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Compared with nitrogen and argon, helium is lighter and can better reduce the beam loss caused by angular scattering during beam transmission. The molecular dissociation cross-section in helium is high and stable at low energies, which makes helium the prevalent stripping gas in low-energy accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). To study the stripping behavior of 14C ions in helium at low energies, the charge state distributions of carbon ion beams with −1, +1, +2, +3, and +4 charge states were measured at energies of 70–220 keV with a compact 14C-AMS at Guangxi Normal University (GXNU). The experimental data were used to analyze the stripping characteristics of C-He in the energy range of 70–220 keV, and new charge state yields and exchange cross-sections in C-He were obtained at energies of 70–220 keV.
Evidence suggests a familial coaggregation of major psychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, major depression (MDD), autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Those disorders are further related to suicide and accidental death. However, whether death by suicide may coaggregate with accidental death and major psychiatric disorders within families remains unclear.
To clarify the familial coaggregation of deaths by suicide with accidental death and five major psychiatric disorders.
Using a database linked to the entire Taiwanese population, 68 214 first-degree relatives of individuals who died by suicide between 2003 and 2017 and 272 856 age- and gender-matched controls were assessed for the risks of death by suicide, accidental death and major psychiatric disorders.
A Poisson regression model showed that the first-degree relatives of individuals who died by suicide were more likely to die by suicide (relative risk RR = 4.61, 95% CI 4.02–5.29) or accident (RR = 1.62, 95% CI 1.43–1.84) or to be diagnosed with schizophrenia (RR = 1.53, 95% CI 1.40–1.66), bipolar disorder (RR = 1.99, 95% CI 1.83–2.16), MDD (RR = 1.98, 95% CI 1.89–2.08) or ADHD (RR = 1.34, 95% CI 1.24–1.44).
Our findings identified a familial coaggregation of death by suicide with accidental death, schizophrenia, major affective disorders and ADHD. Further studies would be required to elucidate the pathological mechanisms underlying this coaggregation.
A single-stage accelerator mass spectrometer (GXNU-AMS) developed for radiocarbon and tritium measurements was installed and commissioned at Guangxi Normal University in 2017. After several years of operational and methodological upgrades, its performance has been continuously improved and applied in multidisciplinary fields. Currently, the measurement sensitivity for radiocarbon and tritium is 14C/12C ∼ (3.14 ± 0.05) ×10–15 and 3H/1H ∼ (1.23 ± 0.17)×10–16, respectively, and the measurement accuracy is ∼0.6%, which can meet the measurement requirements in the nuclear, earth, environmental and life science fields. This study presents the performance characteristics of GXNU-AMS and several interesting application studies.
Objectives: COVID-19 booster uptake has remained poor among healthcare workers (HCWs) despite evidence of improved immunity against the SARS-COV-2 δ (delta) and ο (omicron) variants. Although most studies have used a questionnaire to assess hesitancy, we aimed to identify factors affecting booster hesitancy by examining actual vaccine uptake across time. Methods: COVID-19 vaccination database records were extracted for HCWs working at 7 Singaporean public primary-care clinics between January and December 2021. Data included sex, profession, place of practice, vaccination type, and dates. Time to booster was calculated from the date of vaccination minus the date of eligibility. The χ2 test was used to compare the relationship between first dose and booster hesitancy. The Kaplan-Meier method and the log-rank test were used to evaluate differences in cumulative booster uptake. Multivariate Cox regression was used to investigate predictors of timely booster vaccination. The vaccination rate was charted across time and was corroborated with media releases pertaining to legislative changes. Results: Of 891 primary-care HCWs, 877 (98.9%) were fully vaccinated and 73.8% of eligible HCWs had taken the booster. HCWs were less booster hesitant (median, 16 days; range, 5–31.3) compared to the first dose (median, 39 days; range, 13–119.3). First-dose–hesitant HCWs were more likely to be booster hesitant (OR, 3.66; 95% CI, 2.61–5.14). Adjusting for sex, workplace, and time to first dose, ancillary HCWs (HR, 1.53; 95% CI, 1.03–2.28), medical HCWs (HR, 1.8; 95% CI, 1.18–2.74), and nursing HCWs (HR, 1.8; 95% CI, 1.18–2.37) received boosters earlier than administrative staff. No temporal relationship was observed for booster uptake, legislative changes, or COVID-19 case numbers. Conclusions: Vaccine hesitancy among HCWs had improved from first dose to booster, with timely booster vaccination among medical and nursing staff. Tailored education, risk messaging, and strategic legislation might help reduce delayed booster vaccination. This study was approved by the National Healthcare Group (NHG) Domain Specific Review Board (DSRB), Singapore on December 28, 2021 (Reg No. 2021/01120).
