that nevertheless seems set to squeeze them increasingly out of their homeland. We say “squeeze,” as the major sources of pressure arise from two directions, both Jewish and Muslim. From the Jewish side, the challenge arises from the consequences of the Israeli occupation of the West Bank. From the Muslim side, the challenge arises from the growing influence of the radical Islamic movements. Corruption within the Palestinian Authority (PA) also appears to have created an economic and social situation in the country that many Palestinian Christians refuse to tolerate, choosing instead to vote with their feet.
Much has been written on this topic, and it is not our purpose to provide a synthesis of the secondary literature. Within the framework of Georgetown's Christianity and Freedom Project, our mandate is to provide fresh fieldwork on the current situation, situated within a broader grasp of the contemporary scenario.
As such, the paper is set out as follows: A brief introduction by Phil Sumpter will provide the historical, social, and political context. The next section, authored by Duane Miller, will describe the findings of our fieldwork, which is the prime focus of this essay. This fieldwork is based on a two-week sojourn in the West Bank, where we interviewed representatives of the various traditional churches about the challenges their communities face and the responses that are being provided. In both sections, the authors have been in dialogue with one another so that our ideas have been mutually influential.
OVERVIEW: INDIGENOUS CHRISTIANITY IN THE CONTEMPORARY WEST BANK
The decisive event that has shaped the contemporary context is the war of 1948, called the War of Independence by (Jewish) Israelis and the Catastrophe (al Nakba) by Palestinians. In short, the General Assembly of the United Nations had adopted a proposal for the political future of the region in 1947, which envisioned the existence of two states side by side, an Arab state and a Jewish one (the Jews were to receive some 55 percent of the country [much of the allotted area being desert] and the Arabs about 40 percent).
In high-altitude settings of Central Asia the Endangered snow leopard Panthera uncia has been recognized as a potential umbrella species. As a first step in assessing the potential benefits of snow leopard conservation for other carnivores, we sought a better understanding of the presence of other carnivores in areas occupied by snow leopards in China's Qilianshan National Nature Reserve. We used camera-trap and sign surveys to examine whether other carnivores were using the same travel routes as snow leopards at two spatial scales. We also considered temporal interactions between species. Our results confirm that other carnivores, including the red fox Vulpes vulpes, grey wolf Canis lupus, Eurasian lynx Lynx lynx and dhole Cuon alpinus, occur along snow leopard travel routes, albeit with low detection rates. Even at the smaller scale of our camera trap survey all five carnivores (snow leopard, lynx, wolf, red fox and dhole) were observed. Kernel density estimates suggested a high degree of temporal overlap between the snow leopard and the fox, and the snow leopard and the lynx, as indicated by high overlap coefficient estimates. There is an opportunity to consider protective measures at the local scale that would benefit various species simultaneously. However, it should also be recognized that snow leopard conservation efforts could exacerbate human–wildlife conflicts through their protective effect on other carnivore species.
There is a need for simple and robust techniques for assessment and monitoring of populations of the Endangered snow leopard Panthera uncia to inform the development of action plans for snow leopard conservation. We explored the use of occupancy modelling to evaluate the influence of environmental and anthropogenic features on snow leopard site-use patterns. We conducted a camera trap survey across 480 km2 in Gansu Province, China, and used data from 60 camera traps to estimate probabilities of site use and detection using the single season occupancy model. We assessed the influence of three covariates on site use by snow leopards: elevation, the presence of blue sheep Pseudois nayaur and the presence of human disturbance (distance to roads). We recorded 76 captures of snow leopards over 2,906 trap-days, representing a mean capture success of 2.62 captures per 100 trap-days. Elevation had the strongest influence on site use, with the probability of site use increasing with altitude, whereas the influence of presence of prey and distance to roads was relatively weak. Our findings indicate the need for practical and robust techniques to appraise determinants of site use by snow leopards, especially in the context of the limited resources available for such work.
Hypoplastic left heart syndrome with an intact atrial septum is a poor predictor of outcomes. Prenatal assessment of pulmonary venous Doppler and emergent postnatal cardiac intervention may be associated with better outcomes.
Materials and methods
A retrospective review of all hypoplastic left heart syndrome patients in two centres over a 5-year period was performed. Group 1 included patients with adequate inter-atrial communication. Group 2 included patients with prenatal diagnosis with an intact atrial septum who had immediate transcatheter intervention. Group 3 included patients with intact atrial septum who were not prenatally diagnosed and underwent either delayed intervention or no intervention before stage 1 palliation. Primary outcome was survival up to stage 2 palliation.
