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To assess dietary behaviours and related lifestyles according to the presence or absence of skipping breakfast.
We analysed the cross-sectional data from a baseline survey of a large-scale population-based cohort study in Japan conducted in 2011–2016. Participants provided information on dietary behaviours and lifestyles through a self-administered questionnaire. Skipping breakfast was defined as not eating breakfast at least once a week and was classified according to the frequency of skipping breakfast as 1–2, 3–4 or ≥5 times/week.
Sixteen municipalities in seven prefectural areas across Japan under the Japan Public Health Centre-based prospective study for the Next Generation.
112 785 residents (51 952 males and 60 833 females) aged 40–74 years.
After adjustment for age, socio-demographic status, drinking status and smoking status, individuals who skipped breakfast at least once a week, compared with those who ate breakfast every day, were more likely to have adverse dietary behaviours such as frequent eating out (multivariable OR = 2·08, 95 % CI (1·96, 2·21) in males and 2·15, 95 % CI (1·99, 2·33) in females), frequent eating instant foods (1·89, 95 % CI (1·77, 2·01) in males and 1·72, 95 % CI (1·56, 1·89) in females). They had late bedtime (1·85, 95 % CI (1·75, 1·95) in males and 1·98, 95 % CI (1·86, 2·11) in females) and living alone (2·37, 95 % CI (2·17, 2·58) in males and 2·02, 95 % CI (1·83, 2·21) in females), using the logistic regression model.
Both adult males and females who skipped breakfast were likely to eat out, to have a dietary habit of eating instant foods and have lifestyles such as late bedtime and living alone than those who ate breakfast.
Reducing Na intake is an urgent global challenge, especially in East Asia and high-income Asia-Pacific regions. However, the sources of Na and their effects on urinary Na excretion have not been fully studied. We sought to clarify these sources and their association with urinary Na excretion. We examined four 3-d weighed food records and five 24-h urinary collections from each of 253 participants in Japan, aged 35–80 years, between 2012 and 2013. We compared the levels of Na according to four categories: foods contributing to discretionary or non-discretionary Na intake, the situation in which dishes were cooked and consumed, food groups and types of cuisine. We also conducted regression analysis in which 24-h urinary Na excretion was a dependent variable and the amounts of food intake in the four categories were independent variables. Levels of Na were the highest in discretionary intake (60·6 %) and in home-prepared dishes (84·0 %). Of the food groups, miso soup showed the highest percentage contribution to Na intake (13·3 %) after seasonings such as soya sauce. In the regression analysis, the standardised coefficient for foods of non-discretionary Na sources was larger than that for discretionary sources, whereas that for home-prepared dishes was consistent with the levels of Na in those foods. Pickled products, followed by fresh fish and shellfish, miso soup and rice, were associated with high urinary Na excretion. Thus, discretionary foods (such as miso soup) contribute the most to Na consumption, although non-discretionary intake (such as pickled vegetables) may influence urinary Na excretion.
Evidence that diet is associated with breast cancer risk is inconsistent. Most of the studies have focused on risks associated with specific foods and nutrients, rather than overall diet. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the association between dietary patterns and breast cancer risk in Japanese women. A total of 49 552 Japanese women were followed-up from 1995 to 1998 (5-year follow-up survey) until the end of 2012 for an average of 14·6 years. During 725 534 person-years of follow-up, 718 cases of breast cancer were identified. We identified three dietary patterns (prudent, westernised and traditional Japanese). The westernised dietary pattern was associated with a 32 % increase in breast cancer risk (hazard ratios (HR) 1·32; 95 % CI 1·03, 1·70; Ptrend=0·04). In particular, subjects with extreme intake of the westernised diet (quintile (Q) Q5_5th) had an 83 % increase in risk of breast cancer in contrast to those in the lowest Q1 (HR 1·83; 95 % CI 1·25, 2·68; Ptrend=0·01). In analyses stratified by menopausal status, postmenopausal subjects in the highest quintile of the westernised dietary pattern had a 29 % increased risk of breast cancer (HR 1·29; 95 % CI 0·99, 1·76; Ptrend=0·04). With regard to hormone receptor status, the westernised dietary pattern was associated with an increased risk of oestrogen receptor-positive/progesterone receptor-positivetumours (HR 2·49; 95 % CI 1·40, 4·43; Ptrend<0·01). The other dietary patterns were not associated with the risk of breast cancer in Japanese women. A westernised dietary pattern is associated with an increased risk of breast cancer in Japanese women.
To assess the validity of a 161-item quantitative FFQ (QFFQ) that was developed to evaluate dietary risk factors for a colorectal adenoma case–control study.
A cross-sectional validation study of the QFFQ against 4 d food diary using Pearson correlation coefficients, cross-classification, weighted κ statistics and Bland–Altman plotting.
Two hospitals in São Paulo, Brazil.
Ninety-seven healthy Japanese-Brazilian adults (40–75 years) were recruited. One participant was excluded from the analysis due to unusual energy intake report.
Mean daily nutrient intakes from the QFFQ were higher than from the food diary. The mean Pearson correlation coefficient for nutrient intakes between the QFFQ and the average of the 4 d food diary was 0·43, and increased to 0·45 after correcting correlations for attenuation due to residual day-to-day variation in the food diary measurements. Adjustment for total energy and further adjustment for age and gender decreased the correlation; however, 77 % of observations remained in the same or adjacent quartiles with a mean weighted κ of 0·22. Bland–Altman plots on loge-transformed data showed no linear trend between the differences and means for energy, fat, protein, total folate and vitamin C. Compared with the food diary, the QFFQ showed consistently reasonable performance for dietary fibre, total folate, retinol, riboflavin and vitamin C.
This investigation supports the relative validity of the QFFQ as a method for assessing long-term dietary intake. The instrument will be a useful tool in the analysis of diet–adenoma associations in the case–control study.
Few studies have investigated large population-based cohorts for an association between alcohol consumption and suicide.
To investigate the possible association between alcohol intake and suicide.
We used nationwide population-based cohort data from the Japan Public Health Centre-Based Prospective Study cohort. Atotal of 43 383 men aged 40–69 years participated. Death from suicide was defined according to ICD–10 as codes X60-X84.
Duringthe367817person-years of follow-up, there were 168 suicides. Compared with occasional drinkers, the pooled multivariate relative risk (RR; with 95% CI) of suicide for non-drinkers and regular heavy drinkers was 2.3 (1.2–4.6) and 2.3 (1.2–4.7) respectively. The RR increased with the amount of alcohol consumed (P for trend =0.004).
There is a U-shaped association between alcohol consumption and subsequent suicide.
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