Objectives: The prevention of nosocomial infection is a challenge for all healthcare institutions. Privacy curtains are often changed infrequently, and they are difficult to clean. Contaminated curtains can be touched by healthcare providers and patients, which may result in indirect transmission of infectious disease. Hence, we evaluated the impact of the antimicrobial properties of disposable curtains and their cost-effectiveness. Methods: This descriptive exploratory study was conducted in an ambulatory cancer center in 2017. Privacy curtains were assigned to 2 cohorts, labelled E1 and E2. They were placed in the clinical areas for 6–12 months. Moist swab samples for MRSA, VRE, and CP-CRE cultures were obtained from the leading edges of the curtains during the evaluation period. Also, 10-cm × 10-cm swatches were cut from the high-touch areas of curtains and were tested for total aerobic count on the first of the month and quarterly thereafter. Results: All bacterial culture swabs obtained from the E1 and E2 cohorts of curtains were negative. The total bacterial plate count results from E1 curtains were negative for up to 1 year. However, the total bacterial plate count results for E2 curtains were positive in the sixth month. Using disposable curtains yielded an annual cost saving of ~50%. Conclusions: The use of appropriate impregnated antimicrobial disposable curtains can improve patient safety in the clinical areas. These curtains may eliminate potential sources of infection and thereby decrease the rate of nosocomial infection. They also save significant institutional costs by reducing frequent laundry and manpower requirements needed for the installation of curtains.
We aimed to investigate the association of metabolic obesity phenotypes with all-cause mortality risk in a rural Chinese population. This prospective cohort study enrolled 15 704 Chinese adults (38·86 % men) with a median age of 51·00 (interquartile range: 41·00–60·00) at baseline (2007–2008) and followed up during 2013–2014. Obesity was defined by waist circumference (WC: ≥ 90 cm for men and ≥ 80 cm for women) or waist-to-height ratio (WHtR: ≥ 0·5). The hazard ratio (HR) and 95 % CI for the risk of all-cause mortality related to metabolic obesity phenotypes were calculated using the Cox hazards regression model. During a median follow-up of 6·01 years, 864 deaths were identified. When obesity was defined by WC, the prevalence of participants with metabolically healthy non-obesity (MHNO), metabolically healthy obesity (MHO), metabolically unhealthy non-obesity (MUNO) and metabolically unhealthy obesity (MUO) at baseline was 12·12 %, 2·80 %, 41·93 % and 43·15 %, respectively. After adjusting for age, sex, alcohol drinking, smoking, physical activity and education, the risk of all-cause mortality was higher with both MUNO (HR = 1·20, 95 % CI 1·14, 1·26) and MUO (HR = 1·20, 95 % CI 1·13, 1·27) v. MHNO, but the risk was not statistically significant with MHO (HR = 0·99, 95 % CI 0·89, 1·10). This result remained consistent when stratified by sex. Defining obesity by WHtR gave similar results. MHO does not suggest a greater risk of all-cause mortality compared to MHNO, but participants with metabolic abnormality, with or without obesity, have a higher risk of all-cause mortality. These results should be cautiously interpreted as the representation of MHO is small.
Chemical defoliants are widely used in cotton (Gossypium L.) to accelerate leaf abscission and boll maturation, as well as, to facilitate mechanical harvesting. The current study was conducted to determine the interactive effect of cotton cultivars and spraying time of defoliant on defoliation, boll opening, fibre yield and quality. An experiment was performed with four cultivars and three defoliant spraying time during 2019 and 2020 in split plot design with three replications. At harvest, the defoliation and boll opening rate of all treatments after spraying defoliant was 94.6 and 85.4%, while the blank control (water) was 73.9 and 79.1%, respectively. After spraying defoliant, the effects of defoliation rate, boll opening rate, fibre yield and quality were different among cultivars, indicating that different cultivars had different responses to defoliant. Among them, L7619 was the most sensitive to defoliant, with the average defoliation rate of 95.6% and a seed cotton yield reduction of 882.9 kg/ha. Among the different time of applications, late spraying (17 September, B3) of defoliant recorded the highest defoliation rate (97.3%), boll opening rate (89.8%), seed cotton yield (3991 kg/ha) and steadily increased the fibre strength by 0.59 cN/tex compared with the control. Late spraying of defoliant had little or even no adverse effect on the remaining fibre quality traits (length, uniformity, micronaire and elongation). In general, these results suggested that the appropriate time for spraying defoliant can be determined based on the sensitivity of the cotton cultivar, the weather conditions at the field and the harvest time.
