In a population-based sample of women of Pakistani origin in UK we tested the hypothesis that chronic difficulties involving humiliation and entrapment will be associated with depressive disorder.
487 randomly selected women were screened for depressive disorder with the Self- Rating Questionnaire (SRQ). All high scorers and 1:4 low scorers were interviewed, using the Schedule for Clinical Assessment in Neuropsychiatry (SCAN). Of these 193 women were also administered the Life Events and Difficulties Schedule (LEDS) to measure social stress.
92 women had a depressive disorder, 62 had SRQ score>7 but no depressive disorder and 39 were not depressed. 89 of the 92 depressed women were followed up to six months later, 55 women remained depressed and 34 were no longer depressed.
In univariate analysis at baseline they had significantly more marked difficulties in the domains of health, money/possession, marital/partner and other relationships. In logistic regression analysis difficulties associated with depressive disorder were marked marital/partner and other relationship difficulties. 87% of women who experienced humiliation and 84% of those experiencing entrapment had marked marital partner and other relationship difficulties.
At 6 months follow-up chronic difficulties in the domains of marital/partner and other relationship were associated with persistent depression. 90% of women experiencing humiliation and entrapment had marked marital/partner and other relationship difficulties.
Humiliating difficulties directly devaluing a woman's core role where she finds herself to be trapped with no way out is associated with depressive disorder in women of Pakistani origin in the UK.