The incidence of hypoplastic left heart syndrome with a restrictive atrial communication was 11.2% (n=19 of 170). Overall survival to stage 2 or heart transplantation was 85% and 67% for Groups 1 and 2, respectively (n=129/151, n=8/12; p=0.03), and 0% (n=0/7) for Group 3. Survival benefits were observed between Groups 2 and 3 (p<0.001). Foetal pulmonary vein Doppler reverse/forward velocity time integral ratio of ⩾18% (sensitivity, 0.99, 95% CI, 0.58–1; specificity, 0.99, 95% CI, 0.96–1) was predictive of the need for emergent left atrial decompression.
Using a multidisciplinary approach and foetal pulmonary vein Doppler, time-saving measures can be instituted by delivering prenatally diagnosed neonates with hypoplastic left heart syndrome with intact atrial septum close to the cardiac catheterisation suite where left atrial decompression can be performed quickly and safely that may improve survival.
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is one of the leading causes of
blindness in the developed world, with an incidence of 1:500 in patients
aged 55–64, and 1:8 in patients over 85 . Retinitis pigmentosa
(RP) is an inherited disease blinding about 1 in every 4000 individuals much
earlier in life . In both of these conditions the photoreceptor layer
degenerates, while the inner retinal neurons survive to a large extent
[3–5]. Electrically activating these neurons provides an alternative
route for visual information and raises hope for the restoration of sight to
In a normal retina, photoreceptors convert light into neural signals that are
processed by inner retinal neurons, leading to generation of action
potentials in the retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). These signals travel to the
brain through the optic nerve and serve as the basis for visual perception.
Electrical stimulation of the retina with microelectrodes can also produce
action potentials in RGCs, creating spatially patterned percepts of light
called phosphenes. Indeed, recent clinical trials with retinal prosthetic
electrode arrays have restored visual acuity to subjects blinded by retinal
degeneration up to 20/1200 using epiretinal placement (facing the
ganglion cell side) , and up to 20/550 with subretinal
implantation . While this serves as an important proof of concept with
clinically useful implications, existing retinal prosthesis designs have a
number of shortcomings.
Pesikta rabati 34, on the eschatological vindication of the Mourners for Zion, is one of the most remarkable homilies in one of the most remarkable of the rabbinic midrashim. It belongs to a series of piskaot, or ‘chapters’, composed for the seven ‘Sabbaths of Consolation’ following the Ninth of Av. This liturgical setting is important and gives the piska a polemical edge: its rhetoric is strong, challenging the congregation to identify with the Mourners so as to be sure of sharing in their end-time reward. Within the homilies in Pesikta rabati associated with the Ninth of Av (26–37), Piskaot 34–37 have long been regarded as forming a distinctive group. Certainly 34 and 36–37 hang together thematically in a notably coherent way, but, as Goldberg has argued, we should probably detach 35. Yet we should be careful not to harmonize the three related piskaot too systematically together: despite their striking agreements it is not at all obvious that they are by the same darshan (homilist). Significant differences include the fact that while 36 adopts an astonishingly universalistic stance—its messiah bears the sins of the world—34 focuses in more traditional fashion on the redemption of Israel. These piskaot have received a lot of scholarly comment, from Dalman, Bamberger, Goldberg, Fishbane, and others, and in particular their doctrine of the suffering and atoning messiah has engendered sharp debate. While we would no longer be as confident as Scholem in identifying political messianism as normative for Judaism, there can be little point in denying that the ideas adumbrated here are not mainstream: one has only to compare them with the messianism of a core text like the Amidah to make the point.
The parallels with Christology are obvious, and the question of Christian influence inevitably arises. Christianity may be somewhere in the background, but I am inclined to agree with Fishbane that the doctrine advocated here can just as easily be seen as an inner-Jewish development. We must not allow apologetics to lull us into thinking that Judaism after 70 CE became uninterested in theology or theologically impoverished: the theological richness and creativity of later Judaism remained undimmed. After all, as Christians have always argued, the Christian doctrine of the atonement can be rooted in Jewish tradition. Our homilists could easily have tapped into the sources on which Christianity drew.