The codling moth Cydia pomonella is a major pest of global significance impacting pome fruits and walnuts. It threatens the apple industry in the Loess Plateau and Bohai Bay in China. Sterile insect technique (SIT) could overcome the limitations set by environmentally compatible area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) approaches such as mating disruption and attract-kill that are difficult to suppress in a high-density pest population, as well as the development of insecticide resistance. In this study, we investigated the effects of X-ray irradiation (183, 366, 549 Gy) on the fecundity and fertility of a laboratory strain of C. pomonella, using a newly developed irradiator, to evaluate the possibility of X-rays as a replacement for Cobalt60 (60Co-γ) and the expanded future role of this approach in codling moth control. Results show that the 8th-day is the optimal age for irradiation of male pupae. The fecundity decreased significantly as the dosage of radiation increased. The mating ratio and mating number were not influenced. However, treated females were sub-sterile at a radiation dose of 183 Gy (20.93%), and were almost 100% sterile at a radiation dose of 366 Gy or higher. Although exposure to a radiation dose of 366 Gy resulted in a significant reduction in the mating competitiveness of male moths, our radiation biology results suggest that this new generation of X-ray irradiator has potential applications in SIT programs for future codling moth control.
Patients with terminal cancer often experience physical and mental distress. Signing a do-not-resuscitate order (DNR) is crucial to protect against invalid treatment. This study aims to explore the effect of hospice shared care intervention by medical staff on the completion of a DNR-S (DNR order signed by surrogates) for patients with terminal cancer.
The cross-sectional study in this research involved secondary analysis of data from the 2011–2015 clinical cancer case management database of a medical center in central Taiwan. Those with a DNR order signed by patients (DNR-P) or DNR-S before the hospice shared care consultation were excluded from this study; a total of 1,306 patients with terminal cancer were selected.
This study demonstrated that the percentage of DNR-S after consultation involving both nurse and physician was 75.4%. With other variables controlled, the number of DNR-Ss after consultation with a nurse was significantly lower [odds ratio (OR) = 0.57, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.42–0.75] and that of DNR-Ss after consultation involving both nurse and physician was significantly higher (OR = 1.35, 95% CI = 1.01–1.79), than that of DNR-Ss after consultation with only the physician.
Significance of results
Joint involvement of the nurse and physician in hospice care provides sufficient information to patients and family with terminal cancer about their condition and enhances doctor–patient communication. This effectively assists patients with terminal cancer and their family members in making the major decision of signing a DNR, alleviates the concerns of patients and family members about signing a DNR, and reduces terminal cancer patients’ pain at the end of life to ensure that they die in peace and dignity.
This study aimed to describe the clinical manifestations of adenovirus infections and identify potential risk factors for co-infection with chlamydia, viruses and bacteria in hospitalised children from Hangzhou, China. From January to December 2019, the characteristics of hospitalised children infected with adenovirus at Hangzhou Children's Hospital and Zhejiang Xiaoshan Hospital were collected. The clinical factors related to co-infection with chlamydia, viruses and bacteria were assessed using multivariate logistic regression analyses. A total of 5989 children were infected with adenovirus, of which 573 were hospitalised for adenovirus infection. The severity of adenovirus respiratory infection was categorised as follows: mild (bronchiolitis, 73.6%), moderate (bronchopneumonia, 17.6%) or severe (pneumonia, 8.8%). Of the 573 children who were hospitalised, 280 presented with co-infection of chlamydia, viruses or bacteria, while the remaining 293 had only adenovirus infection. Multivariate stepwise logistic regression analyses indicated that elevated ferritin was associated with an increased risk of chlamydia co-infection (odds ratio (OR) 6.50; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.56–27.11; P = 0.010). However, increased white blood cell (WBC) count was associated with a reduced risk of viral co-infection (OR 0.84; 95% CI 0.75–0.95; P = 0.006). The study indicated that co-infection with chlamydia could be affected by elevated ferritin levels. WBC levels could affect viral co-infection in hospitalised children infected with adenovirus.
In light of the dynamic systems perspective, the current study expanded existing literature by examining the moderating effect of maternal sensitivity on the quadratic association between infant negative reactivity and future executive function development. Using a longitudinal, multimethod design, we addressed executive function development among preschoolers. This study utilized data from the Family Life Project (N = 1292). Infant negative reactivity at 6 months, maternal sensitivity across first 3 years, and executive functions during preschool age were observational assessed. A path model with moderation analyses revealed a U-shaped quadratic association between infant negative reactivity and preschoolers’ inhibitory control, only when maternal sensitivity was high. The results suggest that maternal sensitivity may assist infants with both low and high, but not moderate, levels of negative reactivity towards better executive function development. Findings support the ongoing nonlinear person-environment interplay during early years of life.
How does repression on opposition protests affect citizens' institutional trust under dictatorships? There has been a burgeoning literature investigating empirically both long- and short-term impacts of protests and their repression on citizens' political preferences in both democratic and nondemocratic contexts. Yet, the literature tells us relatively little about how the above question could be answered. This paper tries to answer this question by taking advantage of a recent natural experiment in Hong Kong when Beijing suddenly adopted the National Security Law (NSL) in June 2020 to repress dissidents' protest mobilization. Our findings are twofold. First of all, the NSL drove a wedge in the Hong Kong society by making the pro-establishment camp more satisfied with the post-NSL institutions on the one hand, while alienating the pro-democracy camp who lost tremendous trust in them on the other. Second, our study also reveals that one's trust in institutions is significantly associated with the regimes' ability to curb protesters' contentious mobilization. The Hong Kongers who had higher confidence in the NSL to rein in protests would also have a greater level of trust than those who didn't. The effect, however, is substantially smaller among pro-democracy Hong Kongers except for their trust in monitoring institutions. As Beijing is transforming Hong Kong's current institutions from within hopes of bringing about a new political equilibrium, our study helps provide a timely assessment of Hong Kong's institutional landscape and sheds light on how likely this strategy can work.
As an important index to quantitatively measure the motion performance of a manipulator, motion reliability is affected by many factors, such as joint clearance. The present research utilized a UR10 manipulator as the research object. A factor mapping model for influencing the motion reliability was established. The link flexibility factor, joint flexibility factor, joint clearance factor, and Denavit–Hartenberg (DH) parameters were comprehensively considered in this model. The coupling relationship among the various factors was concisely expressed. Subsequently, the nonlinear response surface method was used to calculate the reliability and sensitivity of the manipulator, which provided an applicable reference for its trajectory planning and motion control. In addition, a data-driven fault diagnosis method based on the kernel principal component analysis (KPCA) was used to verify the motion accuracy and sensitivity of the manipulator, and joint rotation failure was considered as an example to verify the accuracy of the KPCA method. This study on the motion reliability of the manipulator is of great significance for the current motion performance, adjusting the control strategy and optimizing the completion effect of the motion task of a manipulator.
To investigate the association between the Metabolic Score for Visceral Fat (METS-VF) and risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and compare the predictive value of the METS-VF for T2DM incidence with other obesity indices in Chinese people. A total of 12 237 non-T2DM participants aged over 18 years from the Rural Chinese Cohort Study of 2007–2008 were included at baseline and followed up during 2013–2014. The cox proportional hazards regression was used to calculate hazard ratios (HR) and 95 % CI for the association between baseline METS-VF and T2DM risk. Restricted cubic splines were used to model the association between METS-VF and T2DM risk. Area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) analysis was used to evaluate the ability of METS-VF to predict T2DM incidence. During a median follow-up of 6·01 (95 % CI 5·09, 6·06) years, 837 cases developed T2DM. After adjusting for potential confounding factors, the adjusted HR for the highest v. lowest METS-VF quartile was 5·97 (95 % CI 4·28, 8·32), with a per 1-sd increase in METS-VF positively associated with T2DM risk. Positive associations were also found in the sensitivity and subgroup analyses, respectively. A significant nonlinear dose–response association was observed between METS-VF and T2DM risk for all participants (Pnonlinearity = 0·0347). Finally, the AUC value of METS-VF for predicting T2DM was largest among six indices. The METS-VF may be a reliable and applicable predictor of T2DM incidence in Chinese people regardless of sex, age or BMI.
The effect of vitamin D (VD) on the risk of preeclampsia (PE) is uncertain. Few of previous studies focused on the relationship between dietary VD intake and PE risk. Therefore, we conducted this 1:1 matched case–control study to explore the association of dietary VD intake and serum VD concentrations with PE risk in Chinese pregnant women. A total of 440 pairs of participants were recruited during March 2016 to June 2019. Dietary information was obtained using a seventy-eight-item semi-quantitative FFQ. Serum concentrations of 25(OH)D2 and 25(OH)D3 were measured by liquid chromatography–tandem MS. Multivariate conditional logistic regression was used to estimate OR and 95 % CI. Restricted cubic splines (RCS) were plotted to evaluate the dose–response relationship of dietary VD intake and serum VD concentrations with PE risk. Compared with the lowest quartile, the OR of the highest quartile were 0·45 (95 % CI 0·29, 0·71, Ptrend = 0·001) for VD dietary intake and 0·26 (95 % CI 0·11, 0·60, Ptrend = 0·003) for serum levels after adjusting for confounders. In addition, the RCS analysis suggested a reverse J-shaped relationship between dietary VD intake and PE risk (P-nonlinearity = 0·02). A similar association was also found between serum concentrations of total 25(OH)D and PE risk (P-nonlinearity = 0·02). In conclusion, this study provides evidence that higher dietary intake and serum levels of VD are associated with the lower risk of PE in Chinese pregnant women.
No relevant studies have yet been conducted to explore which measurement can best predict the survival time of patients with cancer cachexia. This study aimed to identify an anthropometric measurement that could predict the 1-year survival of patients with cancer cachexia. We conducted a nested case–control study using data from a multicentre clinical investigation of cancer from 2013 to 2020. Cachexia was defined using the Fearon criteria. A total of 262 patients who survived less than 1 year and 262 patients who survived more than 1 year were included in this study. Six candidate variables were selected based on clinical experience and previous studies. Five variables, BMI, mid-arm circumference, mid-arm muscle circumference, calf circumference and triceps skin fold (TSF), were selected for inclusion in the multivariable model. In the conditional logistic regression analysis, TSF (P = 0·014) was identified as a significant independent protective factor. A similar result was observed in all patients with cancer cachexia (n 3084). In addition, a significantly stronger positive association between TSF and the 1-year survival of patients with cancer cachexia was observed in participants aged > 65 years (OR: 0·94; 95 % CI 0·89, 0·99) than in those aged ≤ 65 years (OR: 0·96; 95 % CI 0·93, 0·99; Pinteraction = 0·013) and in participants with no chronic disease (OR: 0·92; 95 % CI 0·87, 0·97) than in those with chronic disease (OR: 0·97; 95 % CI 0·94, 1·00; Pinteraction = 0·049). According to this study, TSF might be a good anthropometric measurement for predicting 1-year survival in patients with cancer cachexia.
The impact of baseline hypertension status on the BMI–mortality association is still unclear. We aimed to examine the moderation effect of hypertension on the BMI–mortality association using a rural Chinese cohort.
In this cohort study, we investigated the incident of mortality according to different BMI categories by hypertension status.
Longitudinal population-based cohort.
17 262 adults ≥18 years were recruited from July to August of 2013 and July to August of 2014 from a rural area in China.
During a median 6-year follow-up, we recorded 1109 deaths (610 with and 499 without hypertension). In adjusted models, as compared with BMI 22–24 kg/m2, with BMI ≤ 18, 18–20, 20–22, 24–26, 26–28, 28–30 and >30 kg/m2, the hazard ratios for mortality in normotensive participants were 1·92 (95% CI 1·23, 3·00), 1·44 (95% CI 1·01, 2·05), 1·14 (95% CI 0·82, 1·58), 0·96 (95% CI 0·70, 1·31), 0·96 (95% CI 0·65, 1·43), 1·32 (95% CI 0·81, 2·14) and 1·32 (95% CI 0·74, 2·35), respectively, and in hypertensive participants were 1·85 (95% CI 1·08, 3·17), 1·67 (95% CI 1·17, 2·39), 1·29 (95% CI 0·95, 1·75), 1·20 (95% CI 0·91, 1·58), 1·10 (95% CI 0·83, 1·46), 1·10 (95% CI 0·80, 1·52) and 0·61 (95% CI 0·40, 0·94), respectively. The risk of mortality was lower in individuals with hypertension with overweight or obesity v. normal weight, especially in older hypertensives (≥60 years old). Sensitivity analyses gave consistent results for both normotensive and hypertensive participants.
Low BMI was significantly associated with increased risk of all-cause mortality regardless of hypertension status in rural Chinese adults, but high BMI decreased the mortality risk among individuals with hypertension, especially in older hypertensives.
ABSTRACT IMPACT: This study will provide the essential characterization of intrinsic neural activity in human brain organoids, both at the single cell and network levels, to harness for translational purposes. OBJECTIVES/GOALS: Brain organoids are 3D, stem cell-derived neural tissues that recapitulate neurodevelopment. However, to levy their full translational potential, a deeper understanding of their intrinsic neural activity is essential. Here, we present our preliminary analysis of maturing neural activity in human forebrain organoids. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Forebrain organoids were generated from human iPSC lines derived from healthy volunteers. Linear microelectrode probes were employed to record spontaneous electrical activity from day 77, 100, and 130 organoids. Single unit recordings were collected during hour-long recordings, involving baseline recordings followed by glutamatergic blockade. Subsequently, tetrodotoxin, was used to abolish action potential firing. Single units were identified via spike sorting, and the spatiotemporal evolution of baseline neural properties and network dynamics was characterized. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Nine organoids were recorded successfully (n=3 per timepoint). A significant difference in number of units was seen across age groups (F (2,6) = 6.4178, p = 0.0323). Post hoc comparisons by the Tukey HSD test showed significantly more units in day 130 (51.67 ±14.15) than day 77 (16.33 ±14.98) organoids. Mean firing rates were significantly different in organoids based on age, with drug condition also trending toward significance (F (6,12) = 9.97; p = 0.0028 and p = 0.08 respectively). Post hoc comparisons showed a higher baseline firing rate in day 130 (0.99Hz ±0.30) organoids than their day 77 counterparts at baseline (0.31Hz ±0.066) and glutamate blockade (0.31Hz ±0.045). Preliminary network analysis showed no modularity or small-world features; however, these features are expected to emerge as organoids mature. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF FINDINGS: Initial analysis of brain organoid activity demonstrates changes in single unit properties as they mature. Additional work in this area, as well as further network analyses, will confer better sense of how to rationally utilize brain organoids for translational purposes.
Anticipatory pleasure deficits are closely correlated with negative symptoms in schizophrenia, and may be found in both clinical and subclinical populations along the psychosis continuum. Prospection, which is an important component of anticipatory pleasure, is impaired in individuals with social anhedonia (SocAnh). In this study, we examined the neural correlates of envisioning positive future events in individuals with SocAnh.
Forty-nine individuals with SocAnh and 33 matched controls were recruited to undergo functional MRI scanning, during which they were instructed to simulate positive or neutral future episodes according to cue words. Two stages of prospection were distinguished: construction and elaboration.
Reduced activation at the caudate and the precuneus when prospecting positive (v. neutral) future events was observed in individuals with SocAnh. Furthermore, compared with controls, increased functional connectivity between the caudate and the inferior occipital gyrus during positive (v. neutral) prospection was found in individuals with SocAnh. Both groups exhibited a similar pattern of brain activation for the construction v. elaboration contrast, regardless of the emotional context.
Our results provide further evidence on the neural mechanism of anticipatory pleasure deficits in subclinical individuals with SocAnh and suggest that altered cortico-striatal circuit may play a role in anticipatory pleasure deficits in these individuals.
With the rapid rise in the prevalence of non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) diseases across the world, the microbiological diagnosis of NTM isolates is becoming increasingly important for the diagnosis and treatment of NTM disease. In this study, the clinical presentation, species distribution and drug susceptibility of patients with NTM disease visiting the Chongqing Public Health Medical Centre during March 2016–April 2019 were retrospectively analysed. Among the 146 patients with NTM disease, eight NTM species (complex) were identified. The predominant NTM species in these patients were identified to be Mycobacterium abscessus complex (53, 36.3%), M. intracellulare (38, 26%) and M. fortuitum (17, 11.7%). In addition, two or more species were isolated from 7.5% of the patients. Pulmonary NTM disease (142, 97.3%) showed the highest prevalence among the patients. It was observed that 40.1% of the patients with pulmonary NTM disease had chronic pulmonary obstructive disease and bronchiectasis, while 22.5% had prior tuberculosis. Male patients showed more association with the conditions of cough and haemoptysis than the female patients. In an in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility testing, most of the species showed susceptibility to linezolid, amikacin and clarithromycin, while M. fortuitum exhibited low susceptibility to tobramycin. In conclusion, the prevalence of NTM disease, especially that of the pulmonary NTM disease, is common in Southwest China. Species identification and drug susceptibility testing are thus extremely important to ensure appropriate treatment regimens for patient care and management